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Ernst Badian

Descendant of a prominent anti-Roman family of Hannibalic *Capua and a student of Stoic philosophy (see stoicism), was a friend of Ti. *Sempronius Gracchus (3), after whose death he joined *Aristonicus (1). After Aristonicus' defeat he killed himself. His philosophical influence on both these men is difficult to gauge.

Article

Tiberius Claudius Aristocles of *Pergamum (2nd cent. ce), was a Peripatetic philosopher turned sophist who also held the consulship. As sophist he studied under *Herodes Atticus, taught in Pergamum and performed throughout Italy and Asia Minor. His works included two rhetorical textbooks, letters, and declamations.

Article

J. V. Muir

There is very little reliable evidence bearing upon formal education in the early period. Education was then certainly centred on the family and was probably based upon apprenticeship supervised by the father—in poorer homes an apprenticeship to agriculture or trade, in more aristocratic circles to military service and public life (what later became known as the tirocinium militiae and the tirocinium fori). The authority of the father, legalized as *patria potestas, was absolute and could only in theory be questioned by the censors. The Roman mother had a more restricted, domestic role but she too was traditionally expected to take a personal, central responsibility and to set a strong moral example (see motherhood, Roman). It is not certain when reading and writing became a serious part of Roman education: the 7th-cent. bce ivory writing-tablet with inscribed alphabet found at Marsiliana d'Albegna and 6th-cent. bucchero (pottery) models of wooden writing-tablets (tabulae ansatae) from Etruria may imply that *literacy was then already making some headway.

Article

Quintus Iunius Arulenus Rusticus, suffect consul 92 ce, a Stoic philosopher (see stoicism), friend of *Thrasea Paetus, whose defence of senatorial rights he supported. As tribune in 66 Rusticus was dissuaded by Thrasea from vetoing the senatorial decree condemning him to death. Praetor in 69, he was wounded during a senatorial delegation sent by *Vitellius to the advancing Flavians (i.

Article

William David Ross and M. T. Griffin

Roman eques (see equites) and Stoic philosopher (see Stoicism), seems to have been born before ce 30 and to have died before 101/2. About ce 60*Rubellius Plautus was banished by *Nero to Asia Minor, and Musonius followed him. After Rubellius' death he returned to Rome, but in 65, on the discovery of the Pisonian conspiracy (see Calpurnius Piso (2), C.), he was banished to Gyaros in the *Aegean. He returned to Rome, probably under Galba and tried to preach peace to the Flavian army approaching Rome. He was again banished by *Vespasian, but returned again in the reign of *Titus. We do not know of his having written books, but many of his apophthegms (pithy sayings) and discourses have been preserved. Among his pupils were many philosophers (notably *Epictetus) and many leading Roman citizens.