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Article

Aecae  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Aecae, *Daunian city 25 km. (15 ½ mi.) south-west of Foggia. A Roman ally, it defected to Hannibal in 216 bce but was recaptured. Colonies were founded under Augustus and Septimius Severus, and it became a stage on the *via Traiana. Aerial photography shows a large area of *centuriation nearby.

Article

Antony Spawforth

Aedepsus (mod. Loutra Aidepsou), Euboean coastal town dependent on *Histiaea, famous in antiquity for its hot springs, known to Aristotle (Mete. 2. 366a) and still in use. It prospered in imperial times as a playground for the wealthy, equipped with luxurious swimming-pools and dining-rooms (Plut. Mor.

Article

Aezani  

Stephen Mitchell

Was the most important city of northern *Phrygia in Roman times. The well-preserved ruins of the site are dominated by the peripteral (colonnaded) Ionic temple of *Zeus, dedicated under Domitian in ce 92. According to local legend Zeus was born in the Steunos cave which overlooked the river Pencalas near the city (the site has been identified and excavated). There were extensive sacred lands around the city, which were used to settle military colonists from the Attalid and Bithynian kingdoms. A long dispute over the revenues from this land was settled by Roman proconsuls of Asia in the 120s, and this appears to have unleashed a period of great prosperity in the 2nd cent. ce. During this time Aezani was transformed from a modest agricultural town (there are traces of late Hellenistic buildings and it may have been the minting centre for the people of Phrygia Epictetus) into an imperial architectural show-piece, with a theatre, a stadium, a large bath-house, several bridges across the river Pencalas which flowed through the city, and cemeteries full of elaborately decorated tombs. Aezani was an enthusiastic member of the *Panhellenion at Athens, where its best-known citizen and civic benefactor, M.

Article

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

The *Punic Wars made Rome heir to the Carthaginian empire. In 146 bce she left most territory in the hands of *Masinissa's descendants, but formed a new province (Africa) in the most fertile part. This covered about 13,000 sq. km. (5,000 sq. mi.) of north and central Tunisia, north-east of a boundary line (the fossa regia, ‘the royal ditch’) from Thabraca to *Hadrumetum; it was governed by a praetor from Utica. Except for *Utica and six other towns of Phoenician origin which had supported Rome rather than Carthage in the Punic Wars, most of the land became *ager publicus. Although the attempt by Gaius C. *Sempronius Gracchus to found a colonia at Carthage failed, Roman and Italian traders and farmers settled in the province in large numbers, and many of C. *Marius (1)'s veterans settled west of the fossa regia. After the battle of Thapsus in 46 bce*Caesar added to the existing province (thenceforth called Africa Vetus, ‘Old Africa’) the Numidian territory of Juba I (Africa Nova, ‘New Africa’).

Article

Alesia  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Alesia, a hill-fort of the Mandubii, modern Alise-Ste Reine, where, in 52 bce, Caesar besieged and captured *Vercingetorix. The site was not abandoned, but developed as a thriving township, which survived until the later 4th cent. Archaeologically it is of great importance. Its Gallic walls and Roman siege-works were uncovered in the 19th cent. Modern research has concentrated on the public and private buildings of the Gallo-Roman period, and has exposed impressive remains. Literary evidence for the production of high-quality metalwork here has been confirmed by archaeological finds.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Aletrium (mod. Alatri), town of the *Hernici 70 km. (43 mi.) south-east of Rome. Always loyal to Rome after 358 bce, Aletrium became a prosperous *municipium (Cic. Clu.46) and remained such (reject Lib. colon.23). Its massive polygonal walls have survived almost intact, those surrounding the citadel being particularly remarkable. There is also an early *aqueduct of c.

Article

Allifae  

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Allifae, mountain town overlooking the *Volturnus the gateway between *Samnium and *Campania: modern Alife, which has an archaeological museum (an epigraphic collection is in nearby Piedimonte Matese). Strategic Allifae changed hands repeatedly in the Samnite Wars. Under Rome it descended to lower ground and became a flourishing town with well-preserved Roman walls, baths, and a theatre.

Article

Altinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Altinum (mod. Altino, near Venice), from the 5th cent. bce a centre of the *Veneti (2), and later a Roman *municipium. It prospered as a highway junction, where the *via Postumia, *via Popillia, *via Annia (1), and transalpine via Claudia Augusta met, and was a fashionable resort with rich *villas (Mart.

Article

R. J. A. Wilson

Ammaedara (mod. Haidra), a Roman city in western Tunisia on the Carthage–Theveste trunk road, 36 km. (22 mi.) north-east of the latter. The first fortress of the Legio III Augusta was established here in Augustan times on a virgin site close to the oued Haidra. The exact position of the fortress is unknown, but it is assumed to lie under the Byzantine fortress at the heart of the site; legionary tombstones from a necropolis to the east demonstrate the presence of the legion. When the fortress was moved to *Thevestec. ce 75, a town was founded as colonia Flavia Augusta Aemerita Ammaedara (CIL 8. 308). Imposing ruins, including those of a capitolium (see capitol), a theatre, baths, an arch of Septimius Severus (195), and several mausolea, are spread out over an area of some 1,400×600 m. (1,500×650 yds.), but little excavation has been conducted. Ammaedara was a notable Christian centre, with bishops at least from 256; five churches of the 4th–6th cents. have been identified. A large Byzantine fortress (200×110 m.: 220×120 yds) dominates the centre of the site.

Article

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

A nome capital (see nomos (1)) of Middle Egypt east of the Nile, founded in ce 130 by Hadrian in memory of *Antinous (2) on a necropolis containing a temple of Rameses II. The via Hadriana linked it to the Red Sea. Its Greek constitution, modelled on that of *Naucratis, gave exemption from *liturgies elsewhere. Veterans and Hellenes from *Ptolemais (2) were enrolled. *Diocletian made it capital of the Thebaid. Considerable remains of public buildings survived in 1800. See alimenta.

Article

Antium  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Antium (mod. Anzio), in *Latium. It was occupied from at least the 8th cent. bce by people with a material culture resembling that of Rome itself. It was certainly Latin in the 6th cent. bce (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1. 72; Polyb. 3. 22), but shortly thereafter *Volsci captured it, and for 200 years Antium was apparently the principal Volscian city. In the 4th cent. bce it was the centre of Volscian resistance to Rome, that ended only when C. *Maenius captured the Antiate fleet and made possible the establishment of a citizen colony (see colonization, roman), 338 bce (Livy, bks. 2–8; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. bks. 4–10). Antiate pirates, however, continued active even after 338 (Strabo 5. 232). After being sacked by C. *Marius (1), Antium became a fashionable resort (Augustus had a villa here), with celebrated temples (App. Bciv. 1. 69, 5. 26; Hor. Carm.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Arae Flaviae (mod. Rottweil), on the Neckar. In ce 74 the Roman Rhine–Danube frontier was shortened by carrying a road south-eastwards from Strasburg (*Argentorate) to the *Danube. A fort was built at the point where another road coming up from Vindonissa joined it. At the same time a civilian settlement, ‘The Flavian Altars’, was developed as a centre of the imperial cult devoted to the ruling dynasty (see ruler-cult).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Ariminum (mod. Rimini), on the Adriatic, was an *Umbrian and Gallic settlement, which became a Latin colony (see ius latii) in 268 bce (Vell. Pat. 1. 14). An important harbour and road-centre, Ariminum was the key to *Gaul (Cisalpine), controlling the bottle-neck between Apennines and Adriatic (Polyb. 3. 61, etc. ; Livy 24. 44, etc. ; Strabo 5. 217). It remained loyal to Rome against *Hannibal (Livy 27. 10) and obtained Roman *citizenshipc.89 bce (Plin. HN 3. 115). Surviving sack by *Sulla, occupation by *Caesar, confiscation and colonization by the *triumvirs, attacks by Flavians (ce 69) and Goths (538), it became one of five towns composing the pentapolis maritima under the Ravenna exarchs (App. BCiv. 1. 67, 4. 3; Plut. Caes.32; Tac. Hist. 3. 41; Procop. 2. 10). Surviving monuments include the arch of Augustus, marking the end of the *via Flaminia, and a Tiberian bridge.

Article

Arpinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Arpinum, in Italy, a Volscian hill-town (see volsci) in the *Liris valley, modern Arpino, with interesting polygonal walls. Rome captured Arpinum from its Samnite conquerors and gave it civitas sine suffragio (see citizenship, roman), 305–303 bce (Diod. Sic. 20. 90; Livy 9. 44, 10. 1). After 188 it enjoyed full citizenship, being administered as a *praefectura and, after 90, as a *municipium (Livy 38.

Article

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and D. W. R. Ridgway

Arretium (mod. Arezzo), north-easternmost of the cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and one of the latest founded. It is not certain when it passed under Roman rule, but in the 3rd cent. bce it was an important base for Roman operations in north Italy, and it acquired additional importance in the mid-2nd cent. from the construction of the *via Cassia, of which it was the first terminal. It became a *municipium in the 2nd cent. bce and a colony under Sulla, and again under Caesar. From it comes a fine series of archaic and later bronzes, notably the Chimaera (cf. also Livy 28. 45, where Arretium supplies large quantities of bronze weapons for *Scipio Africanus' African expedition); and for nearly a century after c.30 bce its red-gloss table wares, both plain and relief-moulded, dominated the markets of the Roman world (see pottery, roman).

Article

Stephen Mitchell

Aspendus, a city in *Pamphylia whose inhabitants claimed kinship with the Argives (see hellenism; argos (1)). Linguistic evidence shows that most of the inhabitants were of Anatolian origin (see anatolian languages). The city issued coins in the 5th cent. bce which preserve its Anatolian name Estvediys, to be identified with the Asitawandas named on inscriptions of the second millennium bce from Karatepe. Although assessed as a member of the *Delian League, it preferred Persian rule, even resisting *Alexander (3) the Great. It was alternately under Ptolemaic and Seleucid rule until 189 bce, and later came under Roman control. Situated 13 km. (8 mi.) from the present mouth of the *Eurymedon, which was navigable as far as the city, it had an important harbour from which grain was exported. The remains include *market buildings and a council-house of the Hellenistic period, as well as many important Roman public buildings, above all the magnificently preserved *theatre and long stretches of *aqueduct.

Article

Atella  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Atella, *Campanian city, in the Clanis valley. The site was inhabited from the 7th cent. bce and urbanized in the 4th. Atella was a Roman ally (see socii) by 338 but defected in 211. It was flourishing in the empire, but abandoned in the 11th cent. There are remains of walls, street plan, republican and imperial baths and houses, and a Hellenistic/Roman cemetery.

Article

Atina  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Atina (mod. Atene Lucana), in Italy, *Lucanian city in the Valle di Diano. *Oscan and Greek inscriptions indicate a Hellenized (see hellenism) Oscan settlement from the 5th cent. bce, but it was not prominent before the Roman period. It may have had either praefectural or municipal status (see municipium; praefectura).

Article

Atria  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Atria (mod. Adria), a coastal city in the north of the Po delta (see padus), now nearly 20 km. (12½ mi.) from the sea. From the late 6th cent. bce onwards it was an important entrepôt for Greek and *Etruscan trade with the Po valley and Europe. Epigraphy suggests that the city was an originally Aeginetan foundation that came under Etruscan control in the 5th cent. (cf. Livy 5. 33. 8). Varro (De Ling 5.

Article

John Wilkes

Augusta Traiana or Beroe (mod. Stara Zagora, Bulgaria) was a Roman city of *Thrace founded by Trajan to replace the Thracian-Hellenistic Beroe in the north of the Thracian plain, controlling a huge territory extending from the Haemus range (Stara planina) in the north to the Rhodope mountains in the south. The 2nd-cent. walls enclose an area of 48.5 ha. (120 acres), within which several streets and public buildings have been excavated. In the late empire the city was again known as Beroe and is described by Ammianus (27. 4. 12) as one of the ‘spacious cities’ (amplae civitates) of Thrace. After being sacked by the *Huns, by the 6th cent. (according to Procop. Aed. 4. 11. 19) it was in need of repair and was fortified with a massive new double wall. It was again sacked, by the *Slavs or Avars, around 600.