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Article

Abdera  

James Maxwell Ross Cormack and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Abdera, a flourishing Greek city east of the Nestus river on the coast of *Thrace (Diod. Sic. 13. 72. 2). It was traditionally founded as a colony of *Clazomenae in 654 bce, a date for which 7th-cent. Greek pottery affords some support. It was reoccupied by colonists from *Teos (among them *Anacreon) in the second half of the 6th cent. (Hdt. 1. 168; Pind. Paean 2); its site was near Bulustra, a corruption of the name it bore in the Middle Ages, Polystylon. Like *Aenus, Abdera owed its wealth (it was the third richest city in the *Delian League, with a contribution of 15 talents) to its corn production (see the coins), and to the fact that it was a port for the trade of inland Thrace and especially of the Odrysian rulers. Abdera was a resting-place for the army of Xerxes in 480 bce when it was marching to invade Greece (Hdt.

Article

Simon Hornblower

Was probably a 7th-cent. colony of *Andros (Thuc. 4. 84) near the narrowest point of the Akte prong of *Chalcidice, and thus close to the canal dug in 480 bce on the orders of *Xerxes I of Persia (Hdt. 7. 22; Thuc. 4. 109); at this time it was an important Persian base. It remained loyal to Athens for much of the 5th cent. (paying a normal tribute of 3 talents in the *Delian League), until 424 when it was famously seduced by the rhetoric of the Spartan *Brasidas (Thuc. 4.85–7 for the speech, a tour de force), though Thuc. also drily notes (4. 88) that the Acanthians were concerned for their grape-vintage which Brasidas had threatened to destroy. Thuc. 4. 124. 1 (separate mention of Acanthians and Chalcidians in Brasidas' army) implies that like *Torone, Acanthus was not at this time a member of the Chalcidic League (see chalcidice).

Article

W. M. Murray

Acarnania, a district of NW Greece, bounded by the Lonian Sea, the gulf of Ambracia, and the *Acheloüs river. The district is divided into three main regions: (1) a rugged coast with small bays and small alluvial plains,(2) a mountainous interior range that parallels the coast from north-west to south-east, and(3) small plains between the mountains and the Acheloüs river to the east.Although Neolithic, early Helladic, and late Helladic remains have been located near Astacus and elsewhere, evidence for widespread prehistoric settlement is lacking. Homer seems ignorant of the region except as a part of the shadowy ‘mainland’ inside *Ithaca, although names like Melite and Marathus may point to *Phoenician seafarers using this coast for shelter on their westward voyages. Significant Greek influence began during the 7th cent. bce when *Corinth settled Anactorium, Sollium, and Leucas and when (soon thereafter?) *Cephallenia settled Astacus. *Thucydides (2) mentions settlements at Alyzeia, Astacus, Coronta, Limnaea, Medion, *Oeniadae, Palaerus, Phytia (Phoetiae), and Stratus, some of which were surely fortified poleis (Oeniadae, Stratus, Astacus, Palaerus).

Article

Achaea  

Catherine A. Morgan

Region on the north-east of the Peloponnese, between the Corinthian Gulf and the Chelmos and Panachaikon mountains. Historically a federation of small territories (Paus. 7).Achaea was settled from the palaeolithic period. During the late bronze age, numerous graves plus settlements (e.g. Aegira and Katarraktis) and the fortification of Teichos Dymaion indicate extensive activity (see ahhiyawa). Geometric settlement has been found along the coast (including an 8th.-cent. temple at Aegira) and inland (the Pharae valley). Achaeans may have joined the Ionian migration; Achaean colonies include *Sybaris (720 bce), *Croton (708), *Metapontum, *Caulonia (all in Italy) and *Scione (in *Chalcidice). See colonization, greek.According to Herodotus (1. 145), Achaea was divided into 12 merides each containing seven or eight dēmoi (cf. Polyb. 2. 41. 7). These comprise Pellene (the seat of games noted by Pindar), Helice, Bura, Aegira, Aegae, *Aegium, Rhypes, *Patrae, Pharae, Olenus, *Dyme, and Tritaea.

Article

Achaia  

Antony Spawforth

(correct spelling: J. Oliver, The Civic Tradition and Roman Athens (1983) 152 note 6), official name for the Roman province of *Greece, commemorating Rome's defeat of the *Achaean Confederacy in 146 bce (Paus. 7. 16. 20). After its initial and temporary formation by Caesar (46 bce), Augustus re-established it as a separate province (27 bce); joined to *Moesia in ce 15, it was detached in 44, ‘freed’ by Nero in 67, and definitively reconstituted by Vespasianc.70. Its early boundaries were unstable, including *Epirus and perhaps *Thessaly (by c.150 the former was a separate province, the latter part of *Macedonia). A public province, it was normally governed by junior (praetorian) proconsuls, upgraded under Constantine I to consulares. Although the procurator from Augustus on resided at *Corinth, the proconsuls were itinerant (e.g. Philostr. VA 8. 23), with residences attested at *Olympia (Paus.

Article

Charles William John Eliot and Simon Hornblower

Acharnae, the largest Attic *deme. (The figure of 3,000 hoplites at Thuc. 2. 20. 4, cf. 21. 3, may be too high; 1,200 is likelier and a possible emendation; another is that πολῖται should be read for ὁπλῖται, ‘citizens’ not ‘hoplites’). It lay around Menidi in the NW corner of the Attic plain, near the pass from the Thriasian plain along which *Archidamus II and the Spartans marched in 431 bce. It is possible that Acharnae was divided into two demes for some purposes, making the total of known demes 140 not 139; but this is disputed. Although famous as charcoal-burners in *Aristophanes (1) (Ach.), the Acharnians lived primarily by growing corn and cultivating vines and olives. They were also famously brave (Pind. Nem. 2. 16) and had, appropriately, a sanctuary to *Ares: whether the temple was moved to the Athenian Agora in the Roman period is debated.

Article

Acrae  

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Acrae (near mod. Palazzolo Acreide), founded by *Syracuse in 663 bce (Thuc. 6. 5. 3), stands on a hill protected by steep cliffs, commanding the westward route from the Syracusan plain. It enjoyed local self-government, but its fortunes were throughout its history linked with those of its metropolis. A late Archaic temple is known on the acropolis, but other known monuments are Hellenistic: a theatre, perhaps built under *Hieron (2) II, a bouleutērion, and a paved artery linking this with the agora. The series of extramural rock-cut reliefs in honour of *Cybele is unique. Also of note is a Hellenistic inscription found near Acrae, variously interpreted as oracular or as part of an epic poem. Acrae declined under the empire, but extensive *catacombs reveal it as still inhabited in the 4th and 5th cent. ce.

Article

John Buckler

Acraephnium (mod. Karditza), city in NE *Boeotia, located above a small bay of Lake *Copais; perhaps the Homeric Arne. Fortifications and cemeteries have been excavated, the latter revealing splendid examples of early painted pottery. It entered the Boeotian Confederacy in 447 bce, and by 395 bce joined with *Copae and *Chaeronea to form one unit. It provided the Thebans with shelter after *Alexander (3) the Great destroyed their city in 335 bce (see thebes (1)). In the wake of anti-Roman sentiment in 196 bce, Appius Claudius attacked the city. A long inscription details the benefactions of Epaminondas, a local magnate (mid-1st cent. ce), including repair of the Copais-dike protecting the civic land from flood. The *Ptoion was in Acraephnium's territory.

Article

Acragas  

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Was founded c.580 bce by the Geloans (see gela) in Sican territory in central southern Sicily. One of the most substantial Hellenic cities in size and affluence, it occupied a large bowl of land, rising to a lofty acropolis on the north and protected on the other by a ridge. Its early acquisition of power was owed to the tyrant *Phalaris. In 480*Theron was the ally of *Gelon in his victory at *Himera. After expelling Thrasydaeus, Theron's son, Acragas had a limited democratic government, in which *Empedocles, its most famous citizen, took part in his generation. Acragantine 6th- and 5th-cent. prosperity is attested by a remarkable series of temples, the remains of which are among the most impressive of any Greek city, and by its extensive, wealthy necropoleis. Sacked by the Carthaginians in 406, Acragas revived to some extent under *Timoleon and Phintias (286–280 bce), but suffered much in the Punic Wars.

Article

Actium  

W. M. Murray

Actium (Ἄκτιον), a flat sandy promontory at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf, forming part of the territory of Anactorium, as well as the NW extremity of *Acarnania. A cult of Apollo was located here as early as the 6th cent. bce to judge from the torsos of two archaic kouroi found on the cape in 1867. At this time, or soon thereafter, a temple stood on a low hill near the tip of the promontory where games were celebrated in honour of the god as late as the end of the 3rd cent. bce. In 31 bce the cape was the site of M. *Antonius (2)'s camp, and gave its name to the naval battle, fought just outside the gulf, in which he was defeated by *Octavian (2 September). A few years later, when Octavian founded *Nicopolis (3) on the opposite (northern) side of the strait, he took care to enlarge Apollo's sanctuary at Actium by rebuilding the old temple and adding a monumental naval trophy (not to be confused with the naval trophy he dedicated at Nicopolis). In ship-sheds constructed in the sacred grove at the base of the hill, he dedicated a set of ten captured warships, one from each of the ten classes that had fought in the battle (Strabo 7. 7. 6). Although the ships and their ship-sheds were gone (destroyed by fire) by the time Strabo composed his account, recent excavations have located the site where the kouroi were found in 1867 and have confirmed the location of the temple, obscured for many years.

Article

Max Cary and W. M. Murray

Adriatic Sea (Gk. ὁ Ἀδρίας; Lat. Mare adriaticum or superum), used as an alternative to ‘*Ionian Sea’ for the waters between the Balkan peninsula and Italy, and like ‘Ionian’, sometimes extended to include the sea east of Sicily. In neolithic times seafarers from the south settled around the gulf of Valona at the entrance to the Adriatic (c.80 km. (50 mi.) north of Corcyra). In the bronze age there is evidence for trade in Baltic *amber and perhaps in Bohemian *tin while weapons apparently came by sea from the north to Italy and to Greece, with ports of call in between. Seafarers from the Adriatic occupied the Nidhri plain in *Leucas, where they built tumulus burials like those known from Albania in the Middle Helladic period. In historical times, Greek exploration of the Adriatic was said to be the work of the Phocaeans (see phocaea), who penetrated to its upper end by 600 bce (Hdt.

Article

Aecae  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Aecae, *Daunian city 25 km. (15 ½ mi.) south-west of Foggia. A Roman ally, it defected to Hannibal in 216 bce but was recaptured. Colonies were founded under Augustus and Septimius Severus, and it became a stage on the *via Traiana. Aerial photography shows a large area of *centuriation nearby.

Article

Antony Spawforth

Aedepsus (mod. Loutra Aidepsou), Euboean coastal town dependent on *Histiaea, famous in antiquity for its hot springs, known to Aristotle (Mete. 2. 366a) and still in use. It prospered in imperial times as a playground for the wealthy, equipped with luxurious swimming-pools and dining-rooms (Plut. Mor.

Article

Aegae  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

In northern Pieria, overlooking the coastal plain of Macedonia. Founded by the first of the Temenid kings and thereafter the site of their tombs, it has been made famous by Manolis Andronikos, who excavated a pre-Temenid cemetery of tumuli and then, in 1977, three royal tombs of the 4th cent. bce. Two were intact. The frescos, the offerings in gold, silver, ivory, and bronze, and the weapons were of the highest artistic quality. Tomb II was almost certainly that of *Philip (1) II (for an alternative view, that *Philip (2) Arrhidaeus was buried here, see E. Borza, In the Shadow of Olympus (1990), 256 ff.). Earlier and later burials have also been found. Theatre, palace, and acropolis stand above the cemetery area. Excavations continue.

Article

Eric Herbert Warmington

Aegean Sea, between Greece and Asia Minor. To it the modern name Archipelago was originally applied, but the ancient Greeks derived the name Aegean variously from *Theseus' father *Aegeus, who drowned himself in it; from Aegea, Amazonian queen (see amazons), who was drowned in it; from *Aegae city. They subdivided it into Thracian, along Thrace and Macedonia to the north coast of *Euboea; Myrtoan, south of Euboea, Attica, Argolis, west of the *Cyclades; Icarian, along (Asiatic) coasts of *Caria and Ionia; Cretic, north of *Crete. Some, like *Strabo, treated the last three as separate, ending the Aegean at *Sunium in Attica. The whole Aegean contains many islands in three groups: along the Asiatic coast, including *Lesbos, *Chios, *Samos, *Rhodes; a small group off *Thessaly; Euboea and the Cyclades, a continuation or reappearance of the mountains of the Greek mainland.

Article

Aegina  

Simon Hornblower

Aegina, island in Saronic Gulf, inhabited from late neolithic times and in contact with Minoan Crete and Mycenae. Early in the first millennium bce it was resettled by Greeks from Epidaurus (Hdt. 8. 46, 5. 43); protogeometric pottery indicates links with Attica and the Argolid. Aegina belonged to the Calaurian *amphictiony (Strabo 8. 6. 14; see calauria). It was not a great colonizing power, though Aeginetans participated at *Naucratis (Hdt. 2. 178), and are said to have colonized Kydonia (mod. Chania) on Crete, and Italian Umbria (Strabo 8. 6. 16; see atria; spina). Certainly Aeginetan connections with central Italy are attested c.500 bce by a dedication at Gravisca (Etruria) by the wealthy Sostratus of Aegina (Jeffery, LSAG 2 p. 439 + Hdt. 4. 152). The scale of Aegina's trade is indicated by its population of perhaps 40,000 (Figueira; reduced to 20,000 by Hansen) on territory which could support only 4,000 from its own agricultural resources. Aegina struck coins early.

Article

Aegium  

Catherine A. Morgan

Aegium, Achaean port 40 km. (25 mi.) east of *Patrae, beneath the modern town of Aigion. It was settled from neolithic times, with particularly extensive activity during the late Helladic and Classical periods (when the city was walled). Classical sources refer to a shrine of Eileithyia, a temenos of Asclepius, and temples of *Athena and *Hera. The roadside shrine of *Artemis or Hera at Ano Mazaraki may have been controlled by Aegium.Aegium gained political importance after the destruction in 373 bce of Helice (whose citizens, along with those of Rhypes, it absorbed). The city expanded from the 4th cent., with a large agora and shrine complex. The nearby sanctuary of Zeus Homarius was the cult centre of the *Achaean Confederacy after 276. By the late 3rd cent., Aegium held the league archive and received ambassadors. The biennial league assembly of all Achaean citizens met here until 189 bce.

Article

Simon Hornblower

‘Goat’s rivers’ in the *Hellespont, probably an open beach somewhere opposite *Lampacus, scene of the final and decisive sea-battle of the *Peloponnesian war, a victory over the Athenians by the Spartans under *Lysander (405). *Alcibiades, in exile in Thrace, had warned the Athenian generals (who included *Conon (1)) of the dangers of their exposed position, and may even have offered military help in the form of Thracians; but he was rebuffed. The accounts of how the battle started cannot be reconciled, but it is clear that, after several days of inactivity, the Athenians were caught with most of their ships unmanned.

Article

John Salmon

Aegosthena, settlement and fortified place in the territory of *Megara, at the easternmost point of the Corinthian Gulf. The remnants of the Spartan army which was defeated at *Leuctra joined a relieving force at Aegosthena on their way back to Sparta (Xen. Hell. 6. 4. 26). The fortifications are (despite earthquake damage in the early 1980s) among the best preserved in Greece, but the history of the site is ill known, and their date is uncertain: they were probably not much, if at all, before 350, but may be 3rd-century. Aegosthena went into the *Achaean Confederacy when Megara joined in 243/2 bce, and over to *Boeotia in 224; it remained Boeotian when Megara returned to Achaea. Under Rome it was an autonomous *polis. See fortifications (Greek).

Article

Peter Sidney Derow

Aenianes, a people situated east of *Dodona in the Homeric Catalogue (Il. 2. 749) who moved later into the upper Spercheios valley. There they developed into a tribal state and belonged to the Pylaic and then the Delphic *amphictiony. Dependent on the *Aetolians from 272–167bce, they continued as an independent koinon into Roman times.