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Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Acquarossa, a plateau 6 km. (3 ½ mi.) north of Viterbo, is the site of a small and anonymous *Etruscan centre in the territory of *Caere. Excavation (1966–78) of its component areas—including the monumental complex in zone F, variously defined as a ‘palace’, a ‘regia’, or a ‘sacred area’ (with a temple)—has combined with contemporary work at *Poggio Civitate to focus attention on early Etruscan building techniques, domestic and public architecture, town planning, and non-funerary religious practice. Like Poggio Civitate, Acquarossa has yielded copious architectural *terracottas. The most important category, previously unknown or unrecognized, is that of the *orientalizing cut-out acroteria used on two-slope roofs between c.650/600 and c.575. They have no Greek models or counterparts, and clearly follow schemes derived from the strong indigenous tradition of exuberantly decorated roof-tops documented by the impasto hut-urns used as cinerary receptacles (but representing real huts) in Etruria and Latium between the 10th and 8th centuries.

Article

John Wilkes

Adamklissi, the site of three Roman monuments in the Dobrudja plain (South Romania): (1) an altar (16.2 m. (53 ft.) square and c.6 m. (20 ft.) high) recording legionary and auxiliary casualties, probably from *Trajan's first Dacian campaign (ce 101/2) rather than that of *Domitian; (2) a circular mausoleum or tropaeum (c.40 m. (131 ft.) diam.) standing on the crest of the hill, built of the same local stone as the altar, and perhaps also linked with Trajan's first Dacian war (ce 101/2); (3) a circular tropaeum (c.30 m. (100 ft.) diam.) in the better-quality Deleni stone dedicated in ce 108/9 (CIL 3. 12467; cf. E. Doruţiu-Boilă, Dacia (1961), 345 ff.) surmounted by a hexagonal column and victory tropaeum, dominating the hill and visible from the Danube more than 40 km. (25 mi.) away. See trophies.

Article

Aecae  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Aecae, *Daunian city 25 km. (15 ½ mi.) south-west of Foggia. A Roman ally, it defected to Hannibal in 216 bce but was recaptured. Colonies were founded under Augustus and Septimius Severus, and it became a stage on the *via Traiana. Aerial photography shows a large area of *centuriation nearby.

Article

Antony Spawforth

Aedepsus (mod. Loutra Aidepsou), Euboean coastal town dependent on *Histiaea, famous in antiquity for its hot springs, known to Aristotle (Mete. 2. 366a) and still in use. It prospered in imperial times as a playground for the wealthy, equipped with luxurious swimming-pools and dining-rooms (Plut. Mor.

Article

Graham Burton

Aerarium, derived from aes, denotes ‘treasury’. The main aerarium of Rome was the aerarium Saturni, so called from the temple below the Capitol, in which it was placed. Here were kept state documents, both financial and non-financial (including leges (see lex (1)) and *senatus consulta which were not valid until lodged there), and the state treasure, originally mainly of bronze (aes) but including also ingots of gold and silver and other valuables. The *tabularium (1) was built near it in 78 bce.The aerarium was controlled by the quaestors under the supervision of the senate, with a subordinate staff of scribae, *viatores, etc. The *tribuni aerarii, men of a property-class a little below the knights, were probably concerned with making payments from the tribes into the treasury. The aerarium sanctius was a special reserve, fed by the 5 per cent tax on emancipations. Treasure was withdrawn from it in 209 bce and on other occasions.

Article

Aezani  

Stephen Mitchell

Was the most important city of northern *Phrygia in Roman times. The well-preserved ruins of the site are dominated by the peripteral (colonnaded) Ionic temple of *Zeus, dedicated under Domitian in ce 92. According to local legend Zeus was born in the Steunos cave which overlooked the river Pencalas near the city (the site has been identified and excavated). There were extensive sacred lands around the city, which were used to settle military colonists from the Attalid and Bithynian kingdoms. A long dispute over the revenues from this land was settled by Roman proconsuls of Asia in the 120s, and this appears to have unleashed a period of great prosperity in the 2nd cent. ce. During this time Aezani was transformed from a modest agricultural town (there are traces of late Hellenistic buildings and it may have been the minting centre for the people of Phrygia Epictetus) into an imperial architectural show-piece, with a theatre, a stadium, a large bath-house, several bridges across the river Pencalas which flowed through the city, and cemeteries full of elaborately decorated tombs. Aezani was an enthusiastic member of the *Panhellenion at Athens, where its best-known citizen and civic benefactor, M.

Article

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

The *Punic Wars made Rome heir to the Carthaginian empire. In 146 bce she left most territory in the hands of *Masinissa's descendants, but formed a new province (Africa) in the most fertile part. This covered about 13,000 sq. km. (5,000 sq. mi.) of north and central Tunisia, north-east of a boundary line (the fossa regia, ‘the royal ditch’) from Thabraca to *Hadrumetum; it was governed by a praetor from Utica. Except for *Utica and six other towns of Phoenician origin which had supported Rome rather than Carthage in the Punic Wars, most of the land became *ager publicus. Although the attempt by Gaius C. *Sempronius Gracchus to found a colonia at Carthage failed, Roman and Italian traders and farmers settled in the province in large numbers, and many of C. *Marius (1)'s veterans settled west of the fossa regia. After the battle of Thapsus in 46 bce*Caesar added to the existing province (thenceforth called Africa Vetus, ‘Old Africa’) the Numidian territory of Juba I (Africa Nova, ‘New Africa’).

Article

M. Stephen Spurr

Roman agricultural implements comprised slaves (see slavery), animals, and tools (Varro, Rust. 1. 17. 1). Only the third category is reviewed here. The essential similarity between the inventories in M. *Porcius Cato (1) (Agr. 10, 11) and *Palladius (1. 42) some 600 years later indicates technological stability or stagnation, depending on one's point of view. (This very stability has enabled researchers working in Mediterranean areas little affected by mechanized agriculture to interpret with some security the growing archaeological evidence, the ancient representations in art, and the Roman agricultural writers.) Yet while innovations such as the Gallic reaping machine (Pliny, HN 18. 296; Palladius, 7. 2. 2–4) were rare, improvements in design were common. Examples include: in arable cultivation, the plough (e.g. Pliny, HN 18. 171–2) and threshing sledge (Varro, Rust. 1. 52. 2); and, in arboriculture, the vine-dresser's knife, trench-measuring devices (Columella, Rust.

Article

Dominic W. Rathbone

By modern standards Roman agriculture was technically simple, average yields were low, transport was difficult and costly, and storage was inefficient. This limited urbanization (and hence ‘industrialization’) obliged the bulk of the population to live and work on the land. Nevertheless, in the late republic and earlier Principate agriculture and urbanization (see urbanism (Roman)) developed together to levels probably not again matched until the late 18th cent. Roman agriculture broadly fits the ahistoric pattern which is commonly seen as characteristic of the Mediterranean region: based on the triad of *cereals, vines (see wine) and *olives, at the mercy of a semi-arid *climate with low and unreliable rainfall, and dominated by small farms practising a polyculture aimed principally at self-sufficiency and safety. But two factors—the geophysical diversity of Italy (let alone of Rome's provinces), and the effects of political and social developments—led to historically important variations between areas and across time in the organization and practice of agriculture. Since the 1950s there has been an enormous growth in archaeological research—surface survey of rural areas, excavations of farmsteads, study of the ancient environment (through pollen, seeds, bones)—which is taking our knowledge and understanding of Roman agriculture far beyond what could be discovered from the evidence of the literary sources.

Article

T. W. Potter

Alba Fucens, a Latin colony of 6,000 (see ius latii) founded by Rome in 303 bce, on a hill above the Fucine lake (see fucinus lacus) in central Italy. It was connected to Rome by the *via Valeria, a route of great antiquity. Alba usually supported the Roman government, e.g. against *Hannibal, the socii (90 bce; see social war (3)), *Caesar, and M. *Antonius (2) (Mark Antony). In the 2nd cent. bce, dethroned kings such as *Syphax were confined here. The walls, which extend for nearly 3 km. (1 ¾ mi.), originated in the 3rd cent. bce, and the town saw substantial replanning in the 1st cent. bce. Extensive excavations have revealed the forum, basilica, shops, temples, theatres, amphitheatre, etc. Decline began in the 3rd cent. ce, and the place is not mentioned after 537 when Justinian's troops were stationed here.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Albanus lacus (mod. Lago Albano), ‘Alban Lake’, a crater lake in the *Albanus mons near Rome. Its wooded banks in imperial times were studded with *villas, e.g. *Domitian's. Lacking natural outlets, its waters reach the Rivus Albanus, and thence the Tiber, via a tunnel, 1,800 m. (1,968 yds.) in length, through the crater rim built c.

Article

album  

Tim Cornell

An album was a whitened board or tablet on which information could be published in writing. Such tablets were widely used in Roman public life, for example to publicize the *praetors' edicts. Album was also the standard term for a published list or register. The album senatorium was the official list of members of the *senate which was publicly posted outside the senate-house from the time of *Augustus.

Article

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Romans were as interested in the harmful effects of excessive drinking and chronic intoxication as their Greek counterparts. In On the Nature of Things, *Lucretius writes that wine's fury disturbs the soul, debilitates the body, and provokes quarrels (3. 476–83). The younger *Seneca warns that habitual drunkenness so weakens the mind that its consequences are felt long after the drinking has stopped (Ep. 83. 26). He notes that some men become so tolerant of wine that even though they are inebriated they appear to be sober (Ep. 83. 11). Seneca also suggests that drunkenness tends to disclose and magnify character defects (Ep. 83. 19–20). In his Naturalis historia, *Pliny (1) the Elder finds irony in the fact that men spend hard-earned money on something that can damage the mind and cause madness (14. 137). Like the Greeks, Pliny comments on truth in wine (‘in vino veritas’), but emphasizes that the truths therein revealed are often better left unspoken (HN 14.

Article

Alesia  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Alesia, a hill-fort of the Mandubii, modern Alise-Ste Reine, where, in 52 bce, Caesar besieged and captured *Vercingetorix. The site was not abandoned, but developed as a thriving township, which survived until the later 4th cent. Archaeologically it is of great importance. Its Gallic walls and Roman siege-works were uncovered in the 19th cent. Modern research has concentrated on the public and private buildings of the Gallo-Roman period, and has exposed impressive remains. Literary evidence for the production of high-quality metalwork here has been confirmed by archaeological finds.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Aletrium (mod. Alatri), town of the *Hernici 70 km. (43 mi.) south-east of Rome. Always loyal to Rome after 358 bce, Aletrium became a prosperous *municipium (Cic. Clu.46) and remained such (reject Lib. colon.23). Its massive polygonal walls have survived almost intact, those surrounding the citadel being particularly remarkable. There is also an early *aqueduct of c.

Article

Allifae  

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Allifae, mountain town overlooking the *Volturnus the gateway between *Samnium and *Campania: modern Alife, which has an archaeological museum (an epigraphic collection is in nearby Piedimonte Matese). Strategic Allifae changed hands repeatedly in the Samnite Wars. Under Rome it descended to lower ground and became a flourishing town with well-preserved Roman walls, baths, and a theatre.

Article

Altinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Altinum (mod. Altino, near Venice), from the 5th cent. bce a centre of the *Veneti (2), and later a Roman *municipium. It prospered as a highway junction, where the *via Postumia, *via Popillia, *via Annia (1), and transalpine via Claudia Augusta met, and was a fashionable resort with rich *villas (Mart.

Article

R. J. A. Wilson

Ammaedara (mod. Haidra), a Roman city in western Tunisia on the Carthage–Theveste trunk road, 36 km. (22 mi.) north-east of the latter. The first fortress of the Legio III Augusta was established here in Augustan times on a virgin site close to the oued Haidra. The exact position of the fortress is unknown, but it is assumed to lie under the Byzantine fortress at the heart of the site; legionary tombstones from a necropolis to the east demonstrate the presence of the legion. When the fortress was moved to *Thevestec. ce 75, a town was founded as colonia Flavia Augusta Aemerita Ammaedara (CIL 8. 308). Imposing ruins, including those of a capitolium (see capitol), a theatre, baths, an arch of Septimius Severus (195), and several mausolea, are spread out over an area of some 1,400×600 m. (1,500×650 yds.), but little excavation has been conducted. Ammaedara was a notable Christian centre, with bishops at least from 256; five churches of the 4th–6th cents. have been identified. A large Byzantine fortress (200×110 m.: 220×120 yds) dominates the centre of the site.

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond and Janet DeLaine

The earliest surviving permanent amphitheatres are found in *Campania, the well-preserved example at *Pompeii, called spectacula by its builders (CIL 10. 852), being the only closely datable example (c.80 bce). At Rome, although gladiatorial games were held in the *forum Romanum from an early date with spectators accommodated in temporary wooden stands, the first permanent building was erected by T. *Statilius Taurus in the *Campus Martius only in 29 bce. Nero built a much larger wooden structure there, destroyed by the fire of ce 64. Rome finally gained a permanent, monumental amphitheatre with the *Colosseum. Amphitheatres are common in the western provinces from the late republic but are rarer in the east, where from the 2nd cent. ce onwards many *theatres were instead adapted for this purpose. The use of gladiatorial techniques for training the Roman army led to small amphitheatres also becoming a normal adjunct of military *camps, the earliest surviving examples being Augustan.

Article

David J. Mattingly

Amphorae, ceramic coarseware jars used for transporting a range of goods, provide the most abundant and meaningful archaeological data on the nature, range, and scale of Roman inter-regional trade in commodities such as *olive oil, *wine, marine products and fish sauces (see fishing), preserved fruits, etc. Amphorae were most heavily used in long-distance transport, especially maritime or riverine, and are thus an effective guide to regional economic activity. The contents were clearly intended to be recognizable from the distinctive outward appearance of the most common amphora types, though painted inscriptions were sometimes added to the jar. The epigraphic evidence associated with amphorae (stamps on the vessel and on the stoppers (see below), painted inscriptions) adds further to their value in studies of the economy. Most amphorae share a number of common features: a narrow mouth, two opposed handles, thickish walls for strength, a tapering base (often a spike, though some amphorae had flat bottoms) to facilitate pouring and stacking in ships. Size and weight were important; amphorae were designed to be portable by one or at most two individuals. The classification of amphorae is an important area of Roman *pottery research and the diagnostic characteristics, fabrics, provenance, date-range, contents, and outline distribution patterns are now reasonably well established for numerous examples.