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Article

Capena  

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and T. W. Potter

The centre of a small independent territory on the west bank of the Tiber. The original settlers were closely related to the *Faliscans and spoke a similar, near-Latin Indo-European dialect. Politically the city was closely associated with Etruscan *Veii and was annexed to Rome after the destruction of Veii in 396 bce, but culturally the remains of its cemeteries reveal strong affinities also with the Faliscan cemeteries of Falerii and *Narce, as well as with the Sabine territories. Though a *municipium, the city was of small importance in Roman times and was eventually abandoned. It occupied the hill of Civitucola, 4 km. (2½ mi.) north of the modern Capena, and is known chiefly from the contents of its cemeteries. Near the SE border of its territory, at Scorano, lay the important early river-crossing, market-town, and sanctuary of *Lucus Feroniae.

Article

Capitol/Capitolium  

Albert William van Buren, Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and John Patterson

Capitol, Capitolium, or mons Capitolinus, the smallest of the *Seven hills of Rome: an isolated mass with two peaks, conventionally known as Capitolium proper and Arx. Legend associated the hill with Saturn, and recent archaeological work has revealed occupation dating back to the bronze age. It is best known as the site of the great temple begun by the Tarquins (see tarquinius priscus and tarquinius superbus) and dedicated, in the first year of the republic according to tradition, to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno, and Minerva. Given its role as citadel and its religious importance, the hill was seen as a symbol of Roman power. It was successfully defended against the gauls in 390 bce. Here the consuls sacrificed at the beginning of the year and provincial governors took vows before going to their provinces; a sacrifice here was the culmination of the triumphal procession (see triumph).

Article

Cappadocia  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Antony Spawforth

Cappadocia, at one time designated the whole region between Lake Tatta and the *Euphrates, and from the *Euxine Sea to *Cilicia; but the northern part became ‘Cappadocian Pontus’ or simply ‘*Pontus’, and the central and southern part Greater Cappadocia. This last consists of a rolling plateau, almost treeless in its western portion, some broken volcanic areas in the centre and the west (the cone of Mt. Argaeus reaches 3,660 m.: 12,000 ft.), and the ranges, for the most part well watered and well timbered, of the *Taurus and Antitaurus. A rigorous winter climate limits production to hardy cereals and fruits. Grazing was always important; the *Achaemenid kings levied a tribute of 1,500 horses, 50,000 sheep, and 2,000 mules, and Roman emperors kept studs of race-horses there. *Mines are mentioned of quartz, salt, Sinopic earth (cinnabar), and silver. Since the passes were frequently closed in winter the country was isolated.

Article

Capreae  

Nicholas Purcell

Capreae (now Capri), a precipitous small island off the Sirens’ shrine on the Promontorium Minervae of the Bay of *Naples, and part of Naples’ territory until Augustus appropriated it for a luxury estate: wild, secure, remote, and picturesque (the Roman coastal *villas’ architecture made full use of the sheer cliffs, sea-caves such as the Blue Grotto, and views to the mainland). *Tiberius, whose lifestyle during his withdrawal here for most of ce 26–37 was the object of much speculation and anecdote at Rome, developed the estate, building twelve villas named after the gods (Tac. Ann. 4. 67), of which there are important remains at Marina di Capri, Damecuta, and (probably the principal residence, ‘Villa Iovis’) on the easternmost crag. The estate remained imperial, being used for political *exile under Commodus (Cass. Dio 72. 4).

Article

Capsa  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Capsa (mod. Gafsa), an oasis in southern Tunisia. Originally a considerable Libyan settlement (*Jugurtha used it as a treasury: Strabo 17. 3. 12), it was destroyed by C. *Marius (1) in 106 bce (Sall. Iug. 89 ff.). It later revived, becoming a *municipium under *Trajan and subsequently a colonia. Under the Byzantines, it was a centre of defence against the desert nomads, with a fort built by Justinian's general Solomon. The only visible monuments are two pools, dedicated to Neptune and the nymphs. The local museum contains a unique 4th-cent. ce mosaic, an unusually detailed depiction of athletic contests, from a settlement 60 km. (37 mi.) east of Capsa.

Article

Capua  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Capua (mod. S. Maria di Capua Vetere), settled in the 9th cent. bce. The early finds show a close resemblance to Villanovan artefacts from Etruria (see villanovan culture). By c.600, Capua was an *Etruscan city, whose material culture supports *Velleius' foundation-date (Vell. Pat. 1. 7. 2), and one of the principal cities of *Campania. It was the head of a league of twelve cities, including *Atella, *Cales, *Casilinum, Calatia, *Suessula, and Acerrae. The entire surrounding area was known as the ager Campanus. After 474 bce, when the Etruscans were defeated by a combined force of Syracusans and Cumaeans (see syracuse; cumae), Etruscan power in Campania began to wane. *Oscan expansion, which had hitherto taken the form of gradual peaceful settlement, became more rapid and aggressive, and in c.425 Capua was conquered, along with *Cumae (421), *Paestum (410), and most of inland Campania (Diod.

Article

Cardia  

Eugene N. Borza

A Greek city on the western shore of the Thracian *Chersonesus (1) near the head of the gulf of Melas. The exact location is unknown owing to the absence of excavation in the area, but it is probably located on Cape Bakla, where early 20th-cent. maps indicate ruins. Founded by *Miletus and *Clazomenae in the late 7th cent. bce, Cardia received an influx of Athenian colonists led by the elder Miltiades (see miltiades), as the Athenians manifested a growing interest in the region. Recognizing Cardia's strategic position at the narrowest part of the peninsula, Miltiades strengthened its fortifications and built a wall across the neck of the isthmus. Miltiades’ successors abandoned the city to the Persians in 493, but by the mid-5th cent. it was restored to Athenian influence. An object of continuing struggle between Athens and the Thracians and later between Athens and Macedon, Cardia became allied with *Philip (1) II in 352/1 and was ruled by the tyrant Hecataeus during *Alexander (3) the Great's reign.

Article

Carmo  

Simon J. Keay

Carmo (mod. Carmona), some 40 km. (25 mi.) east of Hispalis (Seville) in Further Spain, had been an important centre of the *Tartessus cultural grouping. It was later walled by the Carthaginians and became the stronghold of the Iberian chief Luxinius. It was prominent in the Second *Punic War and in Ser.

Article

Carnuntum  

Franz A. W. Schehl and John Wilkes

Carnuntum, on the Danube (*Danuvius) between Petronell and Deutsch-Altenburg, was an important Roman military base and the seat of government of *Pannonia (Upper). At first part of *Noricum, Carnuntum was probably added to *Pannoniac. 14 ce when Legio XV Apollinaris was transferred there from *Emona, but the legionary fortress was not constructed until Claudius. Some stone structures probably date from this time (CIL 3. 4591), and some rebuilding appears to have taken place in ce 73–6 (CIL 3. 11194–6). An auxiliary cavalry base was also established in the 60s a short distance to the west. The legion remained at Carnuntum, except for the years 62–71, until c.114, when it was replaced by XIV Gemina Martia Victrix, around whose fortress an extensive *canabae developed. The civil settlement, which lay 5 km. (3 mi.) to the west, became a *municipium (Aelium) under *Hadrian and a colonia (Septimia) under *Septimius Severus.

Article

Carpathos  

Ellen E. Rice

Carpathos, known in medieval times as Scarpanto, is a Dodecanese island lying between *Rhodes and *Crete, bisected along its 48-km. (30-mi.) length by precipitous mountains. It preserves traces of Minoan and Mycenaean settlement. In historical times its cities were Carpathos (whose port was probably Potidaion at modern Pigadi), Arkaseia, and Brykous. The identity of inhabitants called the Eteocarpathioi in inscriptions is still disputed. The cities appear in the Athenian *tribute lists, and at an uncertain date were absorbed by Rhodes and became *demes of the Rhodian city *Lindus. There was an important sanctuary of *Poseidon Porthmios in Tristomo Bay. The islet Saria to the north of Carpathos has extensive Byzantine ruins.

Article

Carrara  

T. W. Potter

White *marble*quarries in NW Italy. Perhaps first exploited on a small scale by the *Etruscans, they were further developed after the foundation of the colony of *Luna in 177 bce, which acted as a port. Large-scale quarrying began in the 1st cent. bce. *Mamurra, *Caesar's praefectus fabrum (see fabri), was the first to veneer the walls of his house with Carrara (Plin. HN 36. 7. 48), and may have opened up the quarries for Caesar's building programme, replacing the use of Attic white marbles (see pentelicon). The reconstruction of the *Regia (37 bce) is often regarded as the earliest example of large-scale use of Carrara, and the industry (for buildings, sculpture, and *sarcophagi) reached its peak under Trajan, before giving way to the employment of marbles from the east Mediterranean. It was however partly revived in the 4th cent. ce.

Article

Carseoli  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Carseoli (mod. Carsóli), 68 km. (42 mi.) east of Rome. A town of the *Aequi on the *via Valeria, it became a Latin colony in c.298 bce (see ius latii), and later a *municipium. It was abandoned in the 13th cent., but has been little studied.

Article

Carsulae  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Carsulae, on the *via Flaminia in Umbria, near *Narnia. It was rarely mentioned, but Vespasian's army stopped there in ce 69 (Tac. Hist. 3. 60). Extensive excavations have revealed the forum, basilica, temples, arches, and a theatre and amphitheatre.

Article

Carteia  

Simon J. Keay

A town near San Roque on the coast of southern Spain in *Baetica. It was a naval base in the Second *Punic War and, in 171 bce it was made a colonia Latina (see ius latii), the first such foundation outside Italy in a permanent provincia.

Article

Carthago Nova  

Simon J. Keay

A town in Hither Spain, today Cartagena. It lay on a peninsula within one of the best harbours of the Mediterranean. Originally named Mastia, it was refounded as New Carthage by *Hasdrubal (1) in 228 bce as a base for the Carthaginian conquest of Spain. It was captured by *Scipio Africanus in 209, visited by *Polybius (1) in 133 (described in 10. 10), was made a colony (colonia Urbs Iulia Nova Carthago), probably by 42 bce, and was a mint from the mid-1st cent. bce until the reign of *Gaius (1). During the empire it was overshadowed by *Tarraco, although it became capital of Hispania Carthagininsis in the Diocletianic provincial reforms. Excavations have revealed the amphitheatre, theatre, streets, private houses, and the late Roman walls. It was famous for its *silver-mines (which brought the Roman treasury a daily revenue of 2,500 drachmae in the mid-2nd cent. bce), fish-pickle (see fishing), and esparto grass.

Article

Casilinum  

Edward Togo Salmon

Town in *Campania, where the *via Appia and *via Latina met and crossed the Volturnus: modern Capua (a name it acquired in 856 ce when the inhabitants of nearby ancient *Capua, fleeing the Saracens, settled here). Casilinum resolutely resisted, but finally fell to *Hannibal. It has always been a strategic keypoint.

Article

Casinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Casinum (mod. Cassino), on the *via Latina. An *Oscan, *Volscian, Samnite (see samnium), and, from the late 4th cent. bce, Roman city (sacked by Hannibal in 208 bce), it became a flourishing *municipium. The Ummidii were a prominent local family. It was destroyed by the *Lombards in the 6th cent.

Article

Caspian Sea  

Eric Herbert Warmington

Caspian Sea (Κασπία θάλασσα, also called ‘Hyrcanian’ from Hyrcania, mod. Gurgan, the area at its SE corner). This large and brackish inland water was correctly described by Herodotus (1. 202) as a lake. In spite of partial exploration by Greeks, all subsequent writers thought that the *Oxus and *Jaxartes flowed into it; many believed that it was joined to the Black Sea (by the river Phasis), or to the sea of Azov; and the prevalent view was that a channel linked it with a not far distant northern Ocean. The first of these opinions may have had apparent support from the remains of a prehistoric channel between the Caspian and the Aral Sea, and the last may have been prompted by a vague knowledge of the Volga. About 285 bce*Patrocles sailed up both sides on behalf of the *Seleucids, but, failing to reach the north end, gave currency to the belief that one could sail from the Caspian to India by the northern Ocean. Renewed exploration after the reign of Tiberius led to the rediscovery of the Volga (‘Rha’ in Ptolemy), and *Ptolemy (4) restated the truth that the Caspian is a lake, though he got its shape wrong.

Article

Cassope  

W. M. Murray

Cassope, main city of the Cassopaeans, a Thesprotian people (see thesproti) who broke away around 400 bce to become an independent tribal state. An Epidaurian inscription (see epidaurus) attests to the city's existence by the mid-4th cent., although it was probably not fortified this early. A member of the Epirote Alliance (343/2–232) and the League of *Epirus (232–168), Cassope supported *Perseus (2) against the Romans and suffered reprisals when the Romans punished Epirus following his defeat (168). Never totally abandoned, the city continued in existence until 31 bce when its inhabitants participated in the synoecism of *Nicopolis (3). Well-preserved remains of the city can be found above modern Kamarina and include a 3-km. (1 3/4-mi.) circuit wall, an agora, two theatres, a katagōgion, or ‘guest house’, and numerous Hellenistic houses.

Article

Castra Regina  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Castra Regina (mod. Regensburg; or, from its Celtic name of Rataspona, Ratisbon), a Flavian military station in *Raetia, facing the confluences of the Regen and the Naab with the Danube (*Danuvius). Its auxiliary garrison was, under Marcus Aurelius, replaced by Legio III Italica, but Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum) remained the provincial capital.