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Simon J. Keay

A major city and mint of the Oretani situated on the upper Guadalquivir (Baetis). It was a key centre during the Hannibalic War on account of its geographical situation and *silver-mines. It lay within Further Spain (in the Saltus Castulonensis), and exploitation of its mines by Rome probably began in the later 2nd cent. bce.



Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Catana (Κατάνη, Lat. Catina, mod. Catania), founded from *Naxos (2) in 729 bce, lies on the sea at the SE side of Mt. Aetna; to the south and west stretches the fertile Catania plain, coveted by the Syracusans, whose superior power dominated Catana for much of its history. Its lawgiver *Charondas was its most famous citizen in its early period. *Hieron (1) I removed the Catanaeans to Leontini and renamed the city Aetna, repeopling it with Doric mercenaries. In 461 these were expelled and the old name restored. The Athenians used Catana as a base in 415–413. Captured by *Dionysius (1) I in 403, it from then on formed part of the Syracusan empire, with brief intervals of independence or subjection to *Carthage. After 263, when the Romans captured it, it became a civitas decumana, and it flourished under the Roman republic (Cic. 2 Verr.



David C. Braund

A mountain range from the Black (*Euxine) Sea to the *Caspian. The Main Caucasus lies to the north, the Lesser Caucasus to the south: they are joined by the Likhi mountains which separate *Colchis and Transcaucasian *Iberia (2). Classical writers are regularly confused about the location of the Caucasus range, which is variously amalgamated with the Urals or the Hindu Kush. However, the significance of its passes was recognized as early as Herodotus, but their locations and names remained controversial even after *Pompey's Transcaucasian adventure in 65 bce and recurrent Roman military and diplomatic activity in the region thereafter (e.g. Plin. HN 6. 30–40; but cf. IG Rom. 1. 192). In the Graeco-Roman world, the Caucasus was best known as the site of *Prometheus’ sufferings, which made it something of a tourist attraction.


Caudine Forks  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

The narrow defile where a Roman army was trapped by, and surrendered to, Gavius *Pontius321 bce (Livy 9. 2–6). It lay in the territory of the Caudini Samnites, somewhere between *Capua and *Beneventum, but cannot be certainly identified. The Arienzo–Arpaia valley, the traditional site, contains the significantly named hamlet Forchia, but seems too small; an objection that applies also to the valley between S.



H. Kathryn Lomas

7th-cent. bce*Achaean, possibly Crotoniate (see croton), colony. It flourished in the 6th cent. but was sacked by *Dionysius (1) I in 387 and became a Locrian dependency (see locri epizephyrii). Independence was restored by *Dionysius (2) II but it suffered *Oscan and Hannibalic raids (see hannibal), and was deserted by the 1st cent.



Simon Hornblower

Caunus (mod. Dalyan), city in south-eastern *Caria, close to *Lycia. It was generally reckoned to be Carian, though *Herodotus (1) (1. 176. 3) says the Caunians imitated the Lycians in most respects, and the local script of Caunus is not quite like Carian (L. Robert, Hellenica 8 (1950), 20–1; cf. Hdt. 1. 172). It was captured by Harpagus for Persia in the 6th cent. bce (Hdt. 1. 176. 3), tributary to Athens in the 5th (see delian league), and within the sphere of influence of *Hecatomnus and his son *Mausolus (SEG 12. 470–1) in the 4th. Thereafter it can be considered a Greek city. It was controlled by various of the Hellenistic kings until Rhodes bought it for 200 talents from Ptolemaic Egypt in c.191 (Polyb. 30. 31. 6 with Walbank, HCP) so that it became ‘the main city of the Rhodian Peraea’ (Walbank on Polyb. 30. 5. 11; for the *Peraeasee rhodes).


Cayster River  

Marijana Ricl

The Cayster River flows through Southern Lydia and empties into the Aegean Sea NW of Ephesus. The lower part of its fertile valley belonged to Ephesus in the Hellenistic and Roman period, as is amply attested by inscriptions. A substantial part of this region belonged to Ephesian Artemis. East of ancient Thyaira (modern Tire) began the Caystrian plain known for its urban centres Hypaipa and Dios Hieron. Hypaipa and its venerable sanctuary of Persian Artemis often feature in ancient literary and documentary sources. The Cilbian plain was the easternmost and the least urbanized part of the valley, no less fertile and populated than the rest. The prevalent type of community throughout the valley were village settlements (komai/katoikiai) or varying size and population.The Cayster River (modern Küçük Menderes) flows through southern Lydia for about 120 km in a valley rarely more than 20 km wide: it is widest between Gülüce (ancient Hypaipa) and Konaklı, situated between the Tmolos Mt. (mod. Bozdağ) on the north (100 km long, 2157 m high) and the Messogis (mod. Aydın Dağları, .



John Salmon

Cenchreae (mod. Kechries), eastern port of *Corinth on the Saronic Gulf. Natural protection was increased by moles of uncertain date. Little Classical or earlier has been recovered, but the place was fortified perhaps as early as 480 bce. Excavations show that major development (quays, warehouses) occurred in the 1st cent. ce following Corinth's refoundation as a colonia.



Simon Hornblower

*Sikel town between *Catana and Enna in east *Sicily, mentioned as Kentoripa by Thucydides (2) (6. 94. 3, cf. 7. 32) and as having been brought over to the Athenians ‘by agreement’ in the campaigning of 414 bce. An inscription of the 2nd or 1st cent. bce asserts kinship between Centuripe, Rome and *Lanuvium: SEG 42.



R. W. V. Catling

An island (131 sq. km.: 50 sq. mi.) in the NW *Cyclades. A final neolithic settlement existed at Kephala. Agia Irini, a fortified town in the north-west, was occupied throughout the bronze age. From c.2000–1500 bce Minoan influences increased, reflecting interest in the silver and copper at *Laurium in Attica. To this period belongs a series of large terracotta female figures from a temple which survived the town's decline after c.1500 bce and was still visited in the Hellenistic period. The four Classical cities (Iulis, Coressia, Carthaea, Poeessa) were *Ionian foundations of c.900 bce. Though independent city-states, they frequently acted in common and at times had a federal organization (see federal states). Ceos prospered in the late 6th and early 5th cents.; temples at Carthaea and Coressia and a hestiatorion (dining-room) on *Delos were built, Cean athletes competed at Panhellenic festivals, and *Simonides and *Bacchylides flourished.



W. M. Murray

The largest of the western Greek islands, located between *Leucas and *Zacynthus, due west of the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf. Inhabited as early as the neolithic period, Cephallenia preserves many Mycenaean tombs, and may have avoided the destructions at the end of the bronze age if one may trust an unbroken ceramic tradition. Many identify the island with Same or Dulichium of *Homer's poetry, although the recent discovery of a large *tholos near Poros may hint that this formed the most important part of Odysseus’ realm. The possibility that the island's northwest peninsula, Paliki, was once separated from Cephallenia by a narrow, sea-filled channel leads some to interpret Paliki as Homeric Ithaca, Cephallenia as Same, and modern Ithaca as Doulichion. In historical times, however, the island was a tetrapolis, containing the four states of Same, Pale, Crane, and Proni (near mod. Sami, Lixouri, Argostoli, and Poros). Men from the island fought in the *Persian and *Peloponnesian Wars, joined the *Second Athenian Confederacy, and endured the attacks of *Philip (3) V and the Romans.



Charles William John Eliot and Robin Osborne

Attic *deme north-east of Athens at modern Kephisia. It was included in *Philochorus’ list of twelve townships united by *Theseus (Philochorus, FGrH 328 F 94). Archaeological finds include late geometric pottery, a Classical deme decree honouring a man responsible for improving the *palaestra in association with which it was found, and many Roman remains. Cool and shady Cephisia became a fashionable resort in the Roman imperial period, and *Herodes Atticus had a villa here, celebrated in literature (Gell.



Victor Ehrenberg, John Buckler, and Antony Spawforth

Cephissus (Κηφισός), the name of several rivers, the best known being the *Attic and the *Boeotian Cephissus. The Attic Cephissus was the main river of the plain of Athens, gathering all sources and streams of the mountains around, and emptying itself into the bay of Phaleron; its water, divided into many streams, irrigated the plain west of Athens (cf. Soph. OC 685); its clay-bed provided the material for Athenian *pottery (Greek). The Boeotian Cephissus springs from the northern Parnassus, near Lilaea, and waters the plains of *Phocis and northern *Boeotia, debouching into the lake *Copais. Both were worshipped as gods and furnished with genealogies; the former's cult-statue showed him as a man with bull's horns (Ael. VH 2. 33).



John Buckler

City in NW *Boeotia commanding the small *Cephissus plain bordering *Phocis. Remains include a small theatre cut into the slopes of Petrachos and the restored Lion Monument above the polyandreion of the Theban dead who fell at the battle there (see chaeronea, battles of) in 338 bce.



Alexander John Graham and Stephen Mitchell

Megarian colony founded in 685 bce (so Euseb. Chron.) on the Asiatic side of the *Bosporus (1) opposite Byzantium (mod. Kadıköy). It was called the city of the blind (Hdt. 4. 144) because its founders missed the uncolonized site of *Byzantium, with which it was subsequently closely linked. Apart from stray tombs few ancient remains have survived.



Charles Farwell Edson and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Chalcidice, the triple peninsula projecting from Macedonia, was inhabited originally by the Sithonians (Strabo 7, fr. 10), a branch of Edonian Thracians. Their name survived in ‘Sithonia’, the central promontory between the western ‘Pallene’ and the eastern ‘Acte’. By the early 7th cent. bce the Bottiaei, displaced by the Argead Macedonians from the plain west of the Thermaic Gulf, ‘Bottiaea’ or ‘Emathia’, occupied the NW portion of the peninsula, thereafter known as Bottice. The first Greek colonists from *Chalcis in the 8th cent. dispossessed the Sithonians and founded around 30 settlements, perhaps giving the name ‘Chalcidice’ to the entire peninsula. Eretria founded colonies, e.g. at Dicaea and Neapolis; *Andros at Sane, *Acanthus, and *Stagira; and *Corinth at *Potidaea on the narrow isthmus of Pallene around 600 bce. The Pallene promontory also contained *Mende and *Scione.Followers perforce of *Xerxes, the cities joined the *Delian League and became subjects of imperial Athens.



William Allison Laidlaw, John Boardman, Simon Hornblower, and Antony Spawforth

The chief city of *Euboea throughout antiquity, controlling the narrowest part of the Euripus channel and (after 411 bce) a bridge to the mainland. In the 8th cent. bce Chalcis, with its neighbour *Eretria, planted colonies in *Italy and *Sicily; its precise role in the Syrian emporion of *Al Mina is debated. In the later 8th cent. bce it disputed with Eretria possession of the Lelantine plain, which lay between them (see greece (prehistory and history); Lefkandi). In the 7th cent. colonies were sent to the north Aegean (Thuc. 4. 110. 1 for ‘Chalkidic’ *Torone). A centre of trade and manufacture, Chalcis was famous for its metalwork. In 506 it was compelled to cede part of its plain to Athenian cleruchs (see cleruchy). The city made common cause, however, with Athens during the invasion of *Xerxes. It led a revolt of Euboea against Athens (446) but was defeated (cf.


changing landscapes, human impact on  

John Bintliff

The Classical world witnessed many forms of physical landscape change due to long-term and short-term geological and climatological processes. There have also been alterations to the land surface resulting from an interaction between human impact and these natural factors. Cyclical changes in land use, agricultural technology, economy, and politics have continually transformed the rural landscapes of the Mediterranean and the wider Classical world and their mapping, in turn, can shed light on fundamental aspects of ancient society that are not always documented in Classical texts.

As with natural causes of landscape change (see changing landscapes, natural causes of), a useful approach is offered by the chronological framework developed by French historian Fernand Braudel, who envisaged the Mediterranean past as created through the interaction of dynamic forces operating in parallel but on different wavelengths of time: the long term (up to as much as thousands or millions of years, not at all in the awareness of past human agents); the medium term (centuries or more, not clearly cognisant to contemporaries); and the short term (observable within a human lifetime or less).


changing landscapes, natural causes of  

John Bintliff

The classical world witnessed many forms of landscape change in its physical geography, mostly due to longer-term geological and climatological processes, whilst only a minority were due purely to human action. The physical environment of Greek and Roman societies saw alterations through earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, sea-level fluctuations, erosion, and alluviation.

Already in Greek antiquity, Plato (Critias iii) observed how the Aegean physical landscape was being worn down over time as erosion from the uplands filled the lowland plains. Indeed, the Mediterranean region is amongst the most highly erodible in the world.1 However, scientific research in the field known as geoarchaeology has revealed a more complex picture than a continuous degradation of the ancient countryside.2

To uncover a more realistic picture of Mediterranean landscape change, the element of timescales proves to be central, and here the framework developed by the French historian Fernand Braudel3 provides the appropriate methodology. Braudel envisaged the Mediterranean past as created through the interaction of dynamic forces operating in parallel but on different “wavelengths” of time: the Short Term (observable within a human lifetime or less), the Medium Term (centuries or more, not clearly cognisant to contemporaries), and the Long Term (up to as much as thousands or millions of years, not at all in the awareness of past human agents).



Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Name of a tribal state (ἁ πόλις ἁ τῶν Χαόνων) in north *Epirus which extended from the Dexari, probably near Berat (FGrH 1 F 103), to the river Kalamas (ancient Thyamis) in the 6th cent. bce but was eaten into later by the *Illyrii and the *Thesproti.