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Article

Sindus  

Simon Hornblower

Archaeologically important (late Archaic and Classical) cemetery site near Thessaloniki (ancient *Thessalonica) in north Greece. The settlement was basically Thracian (see Thrace) but there is also Greek and Persian influence. The finds are in Thessaloniki Museum.

Article

Simon Hornblower

A word found in Spartan contexts, apparently to describe a message written on leather wrapped round a stick. The view that it was used for secret messages is found in late writers (Plut.Lys. 19; Gell. 17. 9) but not in e.g. *Thucydides (2) on the one occasion that he uses the word (1. 131. 1), or in *Xenophon (1), and has been shown to be highly unlikely.

Article

John F. Lazenby

The sling is possibly depicted on the silver ‘Siege Rhyton’ from Shaft Grave IV at *Mycenae, and sling-bullets were found at *Knossos; the earliest literary reference may be in the Iliad (13. 716). Thereafter there is a long gap until we meet them in *Thucydides (2)'s account of the *Peloponnesian War: even *Xerxes' army contained no slingers, if we are to believe Herodotus. Thucydides mentions the Acarnanians (see acarnania) as expert slingers in 429 bce (2. 81. 8–9), and in 424 the Boeotians (see boeotia) sent for slingers from Malis before their assault on the Athenian fort at *Delion (4. 100. 1). By 415, at latest, the Rhodians (see rhodes) were known as expert slingers, and the Athenians took 700 of them to *Sicily (Thuc. 6. 43. 2); even Rhodians who had not originally enlisted as slingers proved expert with the weapon during the retreat of the 10,000 (Xen.

Article

Antony Spawforth

The settlement developed at the northern end of the central plain of *Laconia on land sloping eastwards to the marshy banks (hence ‘Limnae’: see below) of the river Eurotas and punctuated with low hills, one the so-called acropolis. Relating the extensive site (just under 209 ha. within the Hellenistic city-wall) to the description of *Pausanias (3) is bedevilled by failure so far to locate the *agora (despite much speculation). The only major public buildings of Classical date firmly identified so far are the sanctuaries of *Artemis Orthia (‘Limnaeum’, ‘Artemisium’) on the west bank of the river, and of *Athena Chalcioecus (‘Bronze House’) on the acropolis. By their modesty (e.g. small, non-peripteral *temples), both support the claim of *Thucydides (2) (1. 10. 2) that Sparta in its heyday lacked architecture commensurate with its power, although the Persian Stoa, begun with *Persian Wars*booty, impressed later generations: Paus.

Article

stadium  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Stadium (Greek στάδιον), running track, about 200 m. long (the term also signifies a comparable unit of linear measurement i.e. a ‘stade’; see measures). Athletic activity often antedates the surviving stadia (e.g. at *Nemea); presumably any area of flat ground was used. One of the earliest definable stadia, that in the sanctuary of *Poseidon at *Isthmia, consists simply of a starting gate on the relatively level ground of the sanctuary, with a bank raised artificially to one side for spectators. The architectural development of stadia can be seen by the 4th cent. bce with the running track and seats to one or, preferably, either side. Early examples may have both ends straight or near straight (*Olympia, *Epidaurus). Later the end is semicircular. Double races (the diaulos) and other long-distance races, however, started at a straight starting line at this closed end. This definitive form is still used in structures of the Roman period. One of the first examples is that at Nemea (c.

Article

stoa  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The name stoa is applied to various types of building, comprising essentially an open colonnade, generally in the Doric order (see orders, architectural), and a roof over the space to a rear wall.There are many possible elaborations of this simplest type. An interior colonnade may be added, often of Ionic columns rather than the outer Doric, supporting the ridge of the roof. This gives more usable space (the Ionic columns being at double the exterior interval to minimize obstruction). Rooms may be added, behind the wall.In plan, they may be elaborated by construction of additional wings, to give ▢ and ⊓ shaped structures, or completely surrounding a courtyard. Most are single storey. One of the first stoas to have an additional storey is that constructed about 300 bce at *Perachora, where ground space is severely limited; the upper colonnade is Ionic, a distinction which becomes normal in two-storey stoas. See also aegae.

Article

Karim Arafat

Known from over 50 literary testimonia, and excavated from 1981, it lies in the NW part of the Athenian Agora; see athens, topography. It measures 12.5 by c.36 m., made of various limestones, with Doric exterior columns, and Ionic interior columns with marble capitals (see orders, architectural), and is finely jointed. It dates from c.475–450, part of the Cimonian improvement of the area; see cimon. The name ‘Poecile’ (first attested in the 4th cent.), derived from the panel paintings it housed. Pausanias (1. 15. 1–4) gives the fullest account, mentioning scenes of the Athenians arrayed against the Spartans at Oenoe near *Argos (1) (perhaps an error for one of the *Attic*demes called Oenoe and preparations for Marathon; see marathon, battle of), the Amazonomachy, Greeks at Troy, and the battle of *Marathon. Sources name the painters as *Micon, *Polygnotus, and *Panaenus.

Article

Stobi  

John Wilkes

Stobi, a strategically located settlement of Paeonia (see macedonia) at the confluence of the Axius (Vardar) and Erigon (Crna Reka), was a Macedonian stronghold by the 2nd cent. bce and in the Roman period flourished as a *municipium; it was later promoted to colonia (see colonization, roman) and enjoyed the status of ius Italicum (Dig.

Article

Robert J. Hopper and Paul C. Millett

Symbolon, originally a physical object, intended as a material indication of identification or agreement. What may have begun as a private practice as a reminder of xenia or ritualized friendship (see friendship, ritualized; matching ‘tallies’ between individuals: Pl.Symp. 191d) came to have wider ramifications. A gold cup served as a symbolon between the Persian king and a 5th-cent. Athenian (Lys. 19. 25); in this case, the symbolon was transferable, giving its possessor command over goods and money all over *Asia Minor (or so it was claimed). At an inter-state level, symbola are mentioned in a mid-4th-cent. treaty between Athens and Strato, king of *Sidon (IG 22. 141 (Tod 139), line 19). Whereas the cognate term symbolaion came to mean an agreement or contract (e.g. over a loan), symbola typically referred to inter-state agreements, dealing with legal relations between individuals of different states, or between a state and an individual. To those travelling abroad, symbola offered protection from sylē (summary seizure of property) and other forms of harassment (as exemplified by the terms of the treaty between Oeanthea and Chaleion from c.

Article

Oswyn Murray

Commensality in Greece was focused both on the public civic or sacrificial meal and on the activities of smaller exclusive groups. The warrior feast was already central to the Homeric image of society (see homer); under the influence of the near east in the period 750–650 bce more complex rituals of pleasure arose. The time of ‘drinking together’ (symposion) was separated from the meal before it (deipnon) and became the main focus of attention. The male participants wore garlands (see crowns and wreaths), and libations and prayers began and ended the proceedings. The Greeks adopted the practice of reclining on the left elbow (one or two to a couch); from this evolved a characteristic shape of room, and a standard size for the drinking group of between fourteen and thirty: the andrōn or men's room was square, arranged with a door off centre to fit usually seven or fifteen couches; larger sizes (though known) tended to destroy the unity of sympotic space. Many such rooms have been recognized archaeologically, but the best representation is the painted Tomb of the Diver at *Paestum.

Article

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster

Tauriscus (2) (1st cent. bce) sculptor, son of Artemidorus, of Tralles. Works (owned by C. *Asinius Pollio): 1. Hermerotes, probably a pair of *herms with bodies and heads of Erotes (see eros). 2. (with his brother, Apollonius) Marble group from Rhodes of Zethus, *Amphion, Dirke, and the bull, inspired by a painting and by earlier sculpture.

Article

Tegea  

James Roy

Tegea, a *polis of SE *Arcadia situated in a high upland basin crossed by important routes to *Argos(1), Sparta, and SW and E. Arcadia. The polis was formed from nine local communities, but when an urban centre was created (before the later 5th cent. bce) is unknown. Few traces of the town survive. Outside it there was, however, an important cult of *Athena Alea; its site has yielded finds from Mycenaean times onwards (see mycenaean civilization), and there was a cult centre at least from the 8th cent.; current excavation has found a Geometric temple; and the later Classical temple, burnt down in 395, was magnificently replaced by *Scopas. Around 550 Tegea was compelled by its southern neighbour Sparta to become an ally, and remained so, despite occasional reaction against Sparta, till *Leuctra. Tegea none the less provided asylum for several prominent Spartan exiles. It was also a bitter rival of its northern neighbour *Mantinea.

Article

temple  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The Greek temple was the house of the god, whose image it contained, usually placed so that at the annual festival it could watch through the open door the burning of the sacrifice at the altar which stood outside (see statues, cult of). It was not a congregational building, the worshippers instead gathering round the altar in the open air, where they would be given the meat of the victims to consume (see sacrifice, greek). *Orientation was generally towards the east, and often towards that point on the skyline where (allowing for the vagaries of ancient Greek calendars) the sun rose on the day of the festival. The temple also served as a repository for the property of the god, especially the more valuable possessions of gold and silver *plate (see votive offerings).The core of the temple is the cella, a rectangular room whose side walls are prolonged beyond one end to form a porch, either with columns between them (in antis) or in a row across the front (prostyle). More prestigious temples surround this with an external colonnade (and are described as peripteral). They generally duplicate the porch with a corresponding prolongation of the walls at the rear of the cella, without, however, making another doorway into the cella (the opisthodomus, or false porch).

Article

Dorothy Burr Thompson and Michael Vickers

The term properly includes all objects made of fired clay; commonly, pots and household vessels are treated separately. Fabricants (κοροπλάθοι, κοροπλάσται) were originally potters; later they were specialists who occasionally inscribed workshop or personal names. Earlier terracottas were modelled free-hand; after the 6th cent. bce they were usually made in moulds. Decoration at first resembled that of pots; from the 6th cent. figurative work was covered with a white slip (perhaps to evoke ivory?) and details painted. The relative status of terracotta was low; cf. *Apollonius(12) of Tyana who preferred ‘to find an image of gold and ivory in a small shrine, than a big shrine with nothing but a rubbishy terracotta thing in it’ (Philostr.VA 5. 2).Terracotta was used for: *sarcophagi (*Crete, *Clazomenae, Etruria; see etruscans), ash-urns (Etruria), *altars (arulae), incense burners (thymiatēria.

Article

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The Greek theatre consisted essentially of the orchestra, the flat dancing-place for the choral song and dance out of which grew tragedy and comedy; and the auditorium (the theatron proper, Latin cavea), normally a convenient slope on which spectators could sit or stand. In early theatres wooden seating was constructed, though it is not clear how this was done. Seats were sometimes cut in the rock; by the time theatres reached a more definitive form, in the 4th cent. bce, seats consisted of stone benches of simple form, rising in tiers. These were curved, reflecting the normal circular shape of the orchestra. A rectangular orchestra survives at the well-preserved theatre at *Thoricus, partly faced by seats in a straight line, curving only at the ends. The orchestra consisted of hard earth—paving was not introduced till Roman times. The skēnē (tent or hut) was in origin a simple structure for the convenience of the performers, which could also form a background for the plays. In the course of the 5th cent. it became a more solid building, ultimately acquiring a handsome architectural form sometimes with projecting wings. The fully developed auditorium was wherever possible rather more than a semicircle in plan, opening out a little at the outer ends, where the line of seats was drawn on a slightly greater radius. The outer sectors required embankments and solid retaining walls, while the inner was hollowed out of the hillside; there were no elaborate substructures as in Roman theatres. The auditorium did not link up with the skēnē, except perhaps by means of light gateways, and the intervening passages on either side were called parodoi.

Article

J. Richard Green

The visual element in Greek theatre is demonstrably strong from the time of the earliest formal drama; the importance accorded to stage production may be judged from *Aristophanes(1)'s *parodies of tragic performances in his comedies, or indeed from the whole development of theatre as a genre in the 5th and 4th centsuries bce; if confirmation were needed, it would come from the reservations *Aristotle expresses about production as opposed to composition in his lectures on composition in the Poetics (1450b17–20; 1453b1 ff.).Theatres in antiquity were constantly modified and rebuilt, and the surviving remains give few clear clues to the nature of the theatrical space available to the Classical dramatists of the 5th cent. In the Theatre of Dionysus at Athens, the wall of conglomerate stone (H, with its projection T), which was traditionally taken as belonging to the stage building of the later 5th century, is now thought by some to date to the mid-4th. (See theatres (greek and roman).

Article

Andrew F. Stewart

Theodorus (1), Samian architect (see samos), sculptor, and metalworker, active c.550–520 bce. He made two massive silver craters dedicated by *Croesus at *Delphi, *Polycrates (1)'s famous ring, and a golden vine eventually owned by *Darius I (Hdt. 1. 51, 3. 41, 7. 27). He also built the ‘Scias’ at Sparta (apparently an assembly-hall), and assisted in the construction of the *Heraion at Samos (upon which he wrote a book) and the Ephesian Artemisium (Vitr. 7 pref. 12; Plin.HN 36. 95; see ephesus). He reportedly invented the line, rule, lathe, and lever, and made advances in bronze-casting (Plin. HN 7. 198; 35. 152; 36. 90; Paus. 10. 38. 6 f.). His bronze self-portrait was renowned for its realism, and showed him holding a file and a tiny chariot-and-four; the latter was exhibited at *Praeneste in *Pliny(1)'s time (HN 34.

Article

tholos  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

In classical architecture a tholos is a circular building. Examples include that on the west side of the Athenian Agora (otherwise referred to as the Skias, or parasol, from the shape of its roof; see athens, topography). Built about 470 bce, it consisted of a circular drum with a conical roof supported by internal wooden posts on an elliptical plan. It was used as a dining hall for the *prytaneis. The tholos in the sanctuary of Athena Pronaea at *Delphi, dating to c.375 bce, had a peristyle of twenty Doric columns (see orders, architectural). Its function is uncertain. The later tholos (properly called the Thymele) at *Epidaurus, with a peristyle of twenty-six Doric columns, may have been the cenotaph of *Asclepius—while the Ionic Philippeum at *Olympia, erected by *Alexander(3) the Great, was a memorial to his father (see philip (1) ii).

Article

John Ellis Jones

Thoricus, coastal *deme of SE *Attica, now a bare twin-peaked hill (Velatouri) north of modern Laurion. In legend, one of King *Cecrops' twelve Attic townships, home of the hunter king *Cephalus, and landing-place of *Demeter, travelling from *Crete to *Eleusis. An important centre of the Classical silver-mine industry, it became a ghost-town by the 1st cent. ce (partly reoccupied in 5th/6th cent. ce). Excavated remains include, on the higher slopes, five Helladic tombs, Geometric graves and houses, and, lower down, extensive remains of the Archaic–Classical town: a theatre of unusual plan (see theatres (greek and roman), structure; theatre staging, greek), adjacent temple-foundations, tombs, houses, ore-washeries (one restored) and a large mine-gallery (with early bronze to later Roman sherds), and an ‘industrial quarter’ of streets, houses and washeries, an outlying tower, and a silted-over temple, perhaps Demeter's. A remarkable inscription (Ant.

Article

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster and Karim Arafat

Timanthes (late 5th cent. bce), painter, of Cythnus, or Sicyon. Famed for ingenium (‘imaginative ingenuity’). His ‘sacrifice of Iphigenia’ showed degrees of grief culminating in the veiled Agamemnon. He indicated the Cyclops’ size by satyrs measuring his thumb. He defeated *Parrhasius at Samos in a competition for a painting of Ajax and the arms of Odysseus. See painting, greek.