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Magnesia (1) ad Maeandrum  

William Moir Calder, John Manuel Cook, and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Magnesia (1) ad Maeandrum, a city of Ionia (see Ionians) on a tributary of the *Maeander, inland from Ephesus. Colonized by the Magnesians (see Magnetes), it and *Magnesia (2) ad Sipylum both commanded rich inland valleys. Successively subject to *Lydia and *Persia, it was presented by Artaxerxes I to *Themistocles, whose female relatives were priestesses of the local goddess *Artemis Leucophryene. The temple (a work of *Hermogenes(1)), together with public buildings of the city, which was refounded by the sanctuary in 399 bce, has been excavated; the stoa in the agora yielded an important archive of Hellenistic inscriptions. Like *Magnesia (2) ad Sipylum it sided with Rome against *Mithradates VI, and was made a civitas libera (*free city) by *Sulla when he reorganized the province of *Asia.


Magnesia (2) ad Sipylum  

Magnesia (2) ad Sipylum, a city of *Lydia lying in the fertile *Hermus valley at the point where the roads from the interior and the Propontis converge on the way to Smyrna; it was the scene of the decisive battle between *Antiochus (3) III and the Scipios in January 189 bce (IACP no.



Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman

(μάγος, OP maguš) Only *Herodotus(1) (1. 101) calls the magi a Median tribe (see Media); the *Bisitun inscription (Bab.) identifies the makuš Gaumāta as a Mede. Pre-Hellenistic Greek tradition considers magi as reciters of theogonies, *dream-interpreters, diviners, royal educators, advisers, and ritual specialists (i.a. Hdt. 1. 132; Pl. Alc. 122a; Plut. Artax. 3; Strabo 15. 1. 68, 3. 15). They may have been (hereditary) experts in oral tradition and traditional lore, including sacrifice. In the *Persepolis Fortification texts they perform various sacrifices, i.a. for Napiriša (originally Elamite), and bear various designations; other *cuneiform sources mention them in non-religious contexts. The Avesta does not mention magi. Later Greek tradition frequently uses the term for specialists in exotic wisdom, astrology, and sorcery. See magic; religion, Persian.


Manetho, fl. 280 BCE  

Alan Brian Lloyd and Neil Hopkinson

Manetho (fl. 280 bce), Egyptian high priest at Heliopolis in the early Ptolemaic period, wrote a history of Egypt in three books (Aigyptiaka) from mythical times to 342. The human history was divided into 30 human dynasties (a 31st was added by a later hand) which still form the framework for ancient Egyptian chronology. The original, which contained serious errors and omissions, is lost and the fragments preserved in Christian and Jewish writers are frequently badly corrupted. Nevertheless, his importance in the preservation of Egyptian historical tradition is great, and his influence has been generally benign.There also exist under the name of Manetho six books of didactic hexameters on *astrology entitled Ἀποτελεσματικά (‘Forecasts’). Probably they were composed between the 2nd and 3rd cents. ce. The sole extant MS transmits them in confused order: books 2, 3, and 6 are together a complete poem, and book 4 is another; books 1 and 5 are heterogeneous fragments. The author of the long poem gives his own horoscope (6. 738–50), from which it can be calculated that he was born in ce 80.



John F. Matthews

A developed form of *Gnosticism founded by the Syriac-speaking Babylonian Mani (ce 216–76). At first influenced by a baptismal Gnostic sect such as the Mandaeans (some of whose hymns the Manichees used), he left the sect at the age of 24, after two visions convinced him that he was a manifestation of the Paraclete promised by Jesus. After visiting India he returned to the *Sasanid empire, where he enjoyed friendly relations with the Sasanian royal family and aristocracy including King *Sapor I; but Mazdean opposition under Bahram I led to his execution. A systematic catechism (Kephalaia), preserved in Coptic, was edited in his name. His doctrine was a religion of redemption in which dualistic myth provided a rationale for an ascetic ethic. A precosmic invasion of the realm of light by the forces of darkness had resulted in the present intermingling of good and evil, the divine substance being imprisoned in matter. In Jesus the Son of God came to save his own soul, lost in Adam. The Elect, to whom all worldly occupations and possessions were forbidden, participated in redemption, and were destined for deliverance from transmigration. The community also included an inferior order of Hearers who by keeping simple moral rules could hope for rebirth as one of the Elect.



Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Marakanda (mod. Samarkand), chief town of Achaemenid Sogdiana, in the valley of the river Zarafshan, which was the base of *Alexander(3) the Great's tough campaigns in the region. Quintus *Curtius Rufus (7. 6. 10) refers to the existence of a fortified citadel, now identified by excavation, dominating a walled city of 70 stades (roughly 13 km. or 8 miles), while its designation as the ‘royal residence of the region’ (Arr.Anab. 3. 30. 6) implies the existence of an Achaemenid *palace there. Its continued occupation under the *Seleucids is reflected in the archaeological site of Afrasiab (north-east of modern Samarkand), where Hellenistic pottery from levels II–III was initially described as ‘Greek–Bactrian’. The exact date of the Hellenistic remains—including typical Greek pottery shapes, building techniques similar to those at *Ai Khanoum, a coin of *Antiochus (2) II, and a short Greek inscription on a vase fragment—now seems likely to be earlier, indicating the probable existence of a Seleucid colony at this nodal point for ancient trade routes and strategic control of the region.



Andrew Robert Burn and Simon Hornblower

Mardonius, nephew and son-in-law of *Darius I of Persia, took over command in Ionia c.492 bce, immediately after the *Ionian Revolt, and removed one major cause of discontent by abolishing government through ‘tyrants’ (see tyranny) and permitting *democracies (Hdt. 6. 43). He may have served during the revolt, under *Datis at Lindus (FGrH 532 (1)). He then restored Persian authority in southern Thrace, despite storm damage to his fleet off Mt. *Athos, and being himself wounded by the Brygians. Herodotus makes him the moving spirit of Xerxes' invasion. Left in command in Greece after the battle of *Salamis, he vainly attempted to detach Athens from the Greek alliance by offers of favourable terms. Withdrawing from Attica in 479 in face of the Greek land-forces, he gave battle (perhaps reluctantly) near Plataea and was defeated and killed (see Persian Wars; Plataea, battle of).



Stephanie Dalley

Mari is the name of a kingdom and city north of Abu Kemal in *Syria on the right bank of the *Euphrates, occupied from protodynastic times (c.3000 bce) until the *Seleucid period. An early dynasty there is named in the Sumerian king-list as tenth after the Flood. Some third millennium inscriptions and huge archives from the early second millennium have been excavated in two superimposed palaces by French teams led by A. Parrot and then J. Margueron, from 1933 onwards.



Romila Thapar

The first major dynasty ruling virtually the entire Indo-Pakistan subcontinent from c.324/21–185/80 bce. Established by Chandragupta (see Sandracottus) with the assistance of Chanakya/Kautilya, the establishment of empire involved overthrowing the existing Nanda dynasty. Chandragupta consolidated the kingdom north of the Narmada. *Seleucus(1) I Nicator ceded territory to him and is said to have sent *Megasthenes to his court. Chandragupta was succeeded c.300/297 by Bindusara, who is believed to have extended the boundaries southwards into the peninsula. Both rulers received envoys and gifts from the *Seleucids and the Ptolemies (see Ptolemy (1)). Links with Hellenistic kings were furthered in the reign of the next king, *Ashoka, the date of whose succession—either 272 or 268—is debated, since the Buddhist chronicles of Sri Lanka mention a four-year interregnum on the death of Bindusara occasioned by rivalries over the succession. The short-lived but extensive empire was governed from the capital at Pataliputra (see Palibothra).


Mazaeus, c. 385–328 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Mazaeus (c. 385–328 bce), Persian noble, governed *Cilicia and *Syria under *Artaxerxes (3) III and *Darius III. After *Issus (333) he vacated his satrapy and held high command at *Gaugamela (331), where he came close to breaking *Alexander(3) the Great's left.



Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amélie Kuhrt

Media, the country of the Medes, was situated in mountainous country south-west of the *Caspian Sea. The Medes spoke a language akin to Old *Persian. Fragments of the language (as either loanwords or part of a Medo-Persian koinē) have been identified in OP inscriptions. No Median writing has been found. Medes are attested in the annals of *Assyria from the 9th cent. bce. Sargon II (722–705) and Esarhaddon (680–669) report on Medes and their kings causing trouble. At present, 7th-cent. archaeological evidence for the Medes consists of isolated citadels (Godin Tepe, Nush-i Jan, deserted in the 6th cent.); a Median style in art has so far not been identified. Excavation at Hamadan (*Ecbatana), the main city of the Medes, has revealed no Median period remains. Around 612 bce attacks on the major Assyrian cities by the Medes, under their king Umakištar (= Cyaxares), and Babylonians resulted in the fall of Assyria (Fall of Nineveh chronicle, Grayson (see bibliog. below)). The Babylonian Nabonidus chronicle reports that Ištumegu (Astyages) attacked *Cyrus(1) of Persia and was defeated.


Media Atropatene  

Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Media Atropatene (mod. Azerbaijan), the NW corner and least accessible part of *Media, in the isolated mountainous zone of the Urmia basin, named after the Achaemenid satrap, Atropates (328/7–323 bce). It was left independent by the *Seleucids under local Iranian dynasts (this probably dating from 323 bce). *Antiochus (3) III made a successful show of force against the then ruler, the aged Artabarzanes, to prevent possible collaboration with potential rebels in the context of Molon's revolt (Polyb. 5. 55. 1). Seleucid garrisons at the Karafto caves and Arvoman, on the borders of Media Atropatene, are likely to have been founded to keep an eye on the region. The area was regarded as an independent kingdom (Strabo 11. 13. 1) under first the Seleucids, then *Armenia and Rome.


medicine, Mesopotamia  

John Z. Wee

Cuneiform medical manuscripts are found in large numbers, mostly from 1st-millennium bce sites throughout ancient Mesopotamia. Included in the therapeutic tradition are pharmacological glossaries, herbal recipes with plant, mineral, and animal ingredients, and healing incantations and rituals. A Diagnostic Handbook created at the end of the 2nd millennium bce maps out a blueprint for medical practice that sketches out how a healer progresses in his knowledge of the sickness—initially interpreting bodily signs in ways reminiscent of omen divination, and only later arriving at a settled diagnostic verdict and treatment of the kind depicted in the therapeutic tradition. Mesopotamian aetiologies focused on malevolent agents external to the body, encouraging concerns for contagion, prophylaxis, and sanitation, while omitting significant roles for dietetics and exercise aimed at rectifying internal imbalances. Operative surgery was limited, because of the inadequacy of available analgesics and antiseptics. Suppliants seeking a cure visited temples of the healing goddess Gula in the cities of Isin and Nippur, while, among the professions, the “magician” and the “physician” were most associated with medical practice. After the 5th century bce, Calendar Texts and other astrological genres linked various ingredients to each zodiacal name, indicating certain days when a particular ingredient would become medically efficacious.



C. J. Tuplin

(rarely Persism, though see Strabo 14. 657: the ‘med-’ root is a linguistic fossil from the era of *Cyrus(1)'s conquest of *Lydia) is a term whose application is normally confined to states or individuals (Gongylus (Xen.Hell. 3. 1. 6 with Thuc. 1. 128. 6), *Pausanias(1), *Themistocles) that voluntarily collaborated with Persia in connection with invasions of mainland Greece; see Persian Wars. Exceptions (Hdt. 4. 144; Paus. 9. 6. 3; Thuc. 3. 34; Satyrus. in Diog. Laert. 2. 12; Plut.Ages 23; Philostr.VS580; Procop.Bell. 8. 9, 16) cover similar situations at different periods. The context is always concrete; the word describes neither e.g. puppet-tyrants in Greek Anatolia nor generalized ‘pro-Persian’ feelings. Sources rarely state motives for Medism: one modern explanation, lure of the Persian lifestyle, is debatable, if more is meant than simple envy of Persian wealth (cf. *CritiasDK 88 B 31 on Thessalians in 480 bce).


Memnon, colossi of  

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

Colossi of Memnon were two seated statues of Amenophis III on the west bank of the Nile at *Thebes (2) below the mortuary temples and necropolis of the Memnoneia. The latter is mentioned in UPZ174 of 150 bce. *Strabo (17. 1. 46) visited the colossi with *Aelius Gallus in 26/5bce.



Dorothy J. Thompson

Memphis (now Mit Rahina and Saqqara), though replaced as capital under *Ptolemy(1) I, remained an important city of both Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt. At least from the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes (and possibly earlier) the Ptolemies were crowned according to the Egyptian rites in the city's temple of *Ptah. Important priestly edicts, including that of the Rosetta Stone (196 bce), derive from the city. Connected to the Ptah temple was the cult of *Apis—in its Osiriac form precursor to *Sarapis—which, together with other necropolis animal-cults, made the city a centre for tourists and pilgrims. Caches of Greek and demotic papyri from the necropolis combine with excavations to illuminate the Hellenistic city. Less is known of Roman Memphis, which served as a legionary camp less important than neighbouring Babylon.


Menander (2), 'Soter', Indo-Greek king, c. 150–130 BCE  

Frank Holt

Menander (2), 'Soter', Indo-Greek king, (c. 150–130 bce), carried Greek rule (‘Yavana-raja’) in *India to its greatest extent. He later embraced Buddhism and remains the only Indo-Greek king remembered in Indian literary sources. Born in the village of Kalasi (probably near *Alexandria (6), i.e. Alexandria-in-Caucaso, mod. Begram), Menander (‘Milinda’ in Buddhist tradition) was the son and successor of an unnamed king. He conquered the Punjab and made Sagala (Sialkot?) his capital. Then, according to both Indian and Greek sources, he advanced deep into the heart of India and probably reached *Palibothra (Patna) in the Ganges valley. This campaign may have been aborted due to the civil wars in *Bactria and NW India associated with the rise of *Eucratides I, whose assassination in c.145 left Menander free to regain at least some of his lost territories. He may have been married to Agathocleia, a daughter of King Agathocles (one of the Euthydemid foes of Eucratides). She and their son, Strato I, ruled together after Menander's death in c.


Menander (3), of Ephesus, Greek chronicler of the Phoenician kings  

Tessa Rajak

Menander (3) of Ephesus, compiled, from native records, a Greek chronicle of the Phoenician kings ‘among both Greeks and barbarians’, from which *Josephus derives information on Hiram, king of *Tyre. Menander is perhaps to be identified with the Menander of Pergamum to whom a Phoenician chronicle is ascribed by Tatian and by Clement of Alexandria. See Dios.



Dorothy J. Thompson

A he-goat often represented on Egyptian monuments as a ram and identified by Herodotus as the Greek god *Pan, was the god of Mendes (mod. Tell el-RubcA and Tell el-Timai) in the NE Delta where a cemetery of sacred rams has been uncovered. The cult was widespread in Hellenistic Egypt. An important hieroglyphic inscription, the Mendes Stele, from 270 bce records the divinization and entry into the Mendes temple of *Arsinoë II as a full Egyptian goddess; local taxes financed the cult.



Robert G. Morkot

Merope, a capital of Kush (*Nubia), on the east bank of the Nile, between the Fifth and Sixth Cataracts. It was occupied from the 7th cent. bce until the 4th cent. ce when the Meroitic state fragmented, in part owing to the military—and perhaps commercial—activities of the neighbouring state of Aksum (see Axumis).