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Zeno (7) (2nd cent. bce), a physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus, participated in the Herophilean traditions of innovative pulse theory, *pharmacology, and Hippocratic lexicography (see hippocrates(2)). He achieved more lasting prominence, however, by ‘decoding’ (and attributing to Hippocrates himself) certain letter symbols (χαρακτῆρες), such as Δ̨ΕΗΘ or ΞΖΘ, found in clusters of four or five at the conclusion of individual case histories in some *Alexandrian manuscripts of the Hippocratic work Epidemics 3. Members of the Empiricist school of medicine (see medicine, § 5.3), including *Heraclides (4) of Tarentum, fiercely attacked Zeno's views about the provenance and meaning of the symbols. Some Empiricists, attributing the invention of the symbols to Mnemon of Side, charged Zeno with altering the marks whenever he could not find a plausible interpretation; another Empiricist, Apollonius Byblas, questioned the authenticity of the symbols, claiming that Zeno's version of the symbols in Epidemics 3, case-history 8, could not be found in any of three copies of the Hippocratic treatise that he had examined.

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Zenodorus, mathematician (fl. 200 bce), wrote Περὶ ἰσοπεριμέτρων σχημάτων (On figures of equal boundary), parts of which are preserved by *Theon(4) and *Pappus.

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Zeuxis (2), a physician of the Empiricist school (see medicine, § 5.3; probably 2nd cent. bce), wrote commentaries on all the ‘authentic’ works of *Hippocrates (2) (according to *Galen), often taking issue with other interpreters, including Herophileans (see herophilus) and fellow-Empiricists (e.g. Glaucias). His commentaries offered variants, emendations, glosses, and historical but partisan accounts of critical controversies, such as the one triggered by the Herophilean *Zeno(7)'s interpretation of the mysterious symbols in some copies of the Hippocratic Epidemics.

Article

Philalethes (the ‘Truth-lover’), physician, founder of the Asian branch of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus. A contemporary of Strabo (Geography 12. 8. 20, 580c), he established the ‘school’ (διδασκαλεῖον) at the temple of *Men Karou between Laodicea and Carura. Bronze coins from Laodicea, bearing the head of Augustus on the obverse, commemorate Zeuxis on the reverse. Other ancient sources often leave unclear whether Zeuxis Philalethes or *Zeuxis (2) the Empiricist is meant.

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Zopyrus  

Zopyrus, writer on *physiognomy, known from his judgement on Socrates' appearance.