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Article

Pontecagnano  

Nicholas Purcell

Pontecagnano, important archaic settlement (perhaps the ancient Picentia) in south *Campania overlooking the Gulf of Salerno. Its extensive cemeteries show close connections with the cultures of the *Etruscans of north Campania and central Italy, and with the Latin communities (see latium), and important contacts with the wider Mediterranean world of the 8th cent. bce.

Article

Populonia  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Populonia (Etr. Pupluna), in Italy, on the promontory overlooking Porto Baratti, was the port of the metal-rich zone of north-west Tuscany (see etruscans), and the smelting centre for the iron of Elba. There is evidence of early contact with nuraghic *Sardinia; and Populonia was the only Etruscan city established directly on the sea. Limited remains of sacred and habitation areas (c.600 bce onwards) below the acropolis are supplemented by the impressive walls, the metal-working facilities in the ‘industrial quarter’, and extensive cemeteries ranging in date from the *Villanovan to the Hellenistic period.

Article

portico  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Portico, in a general sense, is an extended colonnade and thus a possible translation of the Greek *stoa. The Latin term porticus can refer similarly to extended free-standing colonnades which are simply stoas erected in a Roman context. On the other hand, the Porticus Aemilia in the *forum Romanum, dating originally to 193 bce, was an extended, enclosed, market-hall 487×60 m. (1,595×495 ft.) with at least six rows of internal columns. Often in Latin the term is used to designate enclosed courtyards with colonnades surrounding all four sides, such as the Porticus Octaviae at Rome, shown on the Severan *Forma urbis; some fragments still stand. This was a temple precinct, enclosing the temples of Juno Regina and Jupiter Stator (and comparable with the precinct of Artemis Leucophryene at *Magnesia (1) ad Maeandrum). The distinction between stoa and portico is thus unreal.

Article

portraiture, Roman  

Susan E. C. Walker

Roman portraiture is noted for its verism, and for the imitation of imperial images by private citizens of the Roman empire, notably in their funerary monuments. Portraits were regarded as substitutes for living emperors and expressed the relationship between the ruling power and local elites, notably in Mediterranean urban centres, where local benefactors were often commemorated with portrait statues. With the onset of increasing central control in late antiquity, portraits of emperors and imperial officials became vulnerable to indifference and popular discontent.

Roman portraiture is especially noted for its verism, the meticulous recording of facial characteristics including such unflattering features as wrinkles, warts, and moles, even on small-scale engraved gems (sealstone | British Museum). Though earlier portraits of Roman individuals have survived, notably the bronze bust of the so-called Brutus dated to about 300bce, verism is thought to have gained currency in the second century bce for commissions of honorific statues of distinguished Romans, especially patrons of cities in the Greek east.

Article

Portus  

Nicholas Purcell

*Claudius undertook the construction, which *Caesar had planned, of an enclosed harbour two miles north of *Ostia, linked to the Tiber by a *canal: to remedy the very difficult conditions of transshipment at Ostia; to provide Rome with a worthy gateway for seaborne visitors; and to help mitigate floods at Rome by improving the flow of the *Tiber. A deep basin was excavated and protected from the sea by two moles (the arrangement is still not fully understood), with a *lighthouse rivalling that of *Alexandria (1) (excavation has proved that its foundation was indeed a scuttled merchant-ship filled with concrete, cf. Suetonius Claud. 20. 3).The new harbour was not safe, as its wide open expanse was prone to squalls; disaster struck in 62, and *Nero's plan for ship-canals between *Cumae and Ostia perhaps represents a falling back on the natural superiority of the ports of *Campania.

Article

pottery, Roman  

Kevin Greene

Roman pottery plays an essential role in dating and interpreting excavated sites. It also reflects changes in Roman society, in terms of its economy, religion, and consumption practices. In addition, pottery gives further insights into the workings of Roman industry and trade. Most pottery was manufactured in specialized workshops and fired in carefully constructed kilns. Standardized forms with wide distributions, and frequent use of stamps showing workshop names, suggest that much of it was traded commercially. Nevertheless, traditional local industries survived in many places, supplying smaller regions.Roman pottery comprises a full range of vessels for table and kitchen functions, as well as for use in storage and transportation. At the top of the quality scale was terra sigillata, a tableware with a smooth, red, glossy surface, and a suite of forms from cups to plates. Other kinds of fine, elaborately decorated cups and beakers were also used alongside dinner services. But the great majority of Roman pots were plain earthenware vessels designed for cooking and storage. Examples of more specialized forms include amphorae, used for transporting foodstuffs, and enormous globular dolia up to 2 m (6.

Article

Praeneste  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Praeneste (mod. Palestrina), with interesting polygonal walls, occupied a cool, lofty spur of the *Apennines 37 km. (23 mi.) east-south-east of Rome. Traditionally founded in the mythical period (Verg. Aen. 7. 678), the oldest finds belong to the recent bronze age. Immensely rich burials of *Etruscan type and 7th-cent. date show it to be the pre-eminent city in this region at that time. It first appears in history in the 5th cent. bce as a powerful Latin city (see latini) whose strategic site facing the Alban Hills was inevitably attacked by *Aequi. In the 4th cent. it frequently fought Rome and, after participating in the Latin War, was deprived of territory and became a civitas foederata which still possessed ius exilii 200 years later (Polyb. 6. 14) and apparently preferred its own to Roman citizenship (Livy 23. 19 f.; see citizenship, roman). After 90 bce Praeneste became a Roman municipium devoted to C.

Article

purple  

Ludwig Alfred Moritz

Of the two main kinds of purple-yielding shellfish described by *Pliny (1) (HN 9. 125–41), purpura and pelagia (Greek πορφύρα) correspond to the Linnaean murex, murex and bucinum (κῆρυξ) to the smaller and less precious purpura haemostoma. In antiquity the purple of *Tyre always retained its primacy, but purple dyeing was practised also in the Greek cities of Asia, the Greek mainland and islands, S. Italy, and N. Africa. After being gathered or caught in baskets and killed suddenly to preserve the secretion, the molluscs were either opened (esp. the larger) or crushed. The mass was then left in salt for three days, extracted with water, and slowly inspissated to one-sixteenth of its original volume. Impurities were removed during this process, and the liquid was then tested with flocks of wool until the colour was right. Many shades within the violet–scarlet range, and even a bluish green, could be obtained by mixing the dyes from different species and by intercepting the photochemical reaction which gives the secretion its colour. (‘Twice-dyed’ (δίβαφος) Tyrian purple resulted from consecutive steeping in pelagium and bucinum.

Article

puteal  

Glenys Davies

Puteal, the circular stone surround of a well-head, but also the stone coping marking a place that was sacred. Thus the puteal Libonis or Scribonianum in the forum Romanum was a monument shaped like a well-head marking the spot where lightning had struck: the form of the monument is known from its representation on coins, but only the tufa foundations were excavated in 1950.

Article

Pyrgi  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Pyrgi, modern Santa Severa, was the main port of *Caere, and famous as the site of a wealthy *Etruscan sanctuary sacked by *Dionysius (1) I in 384 bce (Diod. Sic. 15. 14). Excavation (1957 onwards) has concentrated on two distinct nuclei. In the northern part, Temple B (a Graeco-Tuscan compromise) was founded c.500 bce, while the foundation of the (typically Tuscan) Temple A c.470 bce suggests a perceived need on the part of Caere to reassert its mastery of the Tyrrhenian sea after the defeat off *Cumae in 474; its back pediment bears a magnificent relief scene (possibly inspired by *Stesichorus) that combines two episodes of the Theban story (see seven against thebes) into a powerful depiction of *hubris and its consequences. Both these temples were destroyed in the 3rd cent. bce. Between them, ‘Area C’ yielded three inscribed gold tablets: one is the only Phoenicio-Punic text known in the Italian peninsula; the other two are in Etruscan. All three concern the dedication of Temple B by the Etruscan ruler of Caere to the Phoenician goddess Astarte; they demonstrate the close ties that enabled *Carthage to influence the internal politics of the cities of Etruria c.

Article

quinquereme  

Philip de Souza

Quinquereme (Greek πεντήρης, Latin quinqueremis), was a warship rowed by oarsmen arranged in groups of five, perhaps with three banks of oars, one above the other, the top two each pulled by a pair of men, the bottom by one. The details of particular ships are unclear and other possible variations may have been developed. Its origins are uncertain, but it first appears in Athenian naval lists in 325/4 bce (IG 221629. 811), and by the end of the 4th cent. bce it could be found in the navies of most Hellenistic states. Larger and heavier than a *trireme, it offered space for more marines, missile weapons, and the Roman boarding-bridge (Latin corvus, raven). The Romans adopted it as their main warship in the *Punic Wars, modelling their fleets on captured Carthaginian vessels (Polyb. 1. 20 and 59). After the battle of *Actium it was superseded by smaller vessels.

Article

Ratae  

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Ratae (mod. Leicester), a town of Roman *Britain and civitas-capital of the *Corieltauvi. An iron age *oppidum preceded the Roman settlement but its development under Rome remains uncertain. The only military evidence seems to date to the later 1st cent. Pre-Flavian building is attested but the street grid dates to c. ce 90–100. It grew to 42 ha. within its 3rd-cent. walls, although recent excavations show that it was never densely occupied. It possessed distinguished public buildings and was possibly raised to municipal rank in the later 2nd cent. The forum is late Hadrianic; the public baths with exercise-hall (of which the surviving Jewry Wall is part) were built under *Antoninus Pius; and in the early 3rd cent. an additional market square with basilica was provided. Large-scale excavation has recently explored much of the northern corner of the city.

Article

records and record-keeping, attitudes to  

Rosalind Thomas

Greeks and Romans kept records on stone or bronze, lead, wooden tablets (waxed or whitened), papyrus (see books, greek and roman), *ostraca, even precious metals. The different materials often bear certain associations and reflect ancient attitudes to records: e.g. bronze documents in Athens have religious associations, as do the bronze tablets of Roman laws. Stone inscriptions promised permanence and importance, publicly visible reminders of the decree (etc. ) they record: in *Athens, matters of particular concern to the gods went up on stone (e.g. the *tribute lists). Athenian inscriptions (see epigraphy, greek) are read and referred to, but they may also serve as memorials of the decision they record, so that their destruction signifies the end of that transaction (e.g. Dem. 16. 27); inscribed laws are often dedicated to a god. The relation of the inscribed records to those in the archives is therefore complex. Some scholars believe that archival texts are the originals, the inscriptions merely copies, and that there were always archival copies. The situation changes in the Hellenistic period, but the terminology, even then, is inconsistent and inscribed texts are treated as authoritative, indicating a less archive-oriented attitude to records. Archive organization, where we have evidence, is often primitive, and not all archive documents are preserved: in classical Athens certain documents are destroyed when the transaction is complete (e.g. records of state debtors), or for political reasons (e.g. IG 13 127, 27 ff, for *Samos), or as a *damnatio memoriae, as in Rome.

Article

Rediculus  

Herbert Jennings Rose

When *Hannibal, attempting to raise the siege of *Capua in 211 bce, made a demonstration against Rome, a shrine was erected at Rome to the unknown power which made him go back again, under the name of Rediculus, from redere, ‘to turn back’ (Festus 354. 25; 355. 6 Lindsay). It stood outside the porta Capena, and the deity may have been surnamed Tutanus (Varro, Sat.

Article

Regia  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Ferdinando Castagnoli, and John Patterson

Situated at the east end of the *forum Romanum, between the *via Sacra and the precinct of *Vesta, it was under the Republic the seat of authority of the *pontifexmaximus and contained his *archives; also shrines dedicated to *Mars (which held the sacred shields carried in procession by the *Salii) and to *Ops Consiva. Archaic huts on the site were in the late 7th cent. replaced by a stone building around a courtyard. Rebuilt several times, the structure took on its definitive plan at the end of the 6th cent.; this was then preserved throughout antiquity, despite several reconstructions, notably in the 3rd cent. and again in 148 bce and in 36 bce. The structures on the site do not appear consistent with the tradition that this was the home of King Numa (see pompilius numa); a building of the 8th/7th cents. bce recently discovered under the *Atrium Vestae may provide a more likely location for a royal palace.

Article

Res gestae  

Nicholas Purcell

Res gestae (of *Augustus). Augustus left four documents with the Vestal Virgins (see vesta) to be read, after his death, in the senate (Suet. Aug.101). One of these was a record of his achievements (Index rerum a se gestarum), in the style of the claims of the triumphatores of the Roman past, which was to be erected on bronze pillars at the entrance of his mausoleum in the *Campus Martius at Rome. This is known to us from a copy, updated after Augustus' death, which was piously affixed (with a Greek translation) to the antae of the front of the cella of the temple of Rome and Augustus at *Ancyra, capital of *Galatia and therefore centre of the imperial cult of the province. Small fragments of other copies have been found at *Apollonia and *Antioch (2) in Pisidia (also in the province of Galatia); it is likely but not established that copies were widely set up in the provinces.

Article

roads  

Nicholas Purcell

Ancient road-theory divides into two categories: the art of enhancing communications through built or dug works; and the planning and maintaining of large-scale communications networks based on such works.

Ramps, cuttings, stone pavements, zig-zags, and pull-offs are found on local roads from Archaic Greek times, and were clearly designed to facilitate wheeled traction: there are Mycenaean precursors, and parallels in many parts of the Mediterranean, such as Etruria. Improved routes for specialized purposes such as the haulage-route to Athens from the *marble*quarries of Mt. *Pentelicon, or the *diolkos across the isthmus of Corinth, are found, and fine paved processional ways like the Athenian Sacred Way or the approaches to great *sanctuaries like *Delphi. The technological repertoire was greatly increased by the deployment of arched construction on a large scale (see arches), which made *bridges and viaducts feasible; and where labour was cheap, and petrology favourable, major cuttings and tunnels could be contemplated. Such things, like the deployment of the older road technologies on any very large scale required large-scale organization, intercommunity co-operation, voluntary or enforced, and very large resources, all of which escaped the Greek world of the Archaic and Classical periods.

Article

Rome, topography  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Ferdinando Castagnoli, and John Patterson

The Tiber valley at Rome is a deep trough, from 1 to 3 km wide, cut into the soft tufa floor of the river's lower basin. The edges of the trough are formed by steep weathered cliffs, seamed and even isolated by tributary streams. In this way the famous hills of Rome were formed: the Caelian (see caelius mons), Oppian, *Esquiline, *Viminal, and *Quirinal were flat-topped spurs, while the *Capitol, *Palatine and *Aventine were cut off from the main hinterland. (For the Oppian see esquiline; it was not counted as one of the *Seven hills of Rome.) On the valley floor itself the river meanders in an S-shaped curve, the northern twist containing the Campus Martius and skirting the Vatican plain, the southern curve skirting the Capitol, *forum Boarium, and Aventine, and enclosing Transtiberim, a smaller plain at the foot of the Janiculan ridge. Just below the middle of the S-curve the river runs shallow and divides at Tiber island. The ford here was the only feasible crossing-point between Rome and the sea, or for many miles upstream; so hills and spurs provided the natural strongholds suitable for defended settlement, and traffic across the heavily populated Latian plain concentrated at the Tiber ford, which was to be the key to Rome's predominance.

Article

rostra  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and Janet DeLaine

The earliest rostra, or speaker's platform, at Rome lay on the south side of the *comitium; it existed in 338 bce when it was adorned with the prows (rostra) of ships captured from Antium, later with statues and a sundial. The long, straight platform is associated with the second level of the comitium. When rebuilt in the 2nd cent. it had a curved front. *Caesar replaced the republican rostra with a new curved structure (the so-called hemicycle) at the west end of the forum in 44 bce. *Augustus extended the Julian rostra, adding a rectangular platform faced with marble and decorated with bronze prows. The Augustan rostra were called the rostra vetera in contrast with the tribunal in front of the podium of the temple of Divus Iulius (29 bce), also treated as rostra (Frontin. Aq. 129; Dio Cass. 56. 34) with ships' prows from *Actium.

Article

Rusellae  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Rusellae (mod. Roselle), an *Etruscan city, stood on a two-crowned hill to the east of the bay that is now the Grosseto plain. Its walls, of polygonal limestone blocks overlaying a 7th cent. defence wall of sun-dried bricks, are dated to the early 6th cent. and are thus the oldest-known Etruscan stone fortifications. The area within them was inhabited from late Villanovan to late imperial times, with particularly flourishing periods between the 6th and 4th centuries, characterized by imported Attic pottery, and in Hellenistic times, when the city attained its maximum expansion. On the south-east hill, a portion of the Etruscan city of Hellenistic date has been revealed, superimposed on remains of the 5th–4th centuries: this area has produced a well-stratified sequence of bucchero and of local Campana A and B wares. Rusellae was captured by Rome in 294 bce.