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Article

Sufetula  

R. J. A. Wilson

Sufetula (mod. Sbeitla), a town of the High Plateaux in central Tunisia, stands at a major cross-roads, especially of the *Theveste–Thenae and Thelepte–*Hadrumetum highways. A Flavian *municipium founded on a virgin site probably c.ce 75, Sufetula has a very regular urban layout (445 m. by 425 m.) covering 19 hectares, which invites comparison with *Thamugadi. The 2nd-cent. forum at its heart, with entrance gateway (ce 139) and three imposing temples side by side, is one of the best-preserved examples of its type. Later, as at Thamugadi, Sufetula expanded beyond the regular nucleus, with a theatre, 3rd-cent. baths, and a Severan arch (ce 209/11 ) to the east and south-east, and an amphitheatre to the north-west. Promoted to the rank of colonia' (see colonization, roman) sometime before ce 235, Sufetula in the 4th cent. covered c.50 hectares, its prosperity derived from cereals and above all intensive olive cultivation in its surrounding territory.

Article

tabula Bantina  

Andrew Lintott

Fragments of a bronze tablet deriving from near *Bantia in *Lucania. One large group of fragments was discovered in the 18th cent. and a third piece in 1967. They are engraved on both sides, having on one side the Latin text of a Roman criminal statute, on the other an *Oscan text (though in Latin and written left to right) relating to a local constitution. The recently discovered fragment contains the end of both documents. A nail-hole underneath the Latin text but with the Oscan text written round it shows that the Oscan is the later of the two. See lex(2), under Lex Osca and Lex Latina.Lex Latina Tabulae Bantinae, the Roman criminal statute on the obverse of the tabula Bantina: it is earlier than its Oscan counterpart but from its content cannot antedate the late 2nd cent. bce. Identification is difficult as only the enforcement clauses and the oath prescribed at the end of the law are preserved. It is most commonly thought to be the lex Appuleia maiestatis (see appuleius saturninus, l.

Article

tabula Hebana  

Eastland Stuart Staveley and Barbara Levick

A bronze tablet found (1947) in the Tiber valley near the site of ancient Heba (mod. Magliano). It bears part of the text of a rogatio (bill) conferring honours upon the dead *Germanicus (cf. Tac.Ann. 2. 73; 83; 3. 1–6). The earlier part of the same text (they overlap) was found (1982) on fragments of a bronze tablet from Siarum, near Seville, the *tabula Siarensis: both were copies of a document that authorities throughout the empire were encouraged to display. The rogatio takes the form of a senatorial decree incorporating an earlier decree passed on 16 December, ce 19; publication in this form suggests that its conversion into a *lex (Valeria Aurelia) by the incoming consuls was a formality. The text throws light on: the methods used to commemorate members of the imperial house; Germanicus' activities in Gaul and Germany and in the east; the role of the people in the mourning; the educational purpose of commemorations; the new electoral procedure introduced in ce 5 to honour C.

Article

tabula Irnitana  

Michael Crawford

The most recently discovered and the completest copy of the Flavian lex for the new municipia (see municipium) of *Baetica created after the wars of 68–9 ce; of ten tablets, we have 3, 5, 7–10, together with three small fragments; part of what was on 6 is preserved on one of the two substantial copies previously known, the lex Malacitana (the other is the lex Salpensana; see malaca). The definition of the citizen body and the regulation of its religious affairs are missing, but we have much of the material on magistrates, decurions, and elections and all of that on general administration and jurisdiction.

Article

tabularium  

Janet DeLaine

(1) The record-office at Rome (see archives (Roman)), possibly serving the adjacent *aerarium (treasury) of Saturn and built according to CIL 12. 737 by Q. *Lutatius Catulus(1) in 78 bce, but not mentioned in literary sources. It is traditionally associated with the trapezoidal building lying between the two summits of the *Capitol with its main front towards the Campus Martius. On the opposite side, closing the west end of the *forum Romanum, the elevation consisted of a massive substructure of ashlar masonry with an arcade of eleven arches flanked by Doric half-columns above it. A second storey of Corinthian columns, now disappeared, was probably added in Flavian times. A stairway from the Forum climbed through the ground floor of the substructure to the front hall of the building. The first floor contained a service corridor, leading from the top of the porticus Deorum Consentium to two floors of eastern strong-rooms.

Article

Tarquinii  

Giovanna Bagnasco Gianni

Tarquinii was one of the foremost Etruscan cities. It stood on the high Civita plateau pointing towards the sea between two flat hills. One of these is the Monterozzi plateau, which is the site of the superb painted tombs of its outstanding necropolis (UNESCO site since 2004). Long lasting excavation undertaken on the Civita plateau and at the sanctuary of Gravisca make it possible to recover the features of architectural structures, local artefact production, and related behaviours, including contacts with the other Mediterranean populations. The more than ten centuries of activity discovered at the ‘monumental complex’ offer an extraordinary overview of the history of Tarquinii and of its cultural features. The four phases of the Ara della Regina sanctuary (from the beginning of the 6th century to the Roman period), together with evidence from the ‘monumental complex’, support the reconstruction of the organisation of space, within the circuit of the fortification according to the principle of a sacred topography conceived by the community of Tarquinii from its beginnings.

Article

Teanum Sidicinum  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Teanum Sidicinum (mod. Teano), in Italy, the second city of *Campania after *Neapolis (Naples), located on the *via Latina south-east of Roccamonfina. Inhabited from the 7th century bce, it grew rapidly in the 4th. Archaeological evidence includes an Archaic sanctuary, Hellenistic and Roman cemeteries, baths, an amphitheatre, and a sanctuary and theatre similar to *Pietrabbondante.

Article

temple  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The Greek temple was the house of the god, whose image it contained, usually placed so that at the annual festival it could watch through the open door the burning of the sacrifice at the altar which stood outside (see statues, cult of). It was not a congregational building, the worshippers instead gathering round the altar in the open air, where they would be given the meat of the victims to consume (see sacrifice, greek). *Orientation was generally towards the east, and often towards that point on the skyline where (allowing for the vagaries of ancient Greek calendars) the sun rose on the day of the festival. The temple also served as a repository for the property of the god, especially the more valuable possessions of gold and silver *plate (see votive offerings).The core of the temple is the cella, a rectangular room whose side walls are prolonged beyond one end to form a porch, either with columns between them (in antis) or in a row across the front (prostyle). More prestigious temples surround this with an external colonnade (and are described as peripteral). They generally duplicate the porch with a corresponding prolongation of the walls at the rear of the cella, without, however, making another doorway into the cella (the opisthodomus, or false porch).

Article

Temples of Sant’Omobono  

Nicola Terrenato

Fieldwork around the church of Sant’Omobono in the Forum Boarium has produced some of the most remarkable discoveries illustrating the early phases of the city of Rome. Archaeological remains were accidentally exposed in 1937 during the Fascist overhaul of the neighborhood, when the old buildings surrounding the church were demolished. In the process of reinforcing the foundations of Sant’Omobono, the corner of an Archaic temple podium was exposed, together with remarkable architectural terracottas. Rescue excavations showed the presence of a much larger temple site, so the area was spared and left open for future investigations. Excavations at Sant’Omobono were conducted in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2010s by a variety of archaeologists, employing different methodologies and approaches. None of these investigations had been published in full by 2015, although a multitude of conflicting articles appeared. As a result, understanding of the sequence has always remained problematic and hotly debated. The main phases, as they can be reconstructed on the basis of recent work, are summarized in chronological order in the following sections.

Article

templum Pacis  

Janet DeLaine

Templum Pacis, later called forum Pacis or Vespasiani, was the precinct of the temple of Peace at Rome, dedicated by *Vespasian in 75 ce. The area (145×100 m.) was surrounded by marble porticoes within an enclosure wall of peperino and laid out as a garden. The temple, a rectangular hall in the centre of the east side set flush with the portico, housed the spoils from *Jerusalem. It was flanked by a library, the bibliotheca Pacis, and various other halls. One of these carried the *Forma urbis and may have housed the office of the urban prefect. After the fire of *Commodus the complex was restored by *Septimius Severus.

Article

terramara  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Terramara derives from the Emilian dialect expression (‘terra marna’) for the fertile black soil that first brought a distinctive type of settlement site to the notice of 19th-cent. Italian archaeologists. It has given its name to an important culture of the Italian middle and late bronze age (c.1700–1150 bce), concentrated in the modern provinces of Modena, Reggio Emilia, Parma, and Piacenza; some sites in Lombardy and the southern Veneto are also thought to be related. Detailed assessment of the culture is hampered by the lack of stratigraphical observation by the pioneer excavators.

The terramara settlements consisted of hut villages, often enclosed by a bank and ditch. Although some of them were clearly raised deliberately above the flood level of the surrounding plain, modern excavation suggests that the terramara sites were not restricted to low-lying areas; the relationship between the terramara sites and the palafitte (lake villages) to the north is not wholly clear.

Article

tessera  

Harold Mattingly and Dominic W. Rathbone

Tessera, a die or gaming piece; also a ticket or token, used in the Roman world for a great variety of purposes. Surviving examples include stamped, mostly round, pieces of lead, bronze, or terracotta, sometimes with a brief legend, and inscribed, mostly rectangular, pieces of bone, ivory, or wood. In the late republic and the Julio-Claudian period, tesserae of bone or ivory, called tesserae nummulariae by modern scholars, were attached to bags of silver coins by bankers to indicate that they had tested their genuineness (see nummularius). Wooden tesserae were used in the Roman army as an adjunct to passwords. In the empire tesserae frumentariae, whose exact form is a matter of controversy, were issued to the privileged citizens entitled to free wheat rations at Rome, *Oxyrhynchus, and perhaps other cities (see food supply). Coin-like tesserae, often bearing the head of the emperor, and marked balls exchangeable for cash or various presents from the imperial treasury and warehouses were thrown to the crowd by the emperor at some festivals in Rome. Similar tesserae were issued by private patrons entitling their clients to free meals, gifts, admission to games and public shows, and so on (most of the surviving tesserae are probably of this type), while tesserae hospitales established the claim of the bearer to hospitality when travelling.

Article

theatres, Greek and Roman, structure  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The Greek theatre consisted essentially of the orchestra, the flat dancing-place for the choral song and dance out of which grew tragedy and comedy; and the auditorium (the theatron proper, Latin cavea), normally a convenient slope on which spectators could sit or stand. In early theatres wooden seating was constructed, though it is not clear how this was done. Seats were sometimes cut in the rock; by the time theatres reached a more definitive form, in the 4th cent. bce, seats consisted of stone benches of simple form, rising in tiers. These were curved, reflecting the normal circular shape of the orchestra. A rectangular orchestra survives at the well-preserved theatre at *Thoricus, partly faced by seats in a straight line, curving only at the ends. The orchestra consisted of hard earth—paving was not introduced till Roman times. The skēnē (tent or hut) was in origin a simple structure for the convenience of the performers, which could also form a background for the plays. In the course of the 5th cent. it became a more solid building, ultimately acquiring a handsome architectural form sometimes with projecting wings. The fully developed auditorium was wherever possible rather more than a semicircle in plan, opening out a little at the outer ends, where the line of seats was drawn on a slightly greater radius. The outer sectors required embankments and solid retaining walls, while the inner was hollowed out of the hillside; there were no elaborate substructures as in Roman theatres. The auditorium did not link up with the skēnē, except perhaps by means of light gateways, and the intervening passages on either side were called parodoi.

Article

theatre staging, Roman  

Peter G. M. Brown

The staging of the plays of *Plautus and *Terence has to be worked out almost entirely from the texts themselves; the theatres in which they were performed have not survived. (The first Roman theatre to last for any length of time was built by *Pompey in 55 bce, with a seating capacity estimated at 10,000. Later theatres in the Roman world were increasingly elaborate: see theatres (greek and roman), structure.) Plays put on at the Megalesian Games (see ludi) were performed outside the temple of *Cybele on the *Palatine, others probably outside other temples or in the *forum Romanum, normally on wooden stages erected for the occasion. As in Greece, plays were performed in daytime in the open air, and the action was supposed to take place out of doors.The stage generally represents a street, fronted by at most three houses, and with side-exits/-entrances to left and right; the street is normally called platea, rarely angiportum (more commonly used to refer to a back street not visible to the spectators).

Article

toga  

Hero Granger-Taylor

The toga was the principal garment of the free-born Roman male. It was also worn by *Etruscan men and originally also by women. It was usually made of undyed light wool, but for mourning was of dark wool, the toga pulla, and, for boys of high birth and the holders of certain offices, it had a *purplepraetexta border along its upper edge. A decorated version worn by victorious commanders in triumphal processions, the toga picta or trabea triumphalis, was made of purple wool and gold thread.In shape the toga was a very large semicircle, a single piece of cloth which in the 1st cent. ce measured up to 5.5×2.75 m. (19½×10 ft.) It was worn without a fastening and the wearer had to keep his left arm crooked to support its voluminous drapery. It was put on thus: one corner was placed before the feet and the straight edge was taken up and over the left shoulder, across the back and under or over the right arm, across the chest, and over the left shoulder again, the second corner hanging behind the knees; the curved edge became the garment's hem. By the imperial period, two features had developed which helped to accommodate the garment's increased size: an umbo or ‘navel’ at the waist, resulting from the upper part of the under layer being pulled over the second layer, and a sinus or ‘lap’, created by folding down the straight edge where it passed under the right arm.

Article

tourism  

Antony Spawforth

Well-known Greek tourists include *Solon, said (Hdt. 1. 30) to have visited Egypt and Lydia ‘for the sake of seeing’ (theōria), and *Herodotus (1) himself. Sea-borne *trade and sightseeing were surely companions from an early date, as they still were in the 4th cent. (Isoc. Trapeziticus 17. 4). A genre of Greek periegetic (‘travel’) literature arose by the 3rd cent., from which date fragments survive of a descriptive work, On the Cities in Greece, by Heraclides Criticus (ed. F. Pfister (1951); for partial trans. see Austin83); the only fully preserved work of this type is *Pausanias (3) (see polemon(3)), illustrating the thin line between sightseers and pilgrims. Under Rome ancient sightseeing came into its own. A papyrus (PTeb. 1. 33 = Bagnall and Derow 58) of 112 bce gives instructions to prepare for a Roman senator's visit to the *Fayūm, including titbits for the crocodiles; the colossi of *Memnon and other pharaonic monuments are encrusted with Greek and Latin graffiti.

Article

toys  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Specimens from children's tombs, and representations on Greek pottery vases provide our knowledge of ancient toys, which did not differ essentially from modern ones. For the infant there were clappers and rattles (πλαταγή, crepitaculum), hinged surfaces of wood or revolving circles with bells or rings of metal, or in animal form with loose pebbles inside. Crepundia (γνωρίσματα) were miniature objects and charms hung around the infant's neck; in literature these often served to identify abandoned or kidnapped children. Bells (κώδων, tintinnabulum) served the double purpose of amusement and averting the evil eye. For a more advanced age the doll of rag, bone, wood, or clay was the customary plaything; the limbs were often movable (νευρόσπαστα). Doll's house furniture, chairs, couches, toilet and kitchen utensils, were used as toys as well as for *votive offerings; it was customary for girls on marriage and boys on arrival at puberty to dedicate their playthings to deities. Animals, chariots and horses in wood or clay, go-karts, and whipping-tops are represented in museums, while the use of toy wind-assisted chariots, the ball (σφαῖρα, pila), and hoop (τροχός, trochus) is illustrated on painted pottery, as are the swing and see-saw.

Article

traffic, urban  

Eric Poehler

The movement of people, animals, and vehicles through the ancient urban environment had a significant impact on the shape of ancient cities, but as an object of study, urban traffic is a relatively recent area of interest, one that has tended to focus on the Roman world. The range of methods available to consider the topic, however, are relatively many, including literary analysis, archaeological field survey, and a battery of technical methods, such as Space Syntax, Network Analysis, and Agent-Based Modeling. In all of these approaches, two models of movement—pedestrian and vehicular—remain paramount. The results of studying urban traffic have shed new light on the impact of different forms of urban design, the ways in which ancient people navigated those designs, and norms and formal systems in place in urban environments to order the movement of people and vehicles.

Whether on foot or borne by animals or vehicles, the movement of people and goods through ancient cities shaped those cities and the lives of those within them. The clustering of humble shopfronts on commercial streets and the monumental facades of processional routes alike owe their character to the passage of people moving for different purposes along their lengths. Indeed, as one of the most common elements of everyday urban life, interest in wheeled and pedestrian traffic consequently has become more defined in the classical world as greater attention is paid to non-elites and their material culture. Urban traffic is in fact another window onto everyday life, opening up opportunities to examine the reciprocal effects of city plans and their architectural elaborations on the political, economic, and social landscapes draped over them.

Article

Trajan's Column  

Jonathan Coulston

Honorific column dedicated in 113 ce as part of the *forum Traiani in Rome. It consists of a 28.9 m. (95 ft.)-tall column standing on a 6.2 m. (20 ft.)-high pedestal. An internal spiral staircase, illuminated by 40 slit-windows, connects a door in the south-east side of the base with a balcony at the top. Trajanic coin motifs represented the monument topped by an imperial statue. The pedestal has sculptured reliefs of barbarian military equipment on its four sides, and an inscription (CIL 6. 960). The shaft bears a helical band, 200 m. long and c. 0.85–1.45 m. high (656×2¾–4¾ ft.), carved into its outer face with reliefs depicting Trajan's Dacian Wars (ce 101–2, 105–6; see dacia).Many details of the pedestal reliefs may be paralleled in the archaeological record. The helical frieze depicts the Dacian Wars separated by a Victory and trophies, and divided up into internal campaigns consisting of linked scenes. Beyond this, planning of content and ‘narrative’ was minimal. Some historical events were depicted and Trajan's own commentarii most likely contributed, but most of the scenes follow the unspecific formulae of imperial propaganda-art.

Article

transhumance  

Antony Spawforth

Transhumance, a form of semi-nomadism in which pastoralists move their flocks over long distances between summer and winter pastures. Well-attested in the Mediterranean more recently, it is rarely mentioned in ancient Greek writers (Soph.OT 1132 ff. being one exception) and its importance is debated for *pastoralism in ancient Greece, where city-state boundaries were potential obstacles to the seasonal movements of shepherds and generated disputes between neighbours over rights to summer pasture, as between the Phocians and Locrians in 395 bce (Hell. Oxy. 21 Chambers). In Roman Italy, where the high Apennines favour transhumance, the practice is well attested from the late republic on, *Varro (Rust. 2) providing the best evidence, and was presumably facilitated by the peninsula's political unification, although its scale and the extent of the Roman state's involvement are problematic. See nomads.