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papyrology, Greek  

H. Maehler

Papyrus, manufactured in Egypt since c.3000 bce from a marsh plant, Cyperus papyrus (see books, greek and roman), was the most widely used writing material in the Graeco-Roman world. The object of papyrology is to study texts written on papyrus (and on ostraca, wooden tablets, etc. in so far as they come from the same find-spots) in Egyptian (hieroglyphs, demotic, Coptic), Hebrew, *Aramaic, Greek, Latin, Pahlavi, and Arabic. Greek papyrology also deals with Greek texts written on parchment (see palaeography, Introduction). The vast majority of Greek papyri have been found in Egypt, preserved in the dry sand; with the exception of some carbonized papyri from *Bubastis and Thmouis, no papyri have survived in the damp soils of the Delta or *Alexandria (1). Outside Egypt, Greek papyri have been found at *Herculaneum, at Dura-*Europus, in Palestine, and one text has come from Greece: the carbonized Orphic commentary found in a burial at Derveni near Salonica; see orphic literature; orphism.

Article

Parmenion, c. 400–330 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Parmenion (c. 400–330 bce), Macedonian noble, the most respected general of *Philip (1) II. Active in senior command as early as 356, he headed the expeditionary force in Asia Minor (336) and eased *Alexander (3) the Great's accession by helping remove his colleague Attalus, the new king's bitterest enemy. Consequently he was the automatic choice as Alexander's second-in-command in Asia, and two of his sons had command of the Companion cavalry and the hypaspists. At the major battles (the *Granicus, *Issus, and *Gaugamela) he controlled the Macedonian left and had an indispensable defensive role. There is a tradition of disagreement between Parmenion and his king which is in part fabrication, but there appears to have been a genuine divergence of views on the terminus for conquest in Asia. As a result Parmenion was detached with increasing frequency on independent missions, and in the summer of 330 he was deputed to escort the treasures of *Persepolis to the Median capital, where he remained, gradually isolated as his Macedonian troops rejoined Alexander in the east.

Article

Patrocles  

Eric Herbert Warmington and Kenneth S. Sacks

Patrocles, Greek commander at *Babylon after 312 bce under *Seleucus (1) I, whom he assisted against *Demetrius (4). Under Seleucus and *Antiochus (1) I, he governed lands from the *Caspian towards India, gathering geographical material including north-west India. About 285 he was sent to explore the Caspian, voyaged up its western and then its eastern sides, learned about Indian trade down the *Oxus, but mistakenly asserted that the Oxus and Jaxartes flowed into the Caspian. His reports confirmed the belief that this sea opened into the supposed near-by Northern Ocean, and, according to *Pliny (1) the Elder, Patrocles claims to have sailed by this imaginary route from the Caspian to India. He was part of a group of Hellenistic explorers and generals who were intent on recording geographical and anthropological discoveries of lands coming under their purview. His work survives only in a few fragments, mostly in *Strabo, and its title and scope are unknown.

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Pausanias (1), Spartan king, 1st half of 5th cent. BCE  

Paul Cartledge

Pausanias (1), son of the *Agiad regent Cleombrotus (d. 480 bce), and nephew of *Leonidas. As regent for Pleistarchus, he commanded the combined Greek land forces at *Plataea in 479, while his Eurypontid co-king *Leotychidas assumed the overall command at sea. Not prone to modesty, he ascribed the Greek victory to his leadership, thereby earning a reminder of his mortality from *Simonides and a rebuke from the Spartan authorities. Nevertheless in 478 he was placed in command of an allied ‘Hellenic League’ fleet and captured *Byzantium, but his arrogant behaviour and possibly treasonable negotiations with the Persian enemy provoked a mutiny that redounded to the benefit of Athens. Recalled to Sparta for trial on this charge, he escaped conviction and returned to Byzantium, apparently still on official business, since he was entrusted with the *skytalē (message-stick). Expelled in c.475 by *Cimon, leader of the new Athenian sea-league (see delian league), he removed to the Troad (see troas) where he was believed to be continuing to negotiate with Persia on his own behalf.

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Pausanias (2), Spartan king, 445–426 and 408–395 BCE  

Stephen Hodkinson

Pausanias (2), grandson of *Pausanias (1), *Agiad king of Sparta 445–426 and 408–395 bce, his first reign as a minor during the temporary deposition of his father Pleistoanax. As commander of a *Peloponnesian League expedition in 403, he undermined *Lysander's dominance in Athens, promoting reconciliation between the democrats at Piraeus and the Three Thousand, and securing a treaty which restored democracy and brought Athens into Sparta's alliance. Back in Sparta he was prosecuted but acquitted. In 395 his army arrived at *Haliartus after Lysander's defeat and retired without battle, partly due to Athenian military opposition. Sentenced to death, he fled to *Tegea. In exile he continued to oppose his Spartan enemies. He interceded with his son Agesipolis I to save the democratic leaders at *Mantinea in 385, and wrote a now-lost treatise which (on divergent modern interpretations) either criticized the laws of *Lycurgus (2) or accused his enemies of violating those laws.

Article

Pelopidas  

C. J. Tuplin

Theban general. First attested at the Spartan siege of *Mantinea (386), he was exiled by the pro-Spartan junta (382). His contribution to the liberation of *Thebes (1) (379/8 ) earned the first of thirteen boeotarchies (see federal states). Returning from an attack on *Orchomenus (1), he inflicted a psychologically important defeat on two Sparta morai at *Tegyra (375). At *Leuctra (about which he had a prophetic dream) he and the *Sacred Band helped to execute *Epaminondas' battle-plan. After the historic Theban invasion of *Laconia (370/69), he was (like Epaminondas) acquitted on a politically inspired charge of acting ultra vires. In 367 he visited *Artaxerxes (2) II, extracting a rescript which suited Theban interests but proved hard to enforce. Latterly his special interest was *Thessaly.

Article

Peloponnesian League  

Paul Cartledge

Peloponnesian League, the earliest known and the most long-lived Greek summachia or offensive and defensive *alliance. The name is modern and strictly inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all- and only Peloponnesian nor a league (the members were not all allied to each other, and when no League war was in progress, members were free to carry on separate wars even against other members); the usual ancient name was ‘the Lacedaemonians (Spartans) and their allies’. In the 6th cent. Sparta used personal ties of xenia (see friendship, ritualized) to negotiate treaties of alliance with Peloponnesian cities, the first being with either *Tegea or *Elis. Some hold that a period of separate treaties with individual cities was followed shortly before 500 by the organization of the League as a permanent alliance (see cleomenes(1)i); others date the organization earlier (see chilon), others later. Allies swore to have the same friends and enemies as Sparta, and to follow the Spartans whithersoever they might lead; Sparta did not reciprocate these oaths, but did bind itself to go to the aid of an ally attacked by a third party with all strength and to the utmost of its ability. Sparta thus summoned and presided over the assembly of its allies, each of whom had one vote. Sparta could not be committed by the allies to a policy which it did not approve, but did require the approval of a majority vote of an allied congress to implement any joint policy it advocated. In war Sparta always held the command, appointed Spartan officers to levy and command allied contingents, and decided how many troops each ally must commit and the terms of engagement. In peace the League's main function from Sparta's standpoint was to act as a shield around its vulnerable domestic economic base (see helots); for the allies the benefits were less clear-cut, except for aristocrats and oligarchs whom Sparta tended to champion, not always successfully, against incipient democratic movements.

Article

Peloponnesian War, 431–404 BCE  

Simon Hornblower

Peloponnesian War of 431–404, fought between *Athens and its allies (see delian league) on the one hand and *Sparta and its allies (see peloponnesian league) on the other; most of it (down to 411) was recorded by the great historian *Thucydides (2) and that is the most interesting thing about it. The first ten years were the *Archidamian War, a title first used by *Lysias, as far as we know, for what Thucydides called the ‘ten-years war’, 5. 25. 1. This phase was ended by the inconclusive Peace of *Nicias (1). (Strabo 13. 600 subdivides yet further, referring to the ‘Pachetian’ part of the Peloponnesian War, i.e. the first half of the present book 3 of Thucydides, which deals with the revolt of *Mytilene; the name is from the Athenian commander Paches). The second main phase of the whole war, which Thucydides insisted on regarding as a unit, began with Athens' disastrous expedition to *Sicily (415–413) and continued with the ‘Ionian’ (cf.

Article

peltasts  

John F. Lazenby

Term originally used of Thracians (see thrace) equipped with a small, light shield (peltē), but later probably of any light infantry similarly armed, their main offensive weapon being the javelin. Judging by contemporary vase-paintings, *Pisistratus may have recruited some, but their first certain appearance was at *Pylos (Thuc. 4. 28. 4), where they are said to have come from *Aenus, in Thrace. They were subsequently used by *Brasidas in *Chalcidice (e.g. Thuc. 4. 111. 1) and in 409*Thrasyllus (1) had 5000 sailors equipped as peltasts (Xen.Hell. 1. 2. 1). They were particularly useful in a skirmishing role, or as an advanced guard, for example for seizing passes and other strategic points. They could not hope to defeat *hoplites in pitched battle, but if they managed to keep their distance, they could wear them down by missile fire, as at *Amphipolis in 422 (Thuc.

Article

Pentekontaetia  

Victor Ehrenberg and P. J. Rhodes

The ‘period of (almost) fifty years’ (Thuc. 1. 118. 2) between the end of the *Persian Wars in Greece in 479 and the beginning of the *Peloponnesian War in 431. The term is often applied to the selective account given by *Thucydides (2) at 1. 89–118 of the period from 478 to the early 430s, offered to justify his claim that the truest cause of the Peloponnesian War was Athens' power and Sparta's fear of it. The account is brief, selective, and lacking in precise dates.

Article

Perdiccas (3), Macedonian noble and commander under Alexander (3) the Great, d. 321 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Perdiccas (3) (d. 321 bce), son of Orontes, *Macedonian noble of the princely house of Orestis, commanded his native battalion in the phalanx of *Alexander (3) the Great. His military distinction, somewhat obscured by the hostile account of *Ptolemy (1) I, won him elevation to the rank of Bodyguard by 330. Subsequently he ranked second only to *Craterus in his effectiveness as marshal and succeeded *Hephaestion in his cavalry command and his position as chiliarch (Grand Vizier). The settlement at Babylon (323) confirmed him in the chiliarchy with command of the central army and gave him custody both of the new king, *Philip (2) Arrhidaeus, and the unborn child of Alexander. In 322 his position strengthened after his successful invasion of *Cappadocia, but his dynastic intrigues alarmed the commanders in Europe, *Antipater (1) and *Craterus (1), who declared war in winter 322/1 (the chronology is disputed).

Article

Perdiccas (1) I  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Perdiccas (1) I, the first king of *Macedonia (Hdt. 8. 139), who probably conquered the Macedonian coast c.640 bce.

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Perdiccas (2) II  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Perdiccas (2) II, king of *Macedoniac.450–413 bce. By astute diplomacy Perdiccas survived rebellions in Upper Macedonia, invasion by *Sitalces, and intervention by Athens and Sparta, and succeeded in uniting Macedonia and diminishing the Athenian control of his coast. In alliance with Athens until the Athenians founded *Amphipolis in 436, he subsequently promoted the revolt of *Potidaea and the Chalcidians, whom he advised to concentrate at *Olynthus. The Athenians aided by Derdas, prince of Elimiotis, and by Philip, exiled brother of Perdiccas, captured Therme before they came to terms with Perdiccas in order to besiege Potidaea. Perdiccas assisted Potidaea until Sitalces negotiated a treaty for him with Athens, who ceded Therme (431); probably Derdas also submitted to Perdiccas. In 429 the invasion of Sitalces was checked by the Macedonian cavalry, and a marriage-alliance was contracted; in 425 Perdiccas allied with *Brasidas to oust Athens and to reduce the Lyncestian prince Arrabaeus, but when the campaign in Lyncus failed, allied with Athens (422).

Article

Periander  

John Salmon

Periander, tyrant of *Corinthc.627–587 bce, after his father *Cypselus; he was for many the typical oppressive tyrant; see tyranny. Advice that he should eliminate rivals is said by *Herodotus (1) to have been given to Periander by Thrasybulus of *Miletus, who walked silently through a field of corn lopping off ears that were taller than the rest; *Aristotle made the advice pass in the opposite direction. Unlike his father, Periander recruited a bodyguard; he sent 300 Corcyraean boys to *Lydia for castration as punishment when Corcyraeans killed his son (see corcyra); he himself killed his wife Melissa, made love to her corpse and took the fine clothes off Corinthian women to burn for her spirit. There was also, however, a more favourable tradition: he was in many lists of the *Seven Sages, and ‘he was neither unjust nor insolent, but hated wickedness’ (Arist.

Article

Pericles (1), Athenian politician, c. 495–429 BCE  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme and P. J. Rhodes

Pericles (1) (c. 495–429 bce), Athenian politician, was the son of *Xanthippus (1) and the Alcmaeonid Agariste, niece of *Cleisthenes (2) and granddaughter of Agariste of *Sicyon (see cleisthenes(1)) and *Megacles. See alcmaeonidae. He was *chorēgos (paying for the production) for *Aeschylus' Persae in 472, but first came to prominence as one of the elected prosecutors of *Cimon in 463/2. In 462/1 he joined with *Ephialtes (4) in the attack on the *Areopagus.According to *Plutarch he became popular leader and one of the most influential men in Athens after Ephialtes' death and the *ostracism of Cimon. Little is recorded of him for some years, but it is reasonable to assume that he was in favour of the more ambitious foreign policy pursued by Athens in the 450s and of the further reforms of that decade. He is credited with a campaign in the Gulf of Corinth c.

Article

Pericles (2), dynast of Limyra  

Simon Hornblower

Pericles (2), early 4th-cent. bce dynast of Limyra (east *Lycia). His name suggests imitation of Athenian culture (see pericles(1)). He defeated Artembares, ruler of Pinara and Tlos (TAM 1. 67, 104) and (?) successor of Arbinas son of Gergis in West Lycia (ML 93+SEG 28. 1245; see xanthus). Pericles led the united Lycians against Telmessus (Fethiye), west of Lycia: FGrH115 Theopompus F 103. 17. All this looks like a bid for pan-Lycian supremacy, and new inscriptions found at Limyra (M. Wörrle, Chiron, 1991, 203–39) do indeed show Pericles calling himself ruler of the Lycians, Λυκίων βασιλεύς; they also attest dealings between Pericles and a Lycian community called the Pernitai. A fine tomb, with Greek-style *caryatids, may be his. By 337 Lycia was absorbed into the Hecatomnid Carian satrapy (see pixodarus).

Article

Perrhaebi  

Henry Dickinson Westlake and Simon Hornblower

Perrhaebi, a tribe occupying a district on the northern border of *Thessaly and commanding passes from *Macedonia. Although most of their country was mountainous and sparsely inhabited, their principal towns, Oloosson, the tribal capital, and Phalanna were situated in fertile plains. Neither, however, played any significant role in history. The Perrhaebi, who had been thrust northwards by the invading Thessalians, were reduced to the status of *perioikoi. Though liable to a war-tax, they enjoyed some degree of autonomy whenever the Thessalian koinon (league) was weak, and they held two votes on the Amphictionic Council (see amphictiony). With the growth of Thessalian cities in the 5th cent. they found themselves increasingly dominated by *Larissa. *Philip (1) II of Macedon severed Perrhaebia from Thessaly, and it remained under Macedonian control until liberated by T. *Quinctius Flamininus in 196.

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Perseus (2), Macedonian king, 178–168 BCE  

Peter Sidney Derow

Perseus (2), king of *Macedonia (179–168 bce), elder son and legitimate successor of *Philip (3) V, was born about 213/2. He took part in his father's campaigns against the Romans and then, as ally of Rome, against the *Aetolians. Perseus stood against the pro-Roman policies and royal aspirations of his brother Demetrius (executed for treason by Philip in 180) and succeeded to the throne on Philip's death in 179. After renewing his father's treaty with Rome, he secured his popularity at home with a royal amnesty and set about extending his influence and connections in the Greek world at large. In the early 170s he married Laodice, daughter of *Seleucus (4) IV, gave his sister in marriage to *Prusias (II) of Bithynia, won the goodwill of *Rhodes, and restored Macedon's position in the Delphic *Amphictiony. The mid-170s saw his popular involvement in social conflicts in Aetolia and *Thessaly, his reduction of Dolopia, and a remarkable tour de force through central Greece.

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Persian Wars  

John F. Lazenby

Term usually applied to the two Persian attempts to conquer Greece in 490 and 480/79 bce. The origins of the conflict go back to mainland Greek involvement in the rebellion of the Asiatic Greeks against Persian rule, earlier in the 5th cent. (See ionian revolt), but although *Herodotus (1) dramatizes their desire for revenge, the Persians already ruled many European Greeks in *Thrace and *Macedonia, and their primary reason for seeking to conquer the rest may well have been that their rule over existing Greek subjects would never be secure while others remained independent.The first attack was by sea. After ravaging *Naxos (1) and subduing other islands, forcing Carystus (see euboea) to terms, and taking *Eretria by treachery, an invasion-force eventually reached *Marathon, where it was confronted by an army of Athenians and Plataeans (see plataea).

Article

Peucestas  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Peucestas, son of Alexander, Macedonian, came to prominence in 326/5 bce when he saved the life of *Alexander (3) the Great at the Malli town (in southern Punjab) and was promoted to the élite bodyguard. Appointed satrap of Persis (325/4 ) he won Alexander's commendation (and the army's reprobation) by adopting Persian mores and language. Subsequently confirmed in office at Babylon (323) and Triparadeisus (321), he led the coalition of satraps which resisted the ambitions of Peithon in Central Asia (319/18). Relinquishing authority grudgingly to *Eumenes (3), he played an important part (somewhat invidiously reported by Eumenes' encomiast, *Hieronymus (1)) in the great campaign in Iran. Finally he surrendered to *Antigonus (1) (early 316), who removed him from Persis but apparently retained him in his service. He was active in *Caria (c.