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Robert G. Morkot

Trogodytae were a people of ‘*Ethiopia’, in particular the Eastern Desert of southern Egypt and north Sudan. In MSS of classical authors we frequently find a reading which, by inclusion of the letter ‘l’, gives, or implies, the name Troglodytae, ‘cave-enterers’, ‘cave-dwellers’. This latter name may be applied rightly to people with that name placed by classical writers on the northern side of the *Caucasus, where ‘Troglodytes’ lived in caves because of the cold; to a people in north-western Africa; to a people in the interior of northern Africa; and possibly to peoples on the eastern coast of the *Red Sea. But when the people concerned are located in Egypt and to the south of it, the name Troglodytae must be taken as false, reflecting no doubt a common confusion, the true name, as various MSS and papyri show, being Trogodytae with no reference to caves. Trogodytica included the whole coastline from Suez to the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. There were and are no natural caves in the eastern deserts of Africa; and it is probable that the Trogodytes lived in huts of wickerwork as the Beja do now. Their lands on the Red Sea coast were explored by agents of *Ptolemy (1) II and II.



Peter Pavúk

Major Bronze Age fortified settlement on the West Anatolian coast, south of the Dardanelles, consisting of a citadel and a lower town, changing in size and importance over time. The site, formerly called formerly Hisarlık, has been intermittently excavated for more than a century now, mainly thanks to Heinrich Schliemann’s identification of the site with Homeric Troy. Whereas the Homeric question has become less central over the years, it is clear by now that Troy, thanks to its localisation in the border-zone between Anatolia, the Aegean, and the Balkans, but also thanks to its uninterrupted occupation from c. 2900 bce to the 6th century ce, is an important archaeological site on its own. Troy became a major reference point, with two main cultural peaks: during Troy II/III (c. 2550–2200 bce) and later on during Troy VI Late/VIIa (c. 1400-1180 bce). It must have profited from a fertile surrounding, the trade in raw materials, or its facilitation, and possibly human resources. Situated on the edge of the Near Eastern civilisations, it was still part of the broader Bronze Age world.



Daniel Potts

Tylos, the Greek name (cf. Tyros (Strabo 16. 3. 4) Lat. Tyrus (Plin. HN 12. 21. 38)) given to the largest of the Bahrain islands in the *Persian Gulf, probably from Akkadian Tilmun via Aramaic †Tylwos, cf. Syriac. tlwn (attested in a letter written by the Nestorian catholicos Ishoyahb I in 584/5). *Androsthenes' visit in 324 bce effected the collection of detailed botanical data on Tylos, treated by *Theophrastus (Hist. pl. 4. 7. 7–8; 5. 4. 7–8; Caus. pl. 2. 5. 5). *Juba (2) (Plin., HN 6. 28. 147) had precise information on the island's location. Tylos was famed for its pearls (Plin. HN 6. 28. 147). Tylos minor (Plin., HN 12. 22. 39) is the neighbouring island of Muharraq, also called Arados (Strabo 16. 3. 4). The prehistory of Tylos extends back to at least the beginning of the 4th millennium bce, when it was inhabited by a population subsisting on herding, shellfish gathering, and fishing.



Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, Jean-François Salles, and J. F. Healey

Tyre, a major city in southern Phoenicia (see phoenicians) with a large territory, built on an island but extending ashore, and equipped with two harbours. It is famed as the main founder of Phoenician colonies to the west (*Cyprus, *Carthage, etc. ), and its international trade from Spain to the *Persian Gulf is evoked in Ezekiel's prophecies (Ezek. 26–8). The Tyrian navy is often mentioned as an ally of the Persians (see navies; persia). In 332 bce it offered an obstinate resistance to *Alexander (3) the Great and was captured only after a famous siege. It made a rapid recovery and became a Ptolemaic possession (see egypt, Ptolemaic) ruled by suffetes. Conquered by the *Seleucids in 200 bce, it became autonomous in 126. It early struck a *foedus with Rome. It was made a colony (see colonization, roman) by *Septimius Severus and the capital of Syria Phoenice.



Jean-François Salles

Ugarit, an important kingdom of N. Syria in the late bronze age, known from the excavations at Ras Shamra (16 km. (10 mi.) north of Lattakie) and the hundreds of texts in Ugaritic (alphabetic)/*cuneiform script found on the site. The city was destroyed in the early 12th cent. bce.


Uranius, Greek writer about Arabia  

Simon Hornblower

His date is not quite certain, but 4th century ce (rather than three centuries earlier) seems likeliest. He is a source for much of the Arabian information in Stephanus of Byzantium, in whose treatise on ethnics he is praised highly.



J. David Hawkins

Urartu, iron age kingdom ( = Hebrew Ararat) in the territory of later *Armenia. The unified kingdom is known from its archaeology and monumental *cuneiform inscriptions under a dynasty c.830–640 bce. Its largely hostile relations with *Assyria (1) are documented by *Assyrian sources.



Amélie Kuhrt

Uruk (mod. Warka; Gk. Ὀρχόη), c. 170 km. (106 mi.) south of *Babylon. It was a substantial city from c.4000 bce to the Sasanian period (see sasanids) and the source of hundreds of *cuneiform texts dating between the 7th and 2nd cents. bce. German excavations (since 1912) have uncovered a walled town dominated by a sanctuary of the goddess of war and sex, *Ishtar (Eanna), replaced in importance by a temple of Anu (sky-god) and his consort (Bit Resh) in the late 5th cent. bce, and a third temple, Irigal. Architectural and textual finds of the *Seleucid period are very rich. The Parthian period (see parthia) is well attested by pottery, small finds, and graves. Uruk was one of the most important Babylonian cities of the neo-Babylonian (see babylonia), *Achaemenid and Seleucid periods. A Seleucid colony ‘Antioch-on-the-Ishtar-canal’, is attested near Uruk in 270 bce.


Vologeses I  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Barbara Levick

King of *Parthia, 51 ce/2–79/80. His family belonged to *Media Atropatene. Much of his reign was spent in wars with Rome and on his eastern frontier. In 54 Vologeses set his brother *Tiridates(3) on the throne of *Armenia (Tac. Ann. 12. 50). Cn. *Domitius Corbulo, sent to re-establish Roman influence, was at first successful, Vologeses being occupied on his eastern frontier with a rebellion. Tiridates fled, and a Roman nominee *Tigranes(4) was crowned as king of Armenia. But Vologeses returned to the war, and at one time gained an advantageous treaty from L. *Caesennius Paetus, after the latter's capitulation at Rhandeia. Finally, peace was made and Tiridates agreed (63) to go to Rome and pay homage to *Nero for his throne: this he did in 66. Vologeses' later relations with Rome were friendlier: he sought *Vespasian's help against the invading Alani (Suet.


Xerxes I  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amélie Kuhrt

Xerxes I (OP Khšāyaršā), son of *Darius(1) and Atossa, king of *Persia486–465 bce, chosen by his father as successor (XPf ll. 31 ff.; Hdt. 7. 2–3). At the beginning of his reign he crushed a revolt in Egypt (Hdt. 7. 3) and later two rebellions in *Babylon. Plans for an expedition against Greece were inherited from Darius: for the course of events see persian wars. No Persian document mentions the expedition.The more important palaces on the terrace of *Persepolis were built in Xerxes' reign, including the *Apadana with its impressive reliefs, illustrating the structure and the extent of the empire: king, court, and subject populations with their ethnographic characteristics. In the Daiva-inscription (XPh ll. 28–41) rebellion is equated with the neglect of *Ahuramazda and the worship of daiva's (‘bad gods’). Xerxes' destruction of the daiva-sanctuary marks no breach with his ancestors' presumed religious tolerance, as is often thought, since DB 5 already contains similar phraseology. Xerxes' reputation as a weakling and a womanizer depends on certain recognizably novelistic passages in Herodotus (7. 2–3, 9. 108–13) and on the reading of royal inscriptions as personal messages by the kings, rather than as formulaic royal statements. Seen from the heartland, his reign forms a period of consolidation, not of incipient decay. Xerxes was murdered in 465.



Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Zeugma (mod. Bâlkîs, opposite Bîrecik), in *Syria on the right bank of the *Euphrates at its chief crossing, about 112 km. (70 miles) below *Samosata. Twin colonies Seleuceia (right bank) and Apamea (left bank) were founded by *Seleucus (1) I (PlinHN 5. 86), which came to be known by the generic name Zeugma (‘junction’), and gave Seleucus control of the lower river crossings of the Euphrates. It is possible that Apamea was merely a suburb of Seleuceia. It was here (in 221) that *Antiochus (3) III met his own bride, *Laodice(3), daughter of *Mithradates II of *Pontus, on her journey from Pontus and celebrated the royal wedding (Polyb. 5. 43. 1–4).


Zeuxis(1), of Heraclea (1) in Lucania, painter, 397 BCE  

Karim Arafat

Zeuxis (1), painter, of *Heraclea(1) in Lucania, pupil of Neseus of Thasos or Damophilus of Himera. *Pliny(1) dates him 397 bce, rejecting 424. *Quintilian dates both him and *Parrhasius to the *Peloponnesian War. In *Plato(1)'s Protagoras (dramatic date about 430) he is young and a newcomer to Athens. His rose-wreathed *Eros is mentioned in Ar. Ach.991–2 (425). He painted Alcmena for Acragas before 406, and *Archelaus (2)'s palace between 413 and 399. He ‘entered the door opened by Apollodorus and stole his art’; he added the use of highlights to shading, and *Lucian praises in the *Centaur family (an instance of the unusual subjects which Zeuxis preferred) the subtle gradation of colour from the human to the animal body of the female Centaur; his paintings of grapes were said to have deceived birds; he said that if he had painted the boy carrying the grapes better, the birds would have been frightened off. His figures lacked the ethos (character) of *Polygnotus, although his Penelope was morality itself, and his Helen (for Croton or Acragas) an ideal picture compiled from several models; pathos (emotion) rather than ethos distinguished the Autoboreas with *Titan look and wild hair, and the *Menelaus (1) drenched in tears.


Zeuxis (4), Seleucid viceroy  

Simon Hornblower

Zeuxis (4), important *Seleucid viceroy of the time of *Antiochus (3) III: Polybius 5. 45. 4 and 16. 1. 8 with Walbank, HCP and J. Ma, Antiochus III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor (1999) for the inscriptions. Cf. SEG 36. 973 =Ma no. 29 for his title, and Ma nos. 123 ff. for his role. See amyzon; sardis.



Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman

Zoroaster, Ζωροάστρης (Ζαθραύστης, Ζαράτας), is the Greek form Old Iranian Zarathuštra. He is considered by Zoroastrian tradition as prophet of a new religion; the revolutionary nature of his teachings is, however, debatable. In the oldest part of the Avesta, the Gāthā, he is called a ma̢thrān, ‘he who possesses the sacred formulas’. The Gāthā, ritualistic hymns, portray a dualistic system in which Aṣ̌a (truth, rightness) is opposed to Druj (lie, deceit) with *Ahura Mazdā is the supreme deity. They are dated, on linguistic grounds, to c.1000 bce. Whether Zoroaster was a historical figure, lived around this date, and wrote the Gāthā is debated; his persona certainly served as focal point of an emergent religious community. A date in the 6th cent. bce is suggested by late Zoroastrian tradition, but not supported by conclusive historical evidence. The Greeks knew of Zoroaster by the 5th cent. bce (*Xanthus(2) of Lydia in Diog.