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Article

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster and Karim Arafat

Apollonius (7), sculptor, son of Nestor, of Athens, signed the Belvedere torso in the Vatican (Winter, KB 394. 2). The supposed signature on the bronze boxer in the Terme is apparently an illusion (M. Guarducci, Ann. della Scuola archeol. di Atene 1959–60, 361). Apollonius may also have made the cult statue of *Jupiter Capitolinus, dedicated 69 bce, which is reflected in small bronzes.

Article

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster and Antony Spawforth

Successful Greek sculptor working in Rome, friend of L. *Licinius Lucullus (2), highly regarded by *Varro. His major public commission was the statue of *Venus Genetrix for the temple dedicated by *Caesar in 46 bce. He also supplied private collections: *Centaurs carrying *Nymphs, for *Asinius Pollio; and a lioness with Cupids for Varro.

Article

A. M. Snodgrass

Classical archaeology properly the study of the whole material culture of ancient Greece and Rome, is often understood in a somewhat narrower sense. *Epigraphy, the study of inscriptions on permanent materials, is today more widely seen as a branch of historical rather than of archaeological enquiry; while numismatics, the study of coins (see coinage), has become a largely independent discipline. The chronological limits are also open to debate. In the case of the Greek world, it has become common to distinguish ‘ancient’ from ‘prehistoric’, and to treat the archaeology of early Greece—at any rate down to the late bronze age—as lying outside the scope of classical archaeology. For Italy, the same is true down to a later date, after the beginning of the iron age. There is wider agreement in treating the collapse of pagan civilization as the terminus at the lower end.

No less important than these explicit divisions are the unwritten, yet widely accepted constraints on the range of material culture accepted as appropriate for study. These constraints, which have helped to maintain an intellectual distance between classical and other archaeologies, have privileged the study of works of representational art and monumental architecture as the core, sometimes almost the entirety, of the subject. A second prominent attitude, one which indeed inspired the study of the material remains of antiquity in the first place, has been attention to the surviving ancient texts, with the aim of matching them with material discoveries. These assumptions can be traced back to the earliest stages of the history of the discipline; topographical exploration, which also began very early, understandably shared the same deference to the texts. The collection of works of art, a prerogative of wealth rather than of learning, helped to confer on the subject in its early years a social prestige at least as prominent as its intellectual. From Renaissance times in Italy and France, from the early 17th cent. in England, and from somewhat later in other parts of northern Europe and North America, these forces propelled the subject forward. Such excavation as took place before the mid-19th cent. was usually explicitly directed towards the recovery of works of art, with the textual evidence serving as a guide or, where it was not directly applicable, as a kind of arbiter. Once the volume of available finds reached a certain critical mass, a further motive came into play: that of providing models for the better training of artists and architects.

Article

A. J. Parker

The potential richness of the sea for salvage or accidental finding of sunken valuables was recognized from earliest times, but the possibility of defining meaningful groups of wrecked material or of interpreting submerged sites scarcely predates the widespread adoption of underwater breathing-apparatus in the 20th cent. Standard apparatus, supplied with compressed air from the surface, as used by sponge divers, enabled the discovery and partial excavation of rich 1st-cent. bce cargoes at Antikythera (1900–1) and Mahdia (1908–13), but the unwieldy equipment, reliance on untrained working divers, and exclusion of archaeological direction from involvement under water remained serious limitations on progress. Self-contained breathing-apparatus (the aqualung) came into widespread use after 1945, and resulted in the growth of diving for sport and pleasure; many ancient wrecks were discovered, especially in southern France, and the importance of this resource was recognized by F. Benoit. However, he did not direct operations under water, and his main underwater project, the excavation at the islet of Le Grand Congloué (1952–7), has subsequently been shown to have confused two superimposed Roman wrecks.

Article

Andrew F. Stewart

6th-cent. Chiot sculptor (see chios). According to Pliny, HN 36. 11–14, son of Micciades, grandson of Melas, and father of Bupalus and Athenis (fl. 540–537 bce), all sculptors; worked on *Delos and *Lesbos. Melas was a mythical hero of Chios, but a base from Delos mentioning his, Micciades', and Archermus' names, and a winged marble woman found nearby, may bear out a scholiast's note (schol. Ar. Av.

Article

John F. Lazenby

Archaeological evidence shows that both the ‘self’ (i.e. made of one piece) and the ‘composite’ bow were known to bronze age Greece, and the considerable quantities of arrow-heads—flint, obsidian, and bronze—suggest that it was used for more than hunting; a bronze tablet from Cnossus alone (see minoan civilization) records 8,640. Fewer arrow-heads are known from the early iron age, but late geometric Attic vases show that the bow was important again by the 8th cent. bce.In *Homer's Iliad it is only used by one or two heroes on either side, and there is some suggestion that archers were despised. *Pandarus' bow was clearly composite since horn was used in its construction (cf. 4. 105 ff.), and the epithet ‘back-springing’ (παλίντονος) applied to this and other bows is also appropriate to this type. Horn was also used in the construction of *Odysseus' bow (Od.

Article

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The names of architects are preserved in literary sources as well as inscriptions. Theodorus, architect of the temple of Asclepius at *Epidaurus, is paid at only double the level of the ordinary craftsmen, suggesting a similar status, but this may be misleading, representing expenses rather than a living wage. *Vitruvius records treatises written by architects, such as Chersiphon and Metagenes, who built the Archaic temple of Artemis at Ephesus, *Ictinus and Carpion on the Parthenon, and the man whose writings profoundly influenced him, *Hermogenes (1); this suggests comparability with other educated men (as indeed, the De architectura requires). Roman architects are mostly anonymous; an exception is *Apollodorus (7).From the inscriptions, in particular, their role is extensive. In Classical Greece they have to prepare the design (probably not detailed, scale plans, but possibly including full-size paradeigmata, examples to be copied) and to draw up specifications to be submitted to the appropriate commissioning bodies (in Athens, ultimately, the assembly), as well as calculating the quantities of material to be ordered, including stone, and the exact dimensions of blocks to be delivered from the *quarries.

Article

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The forms of Greek architecture evolved essentially in the 7th and 6th cent. bce. After the collapse of *Mycenaean civilization, construction methods relapsed into the simplest forms of mud-brick and timber, mostly in small hut structures, the main exception being the great 10th-cent. apsidal building at *Lefkandi, over 45 m. (150 ft.) in length and flanked by wooden posts, supporting a thatched roof, a form echoed also in early structures at *Thermum.The development of the Archaic period centred on temples, which in terms of size and expense always constituted the most important building type in the Greek world. Some of the earliest examples such as the little temple of c.750 bce at *Perachora retained the apsidal form, while one at *Eretria (the early temple of *Apollo Daphnephoros) was curvilinear. This soon gives way to the rectangular cella, in major buildings entered by a porch at one end, balanced by a similar but false porch at the back (west Greek temples omit this in favour of an adytum, an internal room at the back of the cella) and surrounded by a colonnade. Such temples of the first part of the 7th cent. bce as that to Poseidon at *Isthmia, and to *Hera at the Argive and Samian *Heraia were, like Lefkandi, ‘hundred-footers’ (hekatompeda), with steps and footings of cut stone, possibly with wooden columns (at Isthmia the walls imitated timber-reinforced mud-brick but were constructed entirely in limestone; here the existence of external wooden columns is doubted).

Article

Rosalind Thomas

(τὰ δεμόσια γράμματα and variations; ἀρχεῖον is mainly Hellenistic). In Archaic Greece, documentation was minimal, laws being the most important public documents; lists of officials and agonistic victors (see agōnes) were evidently recorded (and later published), but the public inscriptions themselves were probably the ‘stone archives’ (see records and record-keeping). Temples were safe deposits from early on (e.g. *Heraclitus (1) deposited in a temple a copy of his own book), and might contain public inscriptions: hence they often came to house the archives of the city: e.g. the Athenian Metroon, also a shrine; archives of 2nd-cent bce*Paros. Documents were also kept separately by the officials concerned, or in their offices (on wooden tablets (pinakes), or whitened boards (leukōmata), or papyri), e.g. the Athenian cavalry archive (see hippeis § 2), the records of the *pōlētai (Ath.

Article

Karim Arafat

Argonauts generally appear in individual episodes. Boreads pursue Harpies (see harpyiae) on an Attic bowl (c.620 bce), later Archaic vases and an ivory from Delphi, and a Lucanian vase. The Argo appears on the Sicyonian treasury, Delphi (c.560 bce), Classical vases, Etruscan gems, Roman reliefs and coins. The Classical Niobid crater may show *Hylas lost. *Amycus is most famously depicted on a Lucanian vase (c.420–400 bce), and the Etruscan Ficoroni cista (c.300 bce). Jason and the fleece appear on Classical vases, an early imperial glass vessel, and a late imperial relief. Duris' early Classical cup showing the dragon regurgitating Jason is an otherwise unattested variation. Lost representations include the Archaic chest of *Cypselus and throne at *Amyclae (Paus. 3. 18. 15; Boreads), and a painting in Athens (see micon). Pliny (HN 35.

Article

John F. Lazenby

Apart from what little archaeology can tell us, our earliest evidence comes from *Homer, but it is uncertain how far the poems can be taken as depicting real warfare. To some extent, what happens on Homeric battlefields is dictated by the nature of the poetry. However, with the possible exception of those from *Locris (Il. 13. 714 ff.), all troops are implied to be of the same type, and there is no cavalry, even the chariots not being organized as a separate force and only rarely being used for a massed charge (e.g. 15. 352 ff.), despite *Nestor's advice (4. 303 ff.). Nestor also recommends subdivision into *phylai (‘tribes’) and *phratries (2. 362 f.), and other passages suggest organization into lines and files (e.g. 3. 77, 4. 90), but the constant use of the throwing-spear implies a loose formation except in particular circumstances (e.g. 16. 211 ff.).

Article

Herbert William Parke and Michael Vickers

Most Homeric references to arms and armour are best interpreted in connection with Minoan and Mycenaean armaments, known from such representations as those on the shaft-grave daggers (see mycenae). The characteristic armour here is a figure-of-eight-shaped shield made from a single ox-hide and swung from the neck by a strap. The only other protection was a helmet. The chief weapon was a long rapier-like sword. Towards the end of the bronze age this style was displaced by the use of a much smaller round shield carried on the arm; a change which involved the addition of a breastplate and greaves, while the sword became shorter and was used for cut as well as thrust. In the Homeric poems the champions begin by throwing spears at each other, and when these are gone they proceed to close combat with swords.The standing type of the Archaic and Classical soldier was the *hoplite, ultimately derived from the soldier of the transition to the iron age.

Article

J. J. Pollitt

The Greeks regularly equated art with craft, τέχνη, which *Aristotle defined as the ‘trained ability (ἕξις) of making something under the guidance of rational thought’ (Eth. Nic. 1140a9–10). Until the late Hellenistic period, there is no evidence that sculpture and painting were viewed as fundamentally different from shoemaking or any other profession which produced a product. Although a number of writers betray an instinctive recognition of a qualitative difference between the visual arts on the one hand and utilitarian crafts on the other, no formal distinction was ever made between the ‘fine arts’ and other arts in Greek thought.

From an aristocratic point of view artists were regarded as social inferiors because they were obliged to do physical work for others, and this type of life was held to have a degrading effect on their bodies and minds (Xen. Oec. 4. 2–3; Arist. Pol.

Article

Andrew F. Stewart

This article covers both architecture and art made specifically to mark and monumentalize the grave; for grave goods (which may be of any sort, and in Greece were rarely, it seems, custom-made for the tomb): see cemeteries; dead, disposal of.(c.3000–c.1100 bce). The earliest monumental funerary architecture occurs in the Mesara plain of Crete, where hundreds of circular stone tholos-tombs were erected during the third millennium, each housing multiple burials. Late Minoan rulers were occasionally buried in sumptuous built tombs, like the Royal Tomb at Isopata and the Egyptian-style Temple Tomb at *Cnossus. On the mainland, the 16th-cent. shafts of Grave Circle A at *Mycenae were surmounted by limestone *steles showing battles and hunts from chariots, and from c.1400 the élite were buried in corbelled tholos-tombs, of which several hundred are known from all over Greece; the largest and most famous is the so-called Treasury of .

Article

Cameron Hawkins

The social worlds of artisans and craftsmen were structured around skill on both conceptual and practical levels. On a conceptual level, artisans employed skill (τέχνη / ars) as a crucial component of the identities they constructed for themselves—identities that differed distinctly from perceptions of artisans among the elite, who dismissed most craftsmen as “base” manual labourers. On a practical level, the importance of apprenticeship as a tool for the acquisition of skill had a profound impact on the social profile of artisans and craftsmen: while it ensured that skill could be acquired by both free and enslaved artisans, it limited opportunities for women and for children born into households of low economic status. From an economic perspective, the small workshop remained the backbone of artisanal production. The ubiquity of small workshops in the economy can be explained best as the product of artisans’ efforts to respond to the risks created by product markets in which demand was inherently seasonal and uncertain. With some exceptions, artisans sought to mitigate their exposure to risk by minimizing fixed costs, while nevertheless preserving the ability to expand their output in periods of elevated demand. This was true even in industries that fostered specialization in discrete and technically demanding stages of a vertical production process: in these industries, artisans typically coordinated their production not within integrated firms, but rather within subcontracting networks.

Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and Simon Hornblower

Askoliasmos (ἀσκωλιασμός), thought to be the name of a country sport in Attica (but see Parker). The players tried to keep their balance while jumping on an inflated and greasy wine-skin (ἀσκός). It was probably played at many festivals, and despite Virgil G. 2. 384 should not be particularly connected with the Rural *Dionysia in Attica.

Article

Frederick Adam Wright and Michael Vickers

Astragali, knucklebones (ἀστράγαλοι), a popular pastime with Greeks and Romans of all ages. They also served as dice: the four long faces of the knucklebones were of different shapes, one flat, one irregular, one concave, and one convex, and in dicing these had the value respectively of 1, 6, 3, 4.

Article

John McKesson Camp II

The central fortress and principal sanctuary of *Athena, patron goddess of the city. In the later 13th cent. bce the steep hill was enclosed by a massive wall. Within, there are Mycenaean terraces, perhaps once supporting traces of ‘the strong house of *Erechtheus’ (Hom. Od. 7. 81). The first monumental temples and sculptural dedications date to the 6th cent. bce. Two large Doric temples of limestone with marble trim were built, along with a half-dozen small temples or treasuries. Later quarrying has obliterated the foundations of all but one of the peripteral temples (c.510 bce) which stood on the north side of the hill, just south of the later Erechtheum. A marble temple, the Older Parthenon, was under construction on the south half of the hill in 480 bce when the Persians took and sacked the city. The debris from this devastation was buried on the Acropolis and no major construction took place for about a generation. In the 450s a monumental bronze statue of Athena Promachus was set up to celebrate victory over the Persians and in the second half of the 5th cent. four major buildings were constructed at the instigation of *Pericles (1), with *Phidias as general overseer.

Article

Stephen Instone

At the core of Greek athletics was an individual's hard physical struggle in order to gain victory over an opponent; hence, it included not only (as ‘athletics’ implies nowadays) track and field events but also *boxing, *wrestling, and equestrian events (see horse- and chariot-races), and excluded team competitions, fun-running, and performances aimed at setting records (cf. the derivation of ‘athletics’ from the root ἀθλ- denoting struggle, competition for a prize, and misery). Athletics was a popular activity; valuable contemporary evidence for it is provided by vase-paintings and the victory odes of *Pindar and *Bacchylides.

The first substantial description of Greek practice comes from *Homer's account of the funeral games for *Patroclus (Il. 23. 262–897; cf. Od. 8. 120–30). Eight events are mentioned there (chariot-racing, boxing, wrestling, running, *javelin, an event similar to fencing, throwing the weight, and archery); the five in italics regularly formed the central part of all later games.

Article

Karim Arafat

Atlas is depicted in art from the mid-6th cent. bce, usually with Heracles in the Garden of the Hesperides, notably on the early Classical metope from *Olympia. In Hellenistic and Roman art he supports the globe with great effort. Pausanias notes him on the chest of *Cypselus (5. 18. 4), and the throne of *Amyclae (3.