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Article

Alexander Jones

The Antikythera Mechanism (National Archaeological Museum, Athens, inv. X 15087) was a Hellenistic gearwork device for displaying astronomical and chronological functions. Substantial but highly corroded remains of the instrument were recovered from an ancient shipwreck (see Figure 1).

The most complex scientific instrument to have survived from antiquity, it resembled the sphaerae or planetaria described by Cicero (1) and other Greco-Roman authors. The date of its construction is in dispute but must have been earlier than the middle of the 1st centurybce and can scarcely have been before the end of the 3rd centurybce. It is an invaluable witness for ancient mechanical technology at its most advanced level (see mechanics) as well as for Hellenistic astronomy.

Article

J. T. Vallance

Antonius Musa, physician to *Augustus whom he cured of a grave illness (Suet. Aug. 59). *Pliny the Elder links him with *Themison and his hydropathic therapies may place him in the tradition of *Asclepiades (3) of Bithynia. He also wrote on *pharmacology; nothing survives, but he is cited by *Galen (e.

Article

Antonius Castor, perhaps a freedman of M. *Antonius (2), was one of the elder *Pliny (1)'s sources for botany (HN 25. 9). Pliny mentions that he possessed his own botanical garden.

Article

J. T. Vallance

Antyllus, 2nd cent. ce, physician, one of the *Pneumatists. He lived after *Archigenes, probably after Galen, and wrote treatises on *surgery, *dietetics, and therapeutics, none of which survives. Some of his work is cited by *Paul of Aegina, *Oribasius, and *Aetius (2) of Amida.

Article

G. J. Toomer

Apollinarius, astronomer (fl. ?1st cent. ce). From references in *Galen, *Vettius Valens, and others, he appears to have been one of the most important figures in Greek *astronomy between *Hipparchus (3) and *Ptolemy (4). He constructed lunar tables, based on the 248-day period used by the Babylonian astronomers, which became standard in Greek astronomy until superseded by Ptolemy's. A long quotation from a theoretical work is preserved in an astrological compilation, and treatises by him on solar *eclipses and *astrology are also cited.

Article

Apollodorus (4), of Alexandria (1), physician and zoologist of the beginning of the 3rd cent. bce. His major work, On Poisonous Animals, was a source for pharmacologists and toxicologists in later antiquity (e.g. *Numenius, *Heraclides (4) of Tarentum, *Nicander, *Sostratus, Sextius Niger, *Pliny (1), *Dioscorides (2), *Archigenes, *Aemilius Macer, and probably *Philumenus; see pharmacology).

Article

Heinrich von Staden

Apollonius (10) Mys (fl. later 1st cent. bce?), Alexandrian physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus. Numerous fragments of his influential Εὐπόριστα (‘Common Remedies’), Unguents, and The School of Herophilus survive, some on papyrus.

Article

Apollonius (2), of *Perge, mathematician (fl. 200 bce). Born at Perge in Pamphylia, he composed the first version, in eight books, of his Conics in *Alexandria (1) ‘somewhat too hurriedly’ (Conics . He visited *Ephesus and *Pergamum, where he stayed with the mathematician Eudemus, (known to have been also a teacher of the Epicurean Philonides) to whom he subsequently sent the first three books of the revised version of the Conics. After Eudemus' death the remaining books were sent to Attalus.Of the Conics (Κωνικά) the first four books survive in Greek. These four books, as well as the next three, also survive in Arabic translation; the eighth is lost. Apollonius states (Conics 1 pref.) that the first four books are elementary. The remainders are particular, essentially independent treatises (πεϱιουσιαστιϰώτεϱα). He claims no originality for the content of Conics 1–4, but says that he expounds the fundamental properties ‘more fully and generally’ than his predecessors.

Article

Apollonius (3) (3rd cent. bce) served *Ptolemy (1) II as chief minister (dioikētēs) in Egypt and is best known as holder of a 10,000-aroura (2,750-ha: 6,800-acre) crown-gift estate near Philadelphia (1) in the *Fayūm. This estate formed the centre of a series of agricultural experiments (in *arboriculture, viticulture, crops, and livestock) and was managed by Zenon, a Carian immigrant from *Caunus, who came to the Fayūm in 256 and stayed on in the area after leaving Apollonius' service in 248/7. The collection of Zenon's papyri is the largest from the period and is now scattered throughout European and North American collections. It illustrates these and Apollonius' other interests: *textile-manufacturing at *Memphis, his contacts in *Alexandria (1), and commercial dealings, including slave-trading, in the Levant (see slavery).

Article

Apollonius (8), of Citium (c. 90–15 bce?), Alexandrian physician. Extant in an illustrated 10th-cent. manuscript, his commentary on the Hippocratic (see hippocrates (2)) treatise Περὶἀρθρῶν (‘On Joints’), offers invaluable evidence of the early state of the Hippocratic text, of orthopaedic *surgery, and of Empiricist polemics. His works on Hippocratic lexicography and on therapeutics are lost.

Article

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Born at Soloi in Cilicia, he was taught by the grammarian *Menecrates (2) of Ephesus, and studied at Athens, where he probably first became acquainted with *Callimachus (3) and the philosophers *Timon (2) of Phlius and *Menedemus (1). He there imbibed *Stoicism from *Zeno (2) and was introduced to *Antigonus (2) Gonatas of Macedonia, who invited him to the court at Pella. There he celebrated the king's marriage to Phila, half-sister of the Seleucid *Antiochus I, and composed a Hymn to *Pan glorifying Antigonus' victory over the Celts (277). Later he migrated to Antiochus' court in Syria, where he is said to have undertaken editions of *Homer's Odyssey and Iliad. Returning to Macedonia, he died there some time before the death of Antigonus (240/39).Aratus' best-known work, and the only one extant, is a poem entitled Phaenomena, undertaken at the suggestion of Antigonus.

Article

Robert Sallares

Tree cultivation. In the first millennium bce there was a remarkable expansion of fruit-tree cultivation in the Mediterranean from east to west. The productivity of Mediterranean *agriculture was significantly increased because trees were often intercropped with cereals and legumes, increasing total yields per unit area. These developments laid the economic foundations for the prosperity of Greek and Roman civilization and made diets more diverse and more nutritious. The most important of the trees in question were the *olive, vine (see wine), *fig, apple, pear, plum, pistachio, walnut, chestnut, carob, date-palm, peach, almond, pomegranate, sweet and sour cherry-trees. The cultivation of many of these species of trees depended on the spread of the technique of grafting. The date of the establishment of citrus trees in the Mediterranean is disputed. They were probably not important until after the end of the classical period. The Roman agronomists provide us with information about arboriculture. Trees were also very important in the ancient economy for *timber.

Article

William David Ross and V. Nutton

Archigenes, of Apamea in Syria, pupil of *Agathinus; well-known physician at Rome in the time of Trajan (98–117 ce). He was an eclectic, but was chiefly influenced by the doctrines of the Pneumatic school (see pneumatists). The leading principle of his therapeutics was to combat the eight δυσκρασίαι (bad temperaments).

Article

Born at *Syracuse, son of an astronomer Phidias, and killed at the sack of the city by the Romans under M. *Claudius Marcellus (1), he was on intimate terms with its king *Hieron (2) II. He may have visited Egypt, but lived most of his life at Syracuse, corresponding with *Conon (2), *Dositheus (1), *Eratosthenes, and others. He became a figure of legend and popular history (see Plut. Marc. 14–19) knew him as the inventor of marvellous machines used against the Romans at the siege of Syracuse, and of devices such as the screw for raising water (κοχλίας); for his boast ‘give me a place to stand and I will move the earth’ (Simpl. In Phys. 1110. 5); for his determination of the proportions of gold and silver in a wreath made for Hieron (εὕρηκα, εὕρηκα, ‘Eureka! I have discovered it!’ Vitr.

Article

Mathematician, political leader, and Pythagorean philosopher from *Tarentum. He was elected general seven times and sent a ship to rescue *Plato (1) from *Dionysius (2) II of Syracuse in 361. He figures prominently in several Platonic letters whose authenticity is controversial, but he is never mentioned by name in the dialogues. Many works were forged in his name in later antiquity. Only Fragments 1–4 are generally accepted as authentic, although these are supplemented by extensive testimonia. He was famous for his technical work in mathematics, providing the earliest solution to the celebrated problem of the duplication of the cube. He was the most accomplished music theorist in the Pythagorean tradition. His proof that numbers in superparticular ratio (n+1/n) have no mean proportional has relevance for music theory as does his work with the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means (fr. 2). He gave mathematical accounts of the diatonic, enharmonic, and chromatic scales and developed an influential theory of acoustics. His primary philosophical principles may have been inherited from his predecessor, *Philolaus.

Article

William David Ross

Aretaeus, of *Cappadocia, medical author, a contemporary of *Galen (c. 150–200 ce), wrote in Ionic in imitation of Hippocrates (2). Works (extant but incomplete): On the Causes and Symptoms of Acute and Chronic Diseases; On the Cure of Acute and Chronic Diseases; (lost) On Fevers; On Female Disorders; On Preservatives; Operations.

Article

Aristarchus of Samos, astronomer, is dated by his observation of the summer solstice in 280 bce. He was a pupil of the Peripatetic *Straton (1) of Lampsacus. He is famous as the author of the heliocentric (see geocentricity) hypothesis, that ‘the fixed stars and sun remain unmoved, and that the earth revolves about the sun on the circumference of a circle, the sun lying in the middle of the orbit’ (Archimedes, Sand-reckoner4–5); he also assumed that the earth rotates about its own axis (Plut. De fac.6). His only extant treatise, On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon, is, however, on the geocentric basis. Starting with six ‘hypotheses’, the treatise has eighteen propositions displaying the author's facility in both geometry and arithmetic. The ratios of sizes and distances which have to be calculated are equivalent to trigonometric ratios, and Aristarchus finds upper and lower limits to their values starting from assumptions equivalent to well-known theorems in geometry. The results are grossly discrepant from reality: this is due not only to Aristarchus' method, which, though mathematically correct, is ill suited for its purpose (see hipparchus (3)), but also to errors in the hypotheses, notoriously a figure of .

Article

Andrew Barker

Aristides Quintilianus (3rd cent. ce ?), author of a lost Poetics and an ambitious De musica. Musical issues are classified as theoretical (‘technical’ and ‘physical’) and practical. Book 1 (technical) expounds harmonics, rhythmics, and metrics, mainly from Aristoxenian sources (see aristoxenus), incorporating valuable material otherwise unknown. Book 2 (practical) discusses music's educational and psychotherapeutic uses with verve and style, ingeniously integrating older ideas (some attributed to *Damon (2)) with engaging reflections of Aristides' own, notably on solmization and on the *soul. Book 3 (physical), exploiting Pythagorean harmonic analyses, links musical phenomena through numerology, mathematics, and natural science with the overall structure of reality. The work is impressively detailed, and unified, despite inconsistencies, by a near-Neoplatonist vision (see neoplatonism) of cosmos, soul, and music as manifestations of a single divine order. See music §§ 5–6.

Article

Andrew Barker

Aristoxenus, of *Tarentum (b. c.370 bce), best known for musical writings but also a philosopher, biographer, and historian. He was trained in *music, possibly to professional standards, by his father Spintharus and Lampon of Erythrae (perhaps while living in *Mantinea). Later, probably at Athens, he studied with the Pythagorean (see pythagoras) Xenophilus, pupil of *Philolaus, before joining *Aristotle's Lyceum. Here his success made him expect to inherit the headship; and when Aristotle bequeathed it to *Theophrastus instead, his remarks about Aristotle (according to the Suda, our main biographical source) were memorably rude. The waspishness of criticisms levelled at others in his writings makes this believable; but his intellectual orientation is unmistakably Aristotelian, and his one surviving reference to Aristotle (Harm. 31. 10–16) is also the one unqualified compliment paid to anyone in that work. Nothing is known of him after 322 bce.

Article

Jonathan Coulston

Evidence for Greek and Roman artillery comes from the surviving technical treatises, incidental historical and subliterary references, and, most importantly, finds of both machine-fittings and projectiles. The latter at present date from the 2nd cent. bce to the 4th cent. ce.In 399 bce artificers of *Dionysius (1) I apparently invented the first artillery piece (Diod. Sic. 14. 42. 1). The gastraphetēs shot arrows only, and somewhat resembled an early medieval crossbow. Propulsion force was supplied by a composite bow, which, being too powerful for a man to draw by hand, was bent by means of a slide and stock. Later gastraphetai, some of which were stone-throwers, used a winch and had a stand. Torsion catapults appeared around 340 bce, possibly invented by *Philip (1) II's engineers. Stock, winch, and base remained much the same, but two springs, bundles of rope made from animal sinew and held at high tension in a metal-plated wooden frame, now provided propulsive power. Torsion machines improved continuously in efficiency through the Roman period. From c.