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Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Augusta Treverorum (mod. Trier), *civitas-capital of the *Treveri, developed from a settlement around a fort established under Augustus to guard a crossing of the Moselle. In the early empire Trier became the seat of the imperial procurator of Belgica and the Germanies (see belgae; germania), and eventually also that of the governor of Belgica. It soon (probably under Claudius) gained colonial status. Later, the advantages of its position brought it even more success. *Postumus chose it as his capital; the *tetrarchs based the Gallic prefecture there; and throughout the 4th cent. ce it accommodated various emperors and usurpers. Its bishop enjoyed great influence with the resident rulers. From 395, however, emperors ceased to visit the German frontier and the Gallic prefect was transferred to Arles (*Arelate). Early in the 5th cent. Trier was frequently sacked by the *Franks, and went into decline.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Augusta Vindelic(or)um (mod. Augsburg), probably originated in a civil settlement around an Augustan military base protecting an important crossroads-site, and was designated capital of *Raetia by *Tiberius. Its early prosperity was noted by Tacitus (Germ. 41). *Hadrian raised it to municipal status (see municipium), and after reorganization under *Diocletian it remained the civil capital of Raetia Secunda.

Article

Auximum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Auximum (mod. Osimo) with well-preserved ancient walls, hill-town of *Picenum, 17 km. (10 ½ mi.) from the Adriatic. Becoming a Roman colony (128 bce?), it developed into a flourishing place, which supported *Caesar against *Pompey. Much later it and four other cities constituted the Pentapolis under the *Ravenna Exarchate.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Aventicum, civitas-capital of the *Helvetii, modern Avenches, destroyed by the *Alamanni in the 3rd cent. ce. Vespasian established a colony of *veterans here (Colonia Pia Flavia Constans Emerita Helvetiorum Foederata); the relationship of coloni and incolae is disputed. Much survives, including defences (of the Flavian colony), east gate, theatre, forum, amphitheatre, baths, and private houses.

Article

Baiae  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Baiae, dependency of *Cumae, said to have been named after Baios, a companion of *Odysseus. It never became a *municipium, but flourished as a fashionable spa and resort, thanks to volcanic hot springs. By the mid-1st cent. bce, many of the Roman élite owned houses there. Several imperial palaces were built and it remained fashionable until the 3rd cent. ce, when *earthquakes and malaria (see disease) sent it into a decline.

Article

Bantia  

H. Kathryn Lomas

*Lucanian city on the border with Apulia (25 km. (15 ½ mi.) south of Venosa). It flourished in the 4th–3rd cents. bce, and became a *municipium in 89 bce. The material culture shows strong Greek and *Daunian influence. The *tabula Bantina was found there, as was an augural temple.

Article

Barcino  

Simon J. Keay

Barcino (mod. Barcelona), Colonia Iulia Augusta Paterna Faventia, founded by Augustus on a coastal branch of the via Augusta, possibly around 15 bce. There was no earlier native occupation and excavations have revealed traces of its early walls, street-grid (see urbanism), the *mosaic floors of houses, an early imperial cemetery, and part of an *aqueduct.

Article

Nicholas Purcell

Boscoreale, former hunting-reserve of the Angevin kings of Naples (*Neapolis) and part of the Naples conurbation, 2 km. (1 ¼ mi.) from Pompeii, is famous for the excavation of several villae rusticae, buried in the eruption of *Vesuvius in ce 79. They combine efficient equipment for investment-agriculture (especially oil and wine), and clear evidence of slave-labour, with comfortable appointments: from one (‘Pisanella’) came the 94 pieces of silver plate known as the Boscoreale treasure (in the Louvre); from another, perhaps once an estate of *Agrippa Postumus, came the fine paintings in the Metropolitan Museum in New York. The recently excavated Villa Regina preserves the fittings and surroundings of a more modest farm in eloquent detail. See villa.

Article

Martin Millett

The province of Britannia. The oldest name of the island known to us is *Albion; the earliest form of the present name, Πρεττανία, was used by the Greeks. The Latin Britannia was in use by the 1st cent. bce. It has no direct Celtic origin and is probably a Latin abstraction from an earlier form.The iron age communities of Britain showed a variety of social organization, although all were agrarian peoples organized into tribal territories dominated by a range of enclosed settlement sites. Many were agriculturally sophisticated and had developed an impressive Celtic art style (see celts). The peoples of the south-east had a long history of shared culture with northern Gaul. The islands were known to the Mediterranean world from at least the 3rd cent. bce. After 120 bce, as trading contacts between Transalpine Gaul and areas to the north intensified, Britain began to receive goods such as wine *amphorae, and Gallo-Belgic coinage was introduced.

Article

R. J. A. Wilson

A town in the Bagradas valley in North Africa. A large building of c.100/80 bce, a defensive circuit, and burials bear witness to the Numidian period (see numidia), when it was a royal capital (hence Regia); the earliest material goes back to c.300 bce. Later it came within Africa Proconsularis; a *free city under Augustus (Plin. HN 5.22), it received the *ius Latii under Vespasian and became a colony under *Hadrian. Extensive Roman ruins survive, including the forum, temples of *Apollo and *Isis, the theatre, and substantial baths; particularly notable are its many mosaic-paved houses of late-Roman date, some with a complete underground storey to provide a pleasantly cool retreat from the summer heat.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Burdigala (mod. Bordeaux), capital of the Bituriges Vivisci and, eventually, of *Aquitania, was a busy international trading-port (with strong British links). Important remains include an amphitheatre (the ‘Palais-Gallien’), a temple of Tutela, and instructive inscriptions and reliefs. In the late empire a reduced enceinte, c.700×450 m. (765×492 yds.), rectangular with bastions, was built, principally to protect the port. It was the birthplace (c.

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Buxentum (mod. Policastro), a Roman colony, founded in 194 bce on the Greek city of Pyxus, itself a colony of *Rhegium. Livy (34. 5. 1, 39. 23. 3) says that it was unsuccessful, despite a second deduction in 186, but archaeological surveys contradict this, showing an intensification of settlement in the region.

Article

Simon J. Keay

Caesaraugusta (mod. Zaragoza), in NE central Spain. An Augustan colonia and early mint with rectangular layout (895m.×513m.: 979×561 yds.) and settled by *veterans of the Cantabrian Wars (IV, VI, and X Legiones; see cantabri). Excavations have uncovered the forum, the theatre, baths, mosaics, and the late Roman walls. Caesaraugusta retained importance in the Visigothic period (see goths).

Article

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, George Ewart Bean, and Stephen Mitchell

Caesarea (1) of Cappadocia (formerly Mazaca, mod. Kayseri) was created by *Cappadocian kings to be their capital. The *philhellene*Ariarathes V gave it a Greek constitution (the laws of *Charondas) and the name Eusebeia by Mount Argaeus, which was changed to Caesarea by *Archelaus (5) in 12–9 bce.

Article

Caesarea (3), mod. Cherchel, on the coast of Algeria. Probably founded as a Punic trading-station, known as Iol, the oldest finds date to c.500 bce. Defences were constructed towards the end of the 3rd cent. bce. Annexed by Rome in 33 bce, it was placed in the hands of the Berber prince *Juba (2) II, who called it Caesarea, and made it into as Graeco-Roman a city as possible (theatre, amphitheatre, street-grid, etc. and a magnificent art collection). See urbanism. In 40 ce, it became the capital of the province of *MauretaniaCaesariensis, and the residence of the *procurator; *Claudius made it a colonia (see colonization, roman). It became a prosperous port town of c.20,000, with a belt of villas around it; its agricultural *mosaics are celebrated. Embellished in Severan times (see rome, history), it had magnificent 4th-cent. houses, and the civic centre was refurbished around the time of the Vandal conquest (429), being abandoned for poor houses only in the period of the Byzantine reconquest (533).

Article

Cales  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Cales (mod. Calvi), an *Auruncan city, c. 47 km. (29 mi.) north of Naples. It was a strategic point, controlling communications between *Latium and *Samnium, and was occupied from the 7th cent. bce. In the aftermath of the Latin War (see latin i), it became a Latin colony (334 bce), counterbalancing Samnite-controlled *Teanum Apulum. It remained an important Roman base throughout the Samnite and *Punic Wars, but was one of the colonies which refused troops to Rome in 209 and was subsequently punished (Livy 27. 9). There was a second colonization in 184 bce, and it remained an important city. The territory was fertile and it was noted for its pottery. The *via Latina ran through the city. There are remains of the walls, theatre, baths, a temple, Roman and pre-Roman street patterns, and numerous burials and inscriptions.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Calleva Atrebatum, mod. Silchester, on the Hampshire–Berkshire border. The Roman town was civitas-capital of the *Atrebates (2) and succeeded an enclosed iron age oppidum. This was founded in the 1st cent. bce and shows a planned layout. The place-name ‘callev’ is given on coins of Eppilus dated to c.ce 10. The land within the late 2nd-cent. earthen defences (rebuilt in stone c.ce260–80) was excavated on a large scale in 1890–1909. Shops, a *dyeing industry, and some 60 houses were exposed, and of public buildings a forum with basilica, baths, a presumed mansio, five small temples, and a possible small Christian church. Recent extensive excavations have exposed extensive iron age deposits beneath the basilica, discovered earlier phases of a timber forum, explored the amphitheatre and defences, and explored the long and complex sequence of occupation in Insula IX. The population was perhaps c.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Camulodunum (mod. Colchester, Essex). A large area, including the site of the later town, comprised an iron age *oppidum from the Augustan period. It was surrounded by substantial earthworks and was the capital and mint of *Cunobel(l)inus. Captured in *Claudius' campaign of ce 43, a fortress of Legio XX Valeria was constructed beside it, and in 49 a colony (colonia Victricensis) was founded on the site of the fortress. This became the first provincial capital, with the temple of Divus Claudius and a theatre with an adjacent forum. This unwalled town was sacked by *Boudicca in ce 60/1 and was subsequently rebuilt to cover an area of c.43 ha. (106 acres). Its defences were a clay bank to which, it appears, a stone wall was added in the early 2nd cent. Outside the walls was an important Romano-Celtic sanctuary at Gosbecks and a circus. Samian pottery was made in an industrial suburb in the 2nd/3rd cent.

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Chief city of *Daunia (Plin. HN 3. 104, Procop. Goth. 3. 18). It was not a Greek foundation (Strabo 6. 3. 7), but there was extensive Hellenization (see hellenism) from the 4th cent. bce onwards, in pottery styles, coinage, and language (Hor. Sat. 1. 10. 30). It became a Roman ally in 318 bce, but revolted during the *Social War (3).

Article

Albert William van Buren, Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and John Patterson

Capitol, Capitolium, or mons Capitolinus, the smallest of the *Seven hills of Rome: an isolated mass with two peaks, conventionally known as Capitolium proper and Arx. Legend associated the hill with Saturn, and recent archaeological work has revealed occupation dating back to the bronze age. It is best known as the site of the great temple begun by the Tarquins (see tarquinius priscus and tarquinius superbus) and dedicated, in the first year of the republic according to tradition, to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno, and Minerva. Given its role as citadel and its religious importance, the hill was seen as a symbol of Roman power. It was successfully defended against the gauls in 390 bce. Here the consuls sacrificed at the beginning of the year and provincial governors took vows before going to their provinces; a sacrifice here was the culmination of the triumphal procession (see triumph).