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Born c.105 bce at *Miletus, he was captured in the Mithradatic Wars (see mithradates vi) and came to Rome as a slave of an unidentifiable Cornelius Lentulus; he was freed and given Roman citizenship by *Sulla (c.80 bce). He later taught C. Iulius Hyginus (see hyginus (1)). His vast literary output (FGrH273) included compilations of geographical material and wonder-stories of various lands and peoples, including five books on Rome and works on Delphi, Egypt, the Chaldaeans, and the Jews. He also wrote works on the history of philosophy, and commentaries on the place-names in *Alcman and possibly on *Corinna. His encyclopaedic industry is evident; nothing suggests any concern for originality.

Article

Dominic W. Rathbone

Alexandria (1) was founded by *Alexander (3) the Great in 331 bce when he took *Egypt from the Persians. It was developed principally by the first two Ptolemies, who made it the capital of their kingdom and the main Mediterranean port of Egypt (see ptolemy (1)). It was founded as a theoretically autonomous city (*polis) of the traditional Greek type, modelled in several respects on Athens: it had an exclusive hereditary citizenship organized by *demes, probably with an assembly (*ekklēsia), council (*boulē), and annually elected magistrates, it had its own territory, restricted to citizen-owners and exempt from direct royal taxation, its own coinage, and its own laws. Its founding citizens were recruited from all over the Greek world; there were also numerous non-citizen residents of Egyptian and other ethnic origin, including a large Jewish community which acquired special privileges though not full citizenship. Alexandria soon became one of the largest and grandest cities of the Mediterranean world, famed for the monumental magnificence of its two main intersecting streets, its palace-quarter with the tomb of Alexander and the *Museum and *library, its Serapeum (see sarapis), *gymnasium, and Pharus, the *lighthouse at the entrance to its two capacious artificial harbours.

Article

Stephen Mitchell

Alexandria (2) ‘near Issus’, close to Iskenderun (Alexandretta) on the gulf of Issus, a city founded by *Alexander (3) the Great or *Seleucus (1) I near the site of the battle (of *Issus) where Alexander defeated *Darius III in 333 bce. Despite its strategic position below the approaches to the *Amanus mountains it was eclipsed by its north Syrian neighbours *Antioch (1) and *Seleuceia (2) in Pieria.

Article

Stephen Mitchell

Alexandria (7) Troas was originally founded in 310 bce as Antigoneia by *Antigonus (1) but renamed soon after by *Lysimachus. The site lies on the coast of *Troas opposite Tenedos, and through the *synoecism of several surrounding communities it became the most important city of the region. It was refounded as a Roman colony under Augustus and flourished under the empire. Ti. *Claudius Atticus Herodes (1), *procurator of Asia under *Hadrian, supervised the construction of an *aqueduct there: the costs rose so high that he was obliged to underwrite them in person rather than draw on imperial revenues. A large bath-house on the site dates to this period and can be associated with the project. See quinctilius valerius maximus, sex.

Article

Algidus  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Algidus, the easternmost section of the outer edge of the *Albanus mons, famous for its temples of Diana and Fortune and its fashionable villas (Hor. Carm. saec. 69; Livy 21. 62; Sil. 12. 536). The rim of the Albanus mons is here pierced by a narrow pass which the *Aequi seized in the 5th cent.

Article

Alinda  

Simon Hornblower

Alinda (mod. Karpuzlu), town in *Caria (SW Asia Minor), possibly of great antiquity (the name may occur in Hittite documents). It paid tribute to the 5th-cent. Athenian empire (see delian league) and was in *Mausolus' sphere of influence, though there is no direct evidence for Hecatomnid control before Mausolus' sister *Ada who occupied Alinda after being expelled from *Halicarnassus by her brother *Pixodarus (Arr. Anab. 1. 23. 8, calling it a strong Carian fortress). *Alexander (3) the Great may have re-founded it as Alexandria ad Latmum (but see Fraser). The theatre and remarkable market-building are Hellenistic.

Article

Aliso  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Aliso, a fort on or near the Lippe established during the wars of *Drusus, possibly the one mentioned by Cassius Dio (54. 33. 4) as set up in 11 bce ‘at the point where the Lupia and the Elison unite’. The garrison resisted the advancing Germans after the defeat of P.

Article

Allia  

Andrew Drummond

Allia, a stream flowing into the *Tiber on the east bank, 18 km. (11 mi.) north of Rome (probably modern Fosso della Bettina), where the Romans confronted, and were overwhelmed by, a Gallic war-band (18 July 390 bce), resulting in the capture of Rome itself. The related but differing accounts of the battle in our sources are probably later reconstructions. See also brennus (1).

Article

Allifae  

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Allifae, mountain town overlooking the *Volturnus the gateway between *Samnium and *Campania: modern Alife, which has an archaeological museum (an epigraphic collection is in nearby Piedimonte Matese). Strategic Allifae changed hands repeatedly in the Samnite Wars. Under Rome it descended to lower ground and became a flourishing town with well-preserved Roman walls, baths, and a theatre.

Article

Alps  

Howard Hayes Scullard and T. W. Potter

Although the passes of the Alps had been used for trans-European commerce since prehistoric times, the early Greeks had no knowledge of these mountains, though a vague notion of them may lurk in their speculations about the *Hercynian Forest and the *Rhipaei montes; in Herodotus (4. 49) ‘Alpis’ is a tributary of the Danube. By the 4th cent. Greek travellers in north Italy and Provence brought information about a ‘pillar’ or ‘buttress’ of the north (Ephorus, in Scymn. 188); but *Apollonius (1) Rhodius (4. 627 f.) could still believe that the Rhône (Rhodanus) and Po (*Padus) were interconnected. The Roman conquest of *Cisalpine Gaul and Hannibal's invasion of Italy (Polyb. 3. 50–6; Livy 21. 32–7; the pass remains unidentified) brought more detailed knowledge, and *Polybius (1) gave a good description of the western Alps, though he thought that they extended uniformly in a west–east direction. The campaigns of *Caesar in Gaul, and of *Tiberius in Switzerland and Austria, opened up the Alps thoroughly, and in the first two centuries ce at least five paved roads (Little and Great St Bernard, Splügen, Maloja, and Brenner passes) were built across them.

Article

Altinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Altinum (mod. Altino, near Venice), from the 5th cent. bce a centre of the *Veneti (2), and later a Roman *municipium. It prospered as a highway junction, where the *via Postumia, *via Popillia, *via Annia (1), and transalpine via Claudia Augusta met, and was a fashionable resort with rich *villas (Mart.

Article

Amanus  

Eric Herbert Warmington

Amanus, the name applied to the mountain horseshoe of Elma Dağ above Alexandretta (see alexandria (2)), together with Giaour Dağ which trends north-eastwards. It is separated from *Taurus by the deep gorge of the Jihun. It is crossed by great passes, the Amanid Gates (Baghche Pass from the Cilician plain to *Zeugma), and the Syrian Gates (Beilan Pass) carrying a Roman road from *Tarsus into Syria.

Article

Amathus  

Hector Catling

Amathus, a major coastal city of *Cyprus, on a hill near mod. Ayios Tychonas, 10 km. (6 mi.) east of Limassol, surrounded by extensive and much excavated cemeteries, and immediately adjacent to its built harbour. Its foundation on a virgin site in the 11th cent. bce without nearby bronze age predecessors accords oddly with its alleged autochthonous identity. As late as the 4th cent. bce it used the Cypro-Minoan syllabary to write an unknown language (Eteo-Cyprian: see pre-alphabetic scripts (greece)). But it stood apart from the other cities in 498, refusing to join the *Ionian Revolt; Onesilus of *Salamis (2) therefore besieged it. A series of coins has been attributed to its 5th- and 4th-cent. kings, the last of whom, Androcles, fought with his ships for *Alexander (3) the Great at *Tyre. Recent excavation has located its famous *Aphrodite sanctuary.

Article

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Ambracia (mod. Arta), situated on the river Arachthus, 18 km. (11 mi.) from its harbour Ambracus on the north shore of the gulf of Arta. Founded as a Corinthian colony (see corinth) c.625 bce, it owned fertile land, fisheries, and ship-timber, and it exported the produce of *Epirus. When it tried to expand its control southwards, it suffered a crippling defeat at the hands of Athens, *Amphilochia, and *Acarnania in 426 bce. It resisted the advance of *Philip (1) II with help from Corinth and Athens, but was compelled to accept a Macedonian garrison. It was ceded in 294 bce by *Cassander's son to *Pyrrhus, who made it his capital and spent lavishly on its adornment. With the fall of the Molossian monarchy it became a centre of conflict between Macedonia and Aetolia, and in 189 bce it surrendered after a long siege to Rome, which later declared it a ‘*free city'.

Article

Ameria  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Ameria (mod. Amelia), hill-town of southern *Umbria. Although very ancient (Plin. HN 3. 114), it is first mentioned by Cicero (Rosc. Amer. 15, 19, 20, 25), in whose day it was a prosperous *municipium. It remained such in imperial times. Its massive polygonal walls are still well preserved.

Article

Amisus  

Stephen Mitchell

Amisus (mod. Samsun), a 6th-cent. colony of *Miletus or *Phocaea, was built on a peninsula site on the Black Sea coast, the best harbour between *Sinope and *Trapezus, at the head of a commercial route into *Pontus and *Cappadocia. Athenians from the Piraeus joined the settlement in the mid-5th cent. Freed from the Persian empire by *Alexander (3) the Great, it was part of the kingdom of Pontus from around 250 bce, and became a royal residence of *Mithradates VI. L. *Licinius Lucullus (2) captured and restored the city in 71 bce, giving it freedom and additional territory, and it was one of the cities of *Pompey's Pontic province. Antony (M. *Antonius (2)) gave it to a tyrant but Augustus confirmed its status as a free and allied city within the province of Pontus and *Bithynia.

Article

R. J. A. Wilson

Ammaedara (mod. Haidra), a Roman city in western Tunisia on the Carthage–Theveste trunk road, 36 km. (22 mi.) north-east of the latter. The first fortress of the Legio III Augusta was established here in Augustan times on a virgin site close to the oued Haidra. The exact position of the fortress is unknown, but it is assumed to lie under the Byzantine fortress at the heart of the site; legionary tombstones from a necropolis to the east demonstrate the presence of the legion. When the fortress was moved to *Thevestec. ce 75, a town was founded as colonia Flavia Augusta Aemerita Ammaedara (CIL 8. 308). Imposing ruins, including those of a capitolium (see capitol), a theatre, baths, an arch of Septimius Severus (195), and several mausolea, are spread out over an area of some 1,400×600 m. (1,500×650 yds.), but little excavation has been conducted. Ammaedara was a notable Christian centre, with bishops at least from 256; five churches of the 4th–6th cents. have been identified. A large Byzantine fortress (200×110 m.: 220×120 yds) dominates the centre of the site.

Article

Amorgos  

R. W. V. Catling

Amorgos, a narrow mountainous island (124 sq. km.: 48 sq. mi) in the SE *Cyclades. Its location makes it an attractive staging-point for shipping. Having flourished in the early bronze age, its later prehistory is obscure. During the Ionian migration three cities were founded c.900 bce, Arcesine in the west, Minoa in the centre, and Aegiale in the east. Naxians (see naxos (1)) were the original colonists, with Samians led by the poet *Semonides arriving in the later 7th cent. Dialect, script, and art indicate a Naxian presence at Arcesine and a Samian one at Minoa. Amorgos may have remained a Samian possession until 439 bce, appearing in the Athenian *tribute lists from 433 bce paying one talent. Under the *Second Athenian Confederacy Arcesine received a garrison. There were further Hellenistic settlements of Samians at Minoa, Milesians at Aegiale and, perhaps, Naxians at Arcesine (first attested in the imperial period). Though a place of *exile under the Julio-Claudians, its cities survived until late antiquity.

Article

James Maxwell Ross Cormack and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Amphipolis, on the east bank of the Strymon, which surrounds the city on three sides (hence its name), 5 km. (3 mi.) from its seaport Eïon; it was originally the site of a Thracian town, Ennea Hodoi (‘nine ways’, Hdt. 7. 114; see thrace). After two unsuccessful attempts in 497 and 465 bce, it was colonized by the Athenians, with other Greeks, under Hagnon, son of Nicias, in 437–436 bce. It owed its importance partly to its strategic position on the coastal route between northern Greece and the Hellespont, and partly to its commercial wealth as the terminal of trade down the Strymon valley, a depot for the minerals of *Pangaeus and a centre for ship-timber (Thuc. 4. 108). In 424 bce Amphipolis surrendered to the Spartan *Brasidas. It remained independent until 357 bce, when it was captured by *Philip (1) II who gave it a favoured status in the Macedonian kingdom. *Alexander (3) the Great made it the chief mint in his domains.

Article

W. M. Murray

Amphissa, ‘the largest and most famous city of the [western, Ozolian] Locrians’ (Paus. 10. 38. 2; see locris). Its traditional policy being enmity with *Phocis and alliance with *Thebes (1), Amphissa played a leading part in the Third *Sacred War, and was reduced to dependence by *Onomarchus in 353 bce. After the collapse of Phocis, it initiated moves that resulted in the Fourth *Sacred War in which *Philip (1) II of Macedon captured the city and destroyed its walls (338). Amphissa joined in the defence of *Delphi against the Gauls in 279 and thereafter became Aetolian until freed by the Romans in 167. After *Actium (31 bce), the city was inhabited by Aetolian refugees and claimed henceforth to be Aetolian and not Locrian. The ancient city is securely identified with remains at modern Salona.