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Andron, b. c. 440 BCE  

Phillip Harding

Andron, son of Androtion, was a wealthy member of the Athenian intelligentsia; father of the atthidographer *Androtion (see atthis). He is usually identified with Andron, one of the *Four Hundred, who initiated the prosecution of *Antiphon (1) and others in 410 (Plut. Mor.

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Androsthenes  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Androsthenes, of Thasos, a trierarch of the Hydaspes fleet in 326 (Arr. Ind. 18. 4), and companion of *Nearchus, subsequently (324 bce) explored Bahrain and the Arabian coast. His Circumnavigation of India (FGrH 711 and D. W. Roller in BNJ) was exploited by *Eratosthenes, and *Theophrastus drew on its vivid description of the flora of Bahrain.

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Androtion, c. 410–340 BCE  

Phillip Harding

Androtion (c. 410–340 bce), son of *Andron, was a wealthy Athenian politician and atthidographer (see atthis). Before his entry into politics (c. 385) he studied under *Isocrates. His long political career involved service to Athens in many capacities: as bouleutēs (twice; see boulē); as tax-commissioner; as governor of Arcesine on *Amorgos (358–356) during the *Social War (1); and as ambassador to *Mausolus of Caria (355/4). He proposed a motion regarding sacred vessels (IG 22. 216/7) and another honouring the sons of the *Spartocid ruler Leucon of *Panticipaeum (IG 22. 212); see also bosporus (2). He was prosecuted for an unconstitutional proposal in 354/3 by personal enemies. *Demosthenes (2) wrote one of the speeches (Dem. 22). Despite efforts to define his career no consistent ideology can be shown. For some reason he ended his life in exile (after 344/3) in *Megara, where he wrote his Atthis.

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Antalcidas  

Stephen Hodkinson

Antalcidas (occasional deviant version, Antialcidas), Spartan statesman. He came from a prominent family and was probably related by marriage to King *Agesilaus II. He first appears as Sparta's representative at the Graeco-Persian conference at *Sardis in 392 bce. He negotiated a Sparto-Persian alliance with *Artaxerxes (2) II in 388 and, as admiral (*nauarchos), blockaded the Hellespont with Persian naval assistance, forcing the Athenians and their allies to agree to the *King's Peace (or Peace of Antalcidas) in 387/6. Its terms abandoned the Greek cities of Asia to Persia and established peace (probably the first officially named ‘*Common Peace’) in mainland Greece and the Aegean based upon the principle of autonomy, although the practical effect was the establishment of Spartan hegemony. Although the tradition of his long-standing enmity with Agesilaus is doubtful, he reproved the king for his unrelenting hostility towards Thebes (1) in the 370s. He successfully negotiated Persian support in 372/1 and was elected *ephor for 370/69.

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Antichthon/Antipodes  

Alfred Hiatt

The terms antipodes and antichthones, along with others such as antoikoi and perioikoi, referred to hypothetical peoples dwelling beyond the extent of the known world. These terms were the product of a mathematically based astronomy in which the spherical nature of the Earth was a fundamental element. Calculations of the size of the Earth resulted in the conjecture that inhabited land existed beyond the known world of Asia, Europe, and Africa/Libya. Such land was usually thought to be inaccessible owing to the expanse of Ocean, or because of the extremes of heat and cold found, respectively, at the Equator and the poles.The concept of the antipodes appears to have emerged from Pythagorean thought. Pythagoras was credited with the doctrine that inhabitation was not restricted to the known world, and specifically that there were inhabitants on the opposite side of the Earth, whose “down” was “up” for those in the known world; certain Pythagoreans conceived of an antichthon, or counter-Earth, in relation to the known world (Diog. Laert., Vitae Philosophorum 8.

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Anticleides  

Frank William Walbank and Kenneth S. Sacks

Anticleides, of Athens (fl. early 3rd cent. bce), wrote a history of *Alexander (3) the Great (containing a long digression on Egyptian antiquities), a substantial mythological work reaching into historical times, perhaps as far as *Pisistratus, and an account of Delian antiquities (see delos). He favoured unusual versions and rationalizations of legends (like the Atthidographers (see atthis) and *Palaephatus) and invented romantic details of the Trojan War; some fragments show *Peripatetic influence.

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Antigonus (1) I, 'Monophthalmos' ('the one-eyed'), c. 382–301 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Antigonus (1) I (c. 382–301 bce), ‘the One-eyed’ (Monophthalmos), Macedonian noble, was prominent under *Philip (1) II and governed Greater *Phrygia for *Alexander (3) the Great (334–323). Victorious in three battles over Persian refugees from *Issus (332), he remained unchallenged in his satrapy until he fell foul of the regent *Perdiccas (3) whom he denounced to *Antipater (1) in Macedon (322), unleashing the First Coalition War. For his services he was given command of the campaign against *Eumenes (3) and the remnants of the Perdiccan factions. In 319 he defeated both groups spectacularly, and Antipater's death, on the heels of his victories, encouraged him in his supremacist ambitions. He supported *Cassander against the regent *Polyperchon, and took the war against Eumenes (Polyperchon's appointee as royal general) into central Asia. The victory at Gabiene (316) gave him control of territory from the Hindu Kush to the Aegean, but his success brought immediate war with his erstwhile allies: Cassander, *Lysimachus and *Ptolemy (1) (315).

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Antigonus (2), 'Gonatas', c. 320–239 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Antigonus (2) (c. 320–239 BCE), king of Macedonia (c.277/6–239 bce), son of *Demetrius (4) I and Phila, nicknamed ‘Gonatas’ (meaning unknown). He served under his father in Greece in 292, commanded his possessions there from 287, and took the royal title on Demetrius' death in 282, though he failed to gain Macedonia until 277/6. Before then his military ability won widespread recognition, not only in Macedonia, through a major victory near Lysimacheia in 277 over *Celts who had overrun Macedonia and Thrace. Cassandreia still resisted him for ten months but his dynastic alliance with *Antiochus (1) I, whose sister Phila he married, ended Seleucid competition. *Pyrrhus occupied western Macedonia and Thessaly in 274 but his death in 272 removed this threat. In Greece Demetrius' old naval bases—*Piraeus, *Chalcis, *Corinth, and *Demetrias—guaranteed Antigonus' influence, and although an alliance led by Athens and Sparta and supported by *Ptolemy (1) II Philadelphus tried to eject the Macedonians (in the ‘*Chremonidean War’ of c.

Article

Antigonus (3), 'Doson' ('the man who will give'), c. 263–221 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Antigonus (3) (c. 263–221 bce), nicknamed ‘Doson’, ‘the man who will give’, regent and king of Macedonia 229–221. Son of *Demetrius (5) ‘the Fair’, who was half-brother of *Antigonus (2) Gonatas, Antigonus ruled at first as regent for *Demetrius (6) II's young son Philip (later *Philip (3) V), but after some initial military successes against invading Dardanians and Aetolians and rebellious Thessalians he was granted the royal title. He had already married Philip's mother Chryseis and adopted the boy, so dispelling suspicions that he might wish to usurp Philip's ultimate claim to succeed. Doson's reign is characterized by careful restorative diplomacy, in *Thessaly, where he allowed the Thessalian League to be reconstituted, but especially in the Peloponnese, leading to the restoration of Macedonian influence, which had largely vanished during Demetrius II's reign. He also visited *Caria around 227 and constructed a position of influence in the area around *Mylasa—his reasons are obscure—which Philip V could inherit.

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Antioch(1), Seleucid royal capital city  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Amélie Kuhrt

Antioch (1), in *Syria, one of the Seleucid royal capitals, on the left bank of the *Orontes, some 24 km. (15 mi.) from the sea, was founded in 300 bce by *Seleucus (1) I, in a favourable position between his Anatolian and eastern possessions, on the edge of a large and fertile plain. *Seleuceia (2), at the mouth of the Orontes, became its harbour. The king transferred thither the 5,300 Athenian and Macedonian settlers whom *Antigonus (1) I had planted at Antigoneia nearby in 307. His successors enlarged the city. Nothing of Seleucid Antioch survives. It was laid out on a grid plan (see urbanism) and contained a large Aramaic-speaking, as well as a Jewish, community, whose privileges were said to go back to Seleucus I. After an interlude of Armenian rule (83–66 bce) it was annexed by *Pompey (64 bce) and became the capital of the province of Syria; it was made an autonomous city by Caesar (47 bce).

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Antiochus (1) I, 'Soter' ('Saviour'), Seleucid king, c. 324–261 BCE  

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (1) I Soter (Saviour (c. 324–261 bce), king of the Seleucid empire (281–261) eldest son of *Seleucus (1) I and the Bactrian *Apame, co-regent with Seleucus I (294–281); given responsibility for the ‘Upper Satrapies’, when he married Seleucus' second wife, *Stratonice, daughter of *Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes. This apparent division of royal power (coins from the eastern satrapies, e.g. *Bactria, were still minted under the names of both Seleucus and Antiochus, and in inscriptions Seleucus' name took precedence) perhaps indicates both Seleucus' perception of the importance of the eastern part of the empire and of the need for royal authority there, and also of Antiochus' potential acceptability there as a half-Iranian king.Antiochus was, with Seleucus I and *Antiochus (3) III, one of the most dynamic and successful of the Seleucid kings and played a crucial part in consolidating the empire, both territorially and institutionally. His huge colonizing and consolidating activity through the Seleucid empire, apart from many city foundations in Anatolia, include in the east, the oasis city of *Antioch (3) (Strabo 11.

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Antiochus (2) II, 'Theos' ('God'), Seleucid king, 286–246 BCE  

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (2) II Theos (God) (286–246 bce), king of the *Seleucid empire (261–246), second son of *Antiochus (1) I and *Stratonice, co-regent with his father since 268. Married *Laodice (2) 267, who bore him *Seleucus (2) (II) and *Antiochus (8) Hierax. In the ‘Second Syrian War’ (260–253) he tried to gain southern Syria, Palestine, and Phoenicia from *Ptolemy (1) II unsuccessfully, but maintained Antiochus I's possessions in Asia Minor, though facing the independent development of the kingdom of *Pergamum. Peace was consolidated by his marriage to *Berenice (2), daughter of Ptolemy II (253), which led to war with Egypt at the accession of Seleucus II. Antiochus granted estates to Laodikce in Asia Minor (I Didyma II 492) and Babylonia (‘Lehmann Text’), which benefited cities.

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Antiochus (3) III, 'Megas' ('the Great'), Seleucid king, c. 242–187 BCE  

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (3) III Megas (the Great (c. 242–187 BCE), second son of *Seleucus (2) II, king of the *Seleucid empire (222–187). After the assassination of his elder brother, *Seleucus (3) III, who was childless, he was called from *Babylon to *Antioch to be king. From the outset he faced many problems within the empire: in the east, a rebellion in *Media led by the satrap Molon (222), with the support of the satrap of Persis, Alexander (brother of Molon); Molon invaded Babylonia, seized the royal capital, *Seleuceia (1) on Tigris, and took the title ‘king’. In the west, *Achaeus (3), viceroy of Seleucid Asia Minor, was in revolt and in control of the royal capital of *Sardis. The Ptolemies still retained control of *Seleuceia (2) -Pieria in north Syria.Within the next 25 years, Antiochus put down the revolt of Molon (220) (Polyb.

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Antiochus (6) VI, 'Epiphanes Dionysus', Seleucid king  

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (6) VI Epiphanes Dionysus, rival king of the Seleucid empire (145/4–141/0 bce), infant, son of *Alexander (10) Balas. He was put forward by the general Diodotus (later called Tryphon) against *Demetrius (11) II and conquered Antioch. Tryphon soon deposed and killed him (141/0), and reigned afterwards as king until 138, when he was defeated by *Antiochus (7) VII.

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Antiochus (7) VII, 'Sidetes', Seleucid king, c. 159–129 BCE  

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (7) VII Sidetes ( = from *Side) (c. 159–129 bce), last great king of the Seleucid empire (138-129) second son of *Demetrius (10) I, succeeded his brother *Demetrius (11) II, who had become a prisoner in Parthia (138). He quickly defeated and killed the pretender Tryphon in *Antioch (1) (138), reconquered Palestine (135–134) and recovered *Babylonia from Parthia (130), was welcomed by the Greeks, but defeated and killed in 129 in Media. Babylonia was lost to the *Seleucids for good.

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Antiochus (10), of Syracuse, Greek historian, 5th cent. BCE  

Klaus Meister

Antiochus (10), of *Syracuse, probably the oldest of the western Greek historians (see historiography, greek), active in the 5th cent. bce, after *Herodotus (1) but before *Thucydides (2). He wrote: 1. Sicelica, in nine books from King Cocalus to the congress at *Gela (FGrH 555 T 3). Thucydides' archaeology of Sicily (6. 2–5) including the dates for the foundation of the Greek colonies is probably based on Antiochus (this suggestion goes back to A. Woelfflin, Coelius Antipater und Antiochus von Syrakus (1874)). 2. On Italy, one book (FGrH 555 F 2–13); accounts of the foundations of several Greek cities in southern Italy, namely *Elea, *Rhegium, *Croton, *Heraclea (1), *Metapontum, *Tarentum (F 8–13), preserved in *Strabo. His historical method was the collection or rather selection of oral traditions recording the most credible versions (F 2).

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Antiochus(8), 'Hierax', ruler of Seleucid Anatolia, c. 263–226 BCE  

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (8) Hierax (c. 263–226 bce), second son of *Antiochus (2) II and *Laodice (2), brother of *Seleucus (2) II, became independent ruler of Seleucid Anatolia when his brother fought the ‘Third Syrian War’ (246–241). He defeated Seleucus' attempt to recover Anatolia (‘War of the Brothers,’ c.239–?), allying himself with traditional enemies of the Seleucid dynasty, Pontus, Bithynia, and Galatians, and marrying a Bithynian princess, daughter of Ziaelas and sister of *Prusias (1) I. The Galatian alliance, however, embroiled him with the rising power of *Attalus I of Pergamum, who drove him from Asia Minor (230–228). After an unsuccessful attempt to raise Syria and the east against Seleucus, he became an exile (227) and was murdered in Thrace.

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Antiochus (9), names of kings of Commagene  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Antiochus (9), the name of some kings of *Commagene:(full title, Theos Dikaios Epiphanēs Philorhōmaios kai Philhellēn), son of Mithradates Callinicus and Laodice (daughter of the Seleucid king Antiochus VIII Grypus), reigned in Commagene from c.69 to c.36 bce. After the Roman victory over *Tigranes (1) of Armenia, *Pompey recognized Antiochus' kingdom (64) and added strategic holdings across the Euphrates (e.g. Seleuceia-on-the-Eulaeus). As a cautious statesman Antiochus tried to find his own way in the Roman civil war and in the Romano-Parthian Wars: He announced the Parthian invasion of 51 to *Cicero in Cilicia, only nominally supported Pompey at Pharsalus (48), but later went over to the Parthian side (his daughter Laodice was the wife of the Arsacid king *Orodes II). After the defeat of the Parthian prince Pacorus (38), Antiochus was besieged in Samosata by P. *Ventidius.

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Antipater (1), Macedonian statesman, 397?–319 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Trusted lieutenant of *Philip (1) II, he represented the king at Athens in 346 and 338, and governed Macedon during the Danubian campaign of *Alexander (3) the Great (335). From 334 he acted as viceroy in Europe and in 331/0 dealt competently with a revolt in *Thrace and the subsequent war in the Peloponnese which *Agis III of Sparta instigated. Later his relations with Alexander were soured, and in 324*Craterus (1) was sent to replace him in Macedon. Alexander's death (323) resolved the tension but unleashed the *Lamian War in which a formidable Hellenic coalition, headed by the Athenians and Aetolians, came close to victory. The advent of Craterus and his veterans redressed the balance, and the critical victory at *Crannon (August 322) allowed Antipater to impose the settlement which brought oligarchy and a Macedonian garrison to Athens. At the news of *Perdiccas (3)'s dynastic intrigues he declared war and invaded Asia Minor with Craterus (321).

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Antipater (6), procurator of Judaea, 1st cent. BCE  

Tessa Rajak

Antipater (6), father of *Herod (1) the Great, dominated the politics of Palestine for a generation and paved the way for Herod. A wealthy Idumaean, he had close contacts with the monarchy of the *Nabataeans. From 67 bce, he promoted Hyrcanus, the heir to the kingdom of the *Hasmoneans, who had abandoned his claim in favour of his brother Aristobulus, but who, after civil war, was in 63 installed as high priest by Pompey. Services to Roman generals culminated in 48 in Antipater's provision, to Caesar at *Alexandria (1), of Jewish, Arab, and Syrian troops, as well as personal military assistance. Antipater's reward was to be *procurator in *Judaea and a Roman citizen. His sons, Phasael and Herod, governed *Jerusalem and *Galilee. In 43, he helped C. *Cassius Longinus (1) to raise money in Judaea, but was poisoned at the instigation of the Arab Malichus.