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Article

Capreae  

Nicholas Purcell

Capreae (now Capri), a precipitous small island off the Sirens’ shrine on the Promontorium Minervae of the Bay of *Naples, and part of Naples’ territory until Augustus appropriated it for a luxury estate: wild, secure, remote, and picturesque (the Roman coastal *villas’ architecture made full use of the sheer cliffs, sea-caves such as the Blue Grotto, and views to the mainland). *Tiberius, whose lifestyle during his withdrawal here for most of ce 26–37 was the object of much speculation and anecdote at Rome, developed the estate, building twelve villas named after the gods (Tac. Ann. 4. 67), of which there are important remains at Marina di Capri, Damecuta, and (probably the principal residence, ‘Villa Iovis’) on the easternmost crag. The estate remained imperial, being used for political *exile under Commodus (Cass. Dio 72. 4).

Article

Capsa  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Capsa (mod. Gafsa), an oasis in southern Tunisia. Originally a considerable Libyan settlement (*Jugurtha used it as a treasury: Strabo 17. 3. 12), it was destroyed by C. *Marius (1) in 106 bce (Sall. Iug. 89 ff.). It later revived, becoming a *municipium under *Trajan and subsequently a colonia. Under the Byzantines, it was a centre of defence against the desert nomads, with a fort built by Justinian's general Solomon. The only visible monuments are two pools, dedicated to Neptune and the nymphs. The local museum contains a unique 4th-cent. ce mosaic, an unusually detailed depiction of athletic contests, from a settlement 60 km. (37 mi.) east of Capsa.

Article

Franz A. W. Schehl and John Wilkes

Carnuntum, on the Danube (*Danuvius) between Petronell and Deutsch-Altenburg, was an important Roman military base and the seat of government of *Pannonia (Upper). At first part of *Noricum, Carnuntum was probably added to *Pannoniac. 14 ce when Legio XV Apollinaris was transferred there from *Emona, but the legionary fortress was not constructed until Claudius. Some stone structures probably date from this time (CIL 3. 4591), and some rebuilding appears to have taken place in ce 73–6 (CIL 3. 11194–6). An auxiliary cavalry base was also established in the 60s a short distance to the west. The legion remained at Carnuntum, except for the years 62–71, until c.114, when it was replaced by XIV Gemina Martia Victrix, around whose fortress an extensive *canabae developed. The civil settlement, which lay 5 km. (3 mi.) to the west, became a *municipium (Aelium) under *Hadrian and a colonia (Septimia) under *Septimius Severus.

Article

Carrara  

T. W. Potter

White *marble*quarries in NW Italy. Perhaps first exploited on a small scale by the *Etruscans, they were further developed after the foundation of the colony of *Luna in 177 bce, which acted as a port. Large-scale quarrying began in the 1st cent. bce. *Mamurra, *Caesar's praefectus fabrum (see fabri), was the first to veneer the walls of his house with Carrara (Plin. HN 36. 7. 48), and may have opened up the quarries for Caesar's building programme, replacing the use of Attic white marbles (see pentelicon). The reconstruction of the *Regia (37 bce) is often regarded as the earliest example of large-scale use of Carrara, and the industry (for buildings, sculpture, and *sarcophagi) reached its peak under Trajan, before giving way to the employment of marbles from the east Mediterranean. It was however partly revived in the 4th cent. ce.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Carsulae, on the *via Flaminia in Umbria, near *Narnia. It was rarely mentioned, but Vespasian's army stopped there in ce 69 (Tac. Hist. 3. 60). Extensive excavations have revealed the forum, basilica, temples, arches, and a theatre and amphitheatre.

Article

Casinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Casinum (mod. Cassino), on the *via Latina. An *Oscan, *Volscian, Samnite (see samnium), and, from the late 4th cent. bce, Roman city (sacked by Hannibal in 208 bce), it became a flourishing *municipium. The Ummidii were a prominent local family. It was destroyed by the *Lombards in the 6th cent.

Article

Catana  

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Catana (Κατάνη, Lat. Catina, mod. Catania), founded from *Naxos (2) in 729 bce, lies on the sea at the SE side of Mt. Aetna; to the south and west stretches the fertile Catania plain, coveted by the Syracusans, whose superior power dominated Catana for much of its history. Its lawgiver *Charondas was its most famous citizen in its early period. *Hieron (1) I removed the Catanaeans to Leontini and renamed the city Aetna, repeopling it with Doric mercenaries. In 461 these were expelled and the old name restored. The Athenians used Catana as a base in 415–413. Captured by *Dionysius (1) I in 403, it from then on formed part of the Syracusan empire, with brief intervals of independence or subjection to *Carthage. After 263, when the Romans captured it, it became a civitas decumana, and it flourished under the Roman republic (Cic. 2 Verr.

Article

John Salmon

Cenchreae (mod. Kechries), eastern port of *Corinth on the Saronic Gulf. Natural protection was increased by moles of uncertain date. Little Classical or earlier has been recovered, but the place was fortified perhaps as early as 480 bce. Excavations show that major development (quays, warehouses) occurred in the 1st cent. ce following Corinth's refoundation as a colonia.

Article

Stephen Mitchell

The pass through the *Taurus mountains which connected the central Anatolian plateau with the Cilician plain and with *Syria. In Roman times this was one of the key routes of the eastern part of the empire, carrying almost all the overland traffic heading for *Antioch (1) and the Syrian regions. By the time of Caracalla the road, which had been traversed by Cicero as proconsul of Cilicia, was known as the via Tauri, and, apart from the *via Sebaste, was the only route between the highlands and the south coast of Asia Minor that was suitable for wheeled traffic.

Article

Clunia  

Simon J. Keay

A town in the territory of the Celtiberian Arevaci and later in Roman *Tarraconensis, lay 40 km. (25 mi.) north-west of Uxama (mod. Osma). It was a *conventus capital which had been granted municipal status (see municipium) under *Tiberius and was made a colonia (Clunia Sulpicia) by the future emperor *Galba.

Article

Clusium  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Clusium (Etr. Clevsin-, Chamars; mod. Chiusi), above the *via Cassia in the Val di Chiana, traditionally played an important role in early Roman history under *Porsenna; it did not pass into Roman hands until a comparatively late stage. Clusium was one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans), and one of the oldest in the north-east. The earliest finds are *Villanovan, the ossuaries developing in the orientalizing period into ‘canopic urns’ (i.e. images of the dead). One of the earliest of the numerous chamber tombs produced the François vase (see pottery, greek), and a number are painted. The city was an important centre of stone-carving and, from the 5th cent. bce, of decorative bronze-working. Its territory has produced an exceptionally large number of Etruscan inscriptions (CIE475–3306). A man of Clusium, Arruns, invited the Gauls to cross the Alps into Italy (Livy 5. 33).

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Colonia Agrippinensis (mod. Cologne), command-centre of the Rhine frontier (see rhenus), and one of the most important cities of the western Roman empire.In 38 bce Agrippa transferred the *Ubii to the left bank of the Rhine. Around 9 bce their capital, Oppidum Ubiorum, was chosen to accommodate an altar for the imperial (*ruler-cult), and was therefore renamed Ara Ubiorum. This probably signifies the Roman intention to make the city the capital of a new province of Germany. About the same time two legions were stationed close by. However, the defeat of P. *Quinctilius Varus returned the frontier to the Rhine, and the legions were subsequently transferred. The city was henceforth capital of Lower Germany. In 50 Claudius founded a veteran colony (Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium) in honour of *Iulia Agrippina his wife. A naval base, headquarters of the Rhine fleet, was established a little upstream. The colonists and the Ubii merged rapidly, and the latter adhered only unwillingly to *C.

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and Janet DeLaine

The chief place of political assembly in republican Rome (Varro, Ling. 5. 155; Livy 5. 55) occupying an area north of the *forum Romanum at the foot of the Capitoline. It is associated with nine levels of paving from the late 7th to the mid-1st cent. bce, after which it ceased to exist as a recognizable monument owing to Caesar's reorganization of the area, although individual elements remained into the empire. The natural topography and the archaeological evidence suggest it was an irregular triangular space, eventually flanked by three platforms: the Rostra to the south, the praetorian tribunal (whence justice was administered) to the east, and the Graecostasis (place where foreign embassies awaited reception by the Senate) to the west. Although in the mid-2nd cent. the rostra was replaced by a curved stepped structure, the rest of the Comitium retained its original form. The numerous monuments and statues which filled it have perished, except for the altar, truncated column, and archaic cippus (a stone marker), bearing a ritual inscription (ILS 4913), sealed below a black marble pavement (lapis niger) originally dating to the Caesarian alterations and subsequently incorporated into the Augustan paving.

Article

Comum  

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and T. W. Potter

Comum (mod. Como), birthplace of the elder and the younger *Pliny, the latter of whom owned large properties there and was a notable benefactor. A flourishing centre of the south Alpine iron age Golaseccan culture, it came under Gallic rule in the 4th cent. bce and in 196 bce it passed within the Roman orbit. After 89 bce it received a first group of colonial settlers, and in 59 bce, at the hands of Caesar, a second group, under the name of Novum Comum. During the empire it became a *municipium, with territories bordering on those of *Mediolanum (Milan) and Bergomum. In late antiquity it was an important military base for the protection of north Italy. The chequer-board street plan of the Roman town, a rectangle 445×500 m. (486×546 yds.), is still reflected by the modern layout of roads (see urbanism), and there are traces of the baths and library erected by *Pliny (2) the Younger.

Article

Cora  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Cora (mod. Cori), strongly placed at the NW angle of the Volscian mountains in *Latium. Latins and *Volsci disputed its possession before 340 bce. After 338 bce it was an ally of Rome and by 211 bce a *municipium (Livy 26. 7). Fine remains exist of polygonal walls and two temples.

Article

Martin Millett

Coriosopitum (also known as Corstopitum), a Roman military centre and town on the north bank of the Tyne near Corbridge, Northumberland. The name in its restored form suggests that it was a *pagus centre of the *Brigantes. Here the road from York (Eburacum) to Scotland bridged the Tyne, branching to Carlisle and Tweedmouth. A supply base at nearby Redhouse constructed under Cn. *Iulius Agricola is the earliest military installation in the area. This was replaced at the Corbridge site with an auxiliary fort (rebuilt once) which was occupied c. ce 85–105. The unit in occupation may have been the ala Petriana (RIB1172). A Trajanic fort, one of those on the Stanegate, replaced this c.105–20, being rebuilt c.120–30. A further reconstruction took place in the late 130s (RIB1147–8), and again in the late 150s, with the fort sequence ending c.

Article

Cortona  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Cortona (Etr. Curtun-), 30 km. (18 mi.) south-east of *Arretium, was an important *Etruscan stronghold with a commanding view of the Val di Chiana. The archaeological evidence indicates that its ‘*Pelasgian’ walls are no earlier than the 5th cent. bce; they are still largely extant, as are two earlier tumuli (meloni) and a Hellenistic mausoleum (the ‘Tanella di Pitagora’). After the defeat of the Etruscans in 311 bce by Q. *Fabius Maximus Rullianus, Cortona and the two other leading cities of the interior, *Pisae (mod. Pisa) and *Arretium, made treaties with Rome. The decontextualized tabula Cortonensis, written c.200 bce and the third longest extant Etruscan text (see etruscan language), came to light in 1992; it has been subjected to a variety of interpretations since the appearance of its editio princeps in 2000.

Article

Cosa  

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and D. W. R. Ridgway

Cosa (mod. Ansedonia), situated on a commanding rocky promontory on the coast of Etruria, 6 km. (4 mi.) south-east of Orbetello. Excavation has revealed no trace of *Etruscan Cusi, which may have occupied the site of Orbetello itself. The surviving remains are those of the Latin colony founded in 273 bce (Vell. Pat. 1. 14. 7), to which belong the irregular circuit of walls, of fine polygonal masonry, and the neatly rectangular street-plan (see urbanism). The majority of the individual buildings, including the arx and the forum, a basilica, and several temples, date from the town's period of maximum prosperity, in the 2nd cent. bce. underwater *archaeology has yielded convincing evidence that the harbour of Cosa accommodated a large-scale fishery project (see fishing).

Article

Cuicul  

William Nassau Weech and R. J. A. Wilson

Cuicul (mod. Djemila), a mountain town lying between *Cirta and Sitifis on the main road linking *Numidia and *Mauretania. The name suggests a Numidian origin, but nothing is known about the place until it became a *veteran colony under *Nerva. Originally a tiny walled town of only c. 7 ha. (17 acres), it soon spread southwards in the 2nd cent. ce, when it received further settlers from elsewhere in Africa, including the Cosinii from *Carthage: agricultural prosperity increased and many public buildings were erected. A citizen of Cuicul, Claudius Proculus, was governor of Numidia ce 208–10. The extensive ruins, excavated between 1909 and 1958, include two fora, a theatre, an arch of *Caracalla, an imposing temple to the gens Septimia, baths, and two Christian basilicas and a baptistery. Cuicul's prosperity in late Roman times is further demonstrated by the numerous figured *mosaics from its spacious houses, but in the 6th cent.

Article

Cumae  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Cumae (Gk. Cyme; mod. Cuma), *Euboean colony, founded c.740 bce, 16 km. (10 mi) north-west of Naples (Neapolis). This was the earliest colony on the Italian mainland, and dominated coastal *Campania from 700 to 474 bce, in turn founding *Neapolis, Dicaearchia, Zancle, Abella, and possibly *Nola. Under the rule of *Aristodemus (2) it came into conflict with the *Etruscans, but defeated them at *Aricia in 505 bce and again in 474, in alliance with *Syracuse. In 421, it fell to the *Oscans during their conquest of Campania (Diod. Sic. 11. 51; 12. 76). Although substantially Oscanized, Greek culture was never completely eradicated (Strabo 5. 4. 4). During the Archaic period, it enjoyed cordial relations with Rome, but these soured after the Oscan conquest. It became a civitas sine suffragio (see citizenship, roman) in 338, and remained loyal to Rome in the *Punic Wars.