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Article

Virunum  

John Wilkes

Virunum, a city in southern *Noricum near the river Glan at modern Zollfeld. It lay in the territory of the Celtic Norici, whose centre was on the Magdalensberg 1,058 metres (half a mile) south-east of Klagenfurt. At first the site of a Celtic *oppidum, terraces on the hillside were occupied by more than three square kilometres of buildings, including a forum, a temple, and a centre for the imperial cult constructed by the Norican peoples under *Augustus. Most of the buildings are in the classical style and date from the late 1st cent. bce to the reign of *Claudius. From here the Norici were administered by a Roman *conventus organization and the place was also the centre of the *conciliumprovinciae. Under Claudius a *municipium was established at Virunum (CIL 3. 11555: municipium Claudium Virunum), enrolled in the voting-tribe Claudia. Until the establishment of the legionary fortress at *Lauriacum under Marcus *Aurelius, Virunum was the residence of the governing procurator.

Article

vis  

Andrew Lintott

Latin word, means neutrally ‘force’ and pejoratively ‘violence’. It is the latter sense that is treated here. For Greece see under violence.(a) Political Violence. Apart from the major non-violent secessions, ‘the Conflict of the Orders’ in the early republic (see rome (history), § 1.2) seems to have involved small-scale violence between the plebeians, defending each other and their tribunes, and the patricians supported by their clients (see cliens; patricians; plebs; secessio; tribuni plebis). However, in the last century of the republic violence became an ever increasing factor, not as a mass revolutionary movement, but as a political weapon largely exploited by magistrates for limited ends. The notion of a police authority was alien to republican thought and, if violence became serious, often the only counter was a state of emergency (see senatus consultum ultimum). From 78 bcevis was an offence under the leges Lutatia and Plautia.

Article

Aulus Vitellius, (15–69 ce), Roman emperor in 69, son of Lucius *Vitellius, an influential figure under the Julio-Claudians, was friendly with *Gaius(1), *Claudius, and *Nero. Consul in 48, he became proconsul of Africa (see pro consule; africa, roman), then served as legate (see legati) to his brother in the same post. *Galba appointed him governor of Lower Germany (see germania) in November 68, perhaps thinking that his reputed indolence made him less of a political threat. Vitellius won over the disaffected soldiers in the province by an ostentatious display of generosity. On 2 January 69 Vitellius was proclaimed emperor by his troops, and quickly won the support of the legions of Upper Germany, which had refused allegiance to Galba on 1 January. His main supporters were the legionary legates *Fabius Valens and A. *Caecina Alienus, and soon most of the western provinces and Africa were on his side.

Article

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Lucius Vitellius (consul 34 ce, consul for the second time in 43, and for the third in 47), son of P. Vitellius (a Roman knight from *Luceria (not Nuceria: RE Suppl. 9. 1741), *procurator of *Augustus), father of the emperor *Vitellius (see previous entry), was a friend of the emperor *Claudius and the most successful politician of the age: he received a public funeral and a statue in the Forum commemorating ‘unswerving devotion to the Princeps’ (Suet. Vit.3): it was indeed to the source of patronage and power that he attached himself, linking the history of three reigns; his position was strengthened by a nexus between Vitellii, Plautii, and Petronii. He was a vigorous legate (see legati) of *Syria (ce 35–7), inducing the Parthian *Artabanus II to pay homage and conciliating the Jews: ‘he acted with the integrity of ancient times’ (Tac. Ann.

Article

M. Winterbottom

Marcus Vitorius Marcellus, *suffect consul 105 ce, from Teate Marrucinorum (mod. Chieti), dedicatee both of *Quintilian'sInstitutio (intended as a manual for his son Geta and a son of Quintilian's own) and of *Statius' Silvae book 4 (see esp. the fourth poem, which reveals that he was a practising orator and alludes to his post as curator viae Latinae, official in charge of the *via Latina; see cura(tio), curator).

Article

Richard Allan Tomlinson and J. T. Vallance

Vitruvius (Pol(l)io) (See mamurra), a Roman architect and military engineer, in which capacity he served *Caesar. He built a basilica at *Fanum Fortunae; but his fame rests chiefly on a treatise, De architectura, on architecture and engineering, compiled partly from his own experience, partly from work by *Hermogenes(1) (to whom he is heavily indebted) and other Greek authors to which his own experiences have been added, sometimes in a disjointed fashion. It is hardly a handbook for *architects: rather a book for people who need to understand architecture. Perhaps its main function was place-seeking from Octavian (see augustus), to whom it is addressed. His outlook is essentially Hellenistic, and there is a marked absence of reference to important buildings of *Augustus' reign, though he knows of Roman technical developments, such as concrete construction (which he mistrusts). De architectura, the only work of its kind which has survived, is divided into ten books. Book 1 treats of town-planning, architecture in general, and of the qualifications proper in an architect; 2 of building-materials; 3 and 4 of temples and of the ‘orders’ (see orders, architectural; 5 of other civic buildings; 6 of domestic buildings; 7 of pavements and decorative plaster-work; 8 of water-supplies; 9 of geometry, mensuration, *astronomy, etc.

Article

J. T. Vallance

Squeamishness about the dissection (let alone vivisection) of animals is a mark of much ancient medicine and zoology, and there is no firm evidence for vivisection in those Hippocratic works (see hippocrates(2)) which are generally dated to the 5th or 4th cent. bce. (The passage in the Hippocratic treatise On the Heart describing the vivisection of a pig (9. 80 Littré) is generally dated to the 3rd cent. bce.) Physicians and zoologists from *Aristotle onwards do, however, seem to have vivisected animals and in some cases even humans. Practitioners themselves rarely show signs of concern with the morality of causing animals suffering in the name of knowledge, although such concern was voiced in other quarters (see animals, attitudes to and knowledge about).Two ancient physicians are notoriously connected with the practice of human vivisection. A. *Cornelius Celsus reports that the Alexandrian anatomists *Herophilus and *Erasistratus vivisected criminals provided for them by the king (see anatomy and physiology, § IV).

Article

Vix  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Vix, a Hallstatt (late 6th-cent. bce) sepulchral mound by Mont Lassois (Côte-d'Or). Its rich grave goods, including a massive bronze Greek mixing-bowl, suggest the growing influence of the cities of the Mediterranean littoral (principally *Massalia) on the tribes of the Celtic hinterland.

Article

Spanish literary friend and correspondent of the Younger *Pliny(2), who said his letters read as if the Muses were speaking in Latin (Ep. 2. 13), and tried to advance his career. His family came from *Saguntum, and he rose to high office in his province. (PIR2 L210.

Article

A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater

Vocontii, a Celtic people of Gallia Narbonensis (see celts; gaul (transalpine)) who, from at least the 3rd cent. bce (Livy, 21. 31) occupied the western foothills of the Alps south of the *Allobroges. Under Roman control they remained a civitas foederata (see foedus) with the unusual arrangement of two capitals (Plin. HN 3. 37), each enjoying ius Latii. These were Vasio (mod. Vaison-la-Romaine) and Lucus Augusti (mod. Luc-en-Diois), while Die became Colonia Dea Augusta Vocontiorum (CIL 12. 690). Vaison, extensively—though not always well—excavated, appears to have originated in a hill-fort south of the Ouvèze, but the Roman town lay mainly north of the river (crossed by a Roman bridge) and the many fine structures uncovered include a theatre, the so-called portico of Pompey, and two groups of houses. Prominent citizens of Vasio were *Afranius Burrus, *Pompeius Trogus, and perhaps *Tacitus(1).

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Volaterrae (Etr. VelaθRi; mod. Volterra), one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and capital of the mineral-rich zone of central Tuscany, was established in Villanovan times on a hill dominating the Cecina valley. It is notable for its 4th-cent. walls with arched gates. Volaterrae produced distinctive Archaic and Hellenistic votive bronzes, early stone funerary stelae, (late) red-figured and black-glazed pottery, and carved alabaster ash urns: 109 of the latter were found in a circular chamber-tomb, ranging in date from the late 4th to the 1st cent. bce. The city withstood a two-year (82–80 bce) siege by *Sulla's army, and subsequently became a colony for his veterans; *Cicero defended a native of Volaterrae against the loss of his rights of citizenship (Cic. Caecin.).

Article

Christian James Fordyce and M. Winterbottom

Declaimer from *Pergamum and pupil of *Apollodorus (5). L. *Annaeus Seneca(1), who criticizes him for excessive use of figures (Controv.10 pref. 10), records (ibid. 2. 5. 13) that, after being convicted for poisoning in Rome, he taught at *Massalia (Marseille). He left his money in gratitude to that city (Tac. Ann.

Article

Peter G. M. Brown

Early 1st cent. bce, author of a work De poetis (‘On Poets’) in iambic senarii, of which the largest surviving fragment (quoted by Gell. NA 15. 24) ranks ten authors of fabulae palliatae in order of merit: *Caecilius Statius, *Plautus, *Naevius, *Licinius Imbrex, *Atilius, *Terence, *Turpilius, *Trabea, *Luscius, *Ennius.

Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Volcanus (VolkanusVulcanus), an ancient Roman god of destructive, devouring *fire, in both the human environment and in nature: e.g. in volcanoes (see Strabo 5. 246 for his worship at the Solfatare of *Puteoli, and Plin. HN 2. 240 for fire coming out of the ground near *Mutina), which explains why his temple should always stand outside a city (Vitr. 1. 7. 1), on the authority of the *Etruscan*haruspices. He was associated with *Maia(2) (Gell. NA 13. 23. 2 ‘Maiam Volcani’), the goddess of the irrepressible development of the fire, and was worshipped at Rome from the earliest-known times, having a flamen (see flamines) and a festival, the Volcanalia, on 23 August (calendars). His shrine, the Volcanal, stood in the Area Volcani in the *forum Romanum at the foot of the *Capitol; it may therefore go back to a time when the Forum was still outside the city (see F. Coarelli, Il Foro Romano, 1: Periodo arcaico (1983), 164 ff.

Article

Volcei  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Volcei (mod. Buccino), in south Italy, Lucanian city (see lucania) near the Valle di Diano. It was inhabited from the bronze age, and prominent under Roman rule. It entered alliance with Rome c.327/6 bce, but revolted during the Hannibalic War (see punic wars). By resuming alliance with Rome voluntarily in 209, it escaped punishment, and later became a *municipium, absorbing several neighbouring settlements (Plin.

Article

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Barbara Levick

King of *Parthia, 51 ce/2–79/80. His family belonged to *Media Atropatene. Much of his reign was spent in wars with Rome and on his eastern frontier. In 54 Vologeses set his brother *Tiridates(3) on the throne of *Armenia (Tac. Ann. 12. 50). Cn. *Domitius Corbulo, sent to re-establish Roman influence, was at first successful, Vologeses being occupied on his eastern frontier with a rebellion. Tiridates fled, and a Roman nominee *Tigranes(4) was crowned as king of Armenia. But Vologeses returned to the war, and at one time gained an advantageous treaty from L. *Caesennius Paetus, after the latter's capitulation at Rhandeia. Finally, peace was made and Tiridates agreed (63) to go to Rome and pay homage to *Nero for his throne: this he did in 66. Vologeses' later relations with Rome were friendlier: he sought *Vespasian's help against the invading Alani (Suet.

Article

Volsci  

Tim Cornell

Volsci, people of ancient Italy. The Volsci first become prominent in ancient historical narratives of the early 5th cent., when they overran southern *Latium and occupied the Monti Lepini, most of the Pomptine plain, and the coastal region from *Antium to *Tarracina. That the Volscian presence in this area was a new phenomenon is suggested by the traditional accounts of Roman hegemony in southern Latium in the late 6th cent., itself confirmed by the text of the first treaty between Rome and *Carthage (Polyb. 3. 22, 509 bce). The story of *Marcius Coriolanus also points to a vigorous Volscian offensive at this time, and recent excavations at *Satricum (1) (Lat. Pometia), indicate changes in the early 5th cent. which can be explained by the arrival of new people. Satricum became one of the chief Volscian centres; others were Ecetra, Antium, *Velitrae, *Circeii, and Tarracina (which they renamed Anxur).

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Veteres, one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans), may safely be equated with medieval and modern Orvieto and its temples (notably Belvedere, of *Vitruvius' Tuscan type), painted tombs, and 6th-/5th-cent. Cannicella and Crocefisso del Tufo cemeteries. The latter are laid out in well-planned ‘streets’ of built chambers; epigraphy attests 90 prosperous families at Crocefisso del Tufo between 550 and 500 bce, among them Italic foreigners and at least one Celt. The survivors of the Volsinian rebellion of 264 bce were resettled by Rome at Volsinii Novi (Zonar. 8. 7. 8), identified with the late republican centre excavated (1946 onwards) near Bolsena by the École Française. The original Volsinii was traditionally associated with the federal sanctuary of the twelve Etruscan cities known as the Fanum Voltumnae (Livy, 4. 60. 9–5. 1): see voltumna; this continues to elude archaeological definition.

Article

John Scheid

Voltumna, an Etruscan goddess, at whose shrine the Etruscan federal council met (Livy, 4. 23. 5; 25. 7; 61. 2; 5. 17. 6; 6. 2. 2; cf. CIL 11. 5265 and J. Gascou, Mélanges d'arch. 1967, for the survival of these meetings.). Nothing more is known of her and the site of the shrine is uncertain (see volsinii).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon

Volturnus, the principal river of *Campania, a considerable stream often mentioned in ancient accounts of Samnite and Hannibalic Wars (see samnium; punic wars). It rises in Samnium and flows southward past *Aesernia, *Venafrum, and *Allifae until joined by its tributary, the Calor, whereupon it turns abruptly westward to enter the Tyrrhenian sea about 32 km. (20 mi.) below *Casilinum.