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Ulpianus, of Ascalon  

Nigel Wilson

Ulpianus of Ascalon taught rhetoric at *Emesa and *Antioch (1) in the reign of Constantine (324–37 ce) and wrote a number of declamations and rhetorical works (no longer extant). He is the reputed author of *scholia to eighteen speeches of *Demosthenes(2); they are of little independent value.


Uranius, Greek writer about Arabia  

Simon Hornblower

His date is not quite certain, but 4th century ce (rather than three centuries earlier) seems likeliest. He is a source for much of the Arabian information in Stephanus of Byzantium, in whose treatise on ethnics he is praised highly.


warfare, attitudes to, Greek and Hellenistic  

Michel Austin

Homer'sIliad, a poem about war, does not glorify war: it celebrates martial prowess but also portrays the sufferings caused by war, and *Ares, god of war, is rebuked by Zeus as the most hateful of all the gods, to whom strife, wars, and slaughter are forever dear (Il. 5. 890 f.). The same ambivalence pervades Greek attitudes to warfare. War in Greece was a recurring phenomenon, and conflicts multiplied in numbers and scale as larger power blocks emerged. Greek history divides according to major conflicts: the *Persian Wars, the *Peloponnesian War and its sequels, the rise of *Macedonia, *Alexander(3) the Great's conquest of Asia and the wars of the successor kingdoms (see diadochi; ptolemy(1); seleucids). These provide the subject-matter of much of Greek historical writing. There were also innumerable local wars, less prominent in the record. ‘War is the father of all things’ (Heraclitus, DK 22 B 53). It shaped the institutions, society, and economy of the Greek world. Military function and social and political *status were closely related (Arist.


Xanthus (1), Greek poet  

P. J. Parsons

Poet mentioned by *Stesichorus, who adapted many works from him, including the Oresteia; he presented *Heracles in his Homeric guise, and said that Laodice (cf. Il. 9. 145) was renamed Electra because of being unmarried (ἄλεκτρος). This information can be traced back no further than the Homeric scholar Megaclides (later 4th cent. bce?).


Xenarchus (1), Sicilian mime-writer  

Simon Hornblower

Sicilian mime-writer (see mime) of the late 5th cent. bce, son of *Sophron.


Xenarchus (2), Middle Comedy poet  

Geoffrey Arnott

Xenarchus (2), a frank and lively Middle Comedy poet (see comedy (greek), middle). Eight titles survive, mainly from daily life. Fr. 1: a parody of tragic style; 4: young men's sexual preference for married women over prostitutes; 7: illegal watering of fish; 14: happy cicadas, whose wives have no voice.



Andrew Brown

Xenocles, son of the elder *Carcinus(1), was a tragic poet who defeated *Euripides in 415 with his Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae, and Athamas (satyric). His Licymnius is parodied by *Aristophanes(1) (Clouds 1264f.), and there are contemptuous references to him at Ar.Thesm.169, 440–2, Frogs86.


Xenophanes, of Colophon, poet, theologian, and natural philosopher  

Charles H. Kahn

Xenophanes of Colophon, poet, theologian, and natural philosopher, left Ionia (see ionians) at the age of 25, probably after the Persian Conquest in 545 bce, and led a wandering life for 67 years, as he tells us himself in a preserved passage from an elegiac poem (DK 21 B 8). He lived in several cities in Sicily, and is reported to have composed an epic on the colonization of *Elea (see colonization, greek), but the tradition that he was the teacher of *Parmenides is doubtful. He is credited with being the first author of satirical verses (Silloi). The extant fragments, in various metres and genres, include two long elegiac passages on how to conduct a civilized *symposium and on the civic importance of his own work and wisdom (sophiē).A skilful poet in the tradition of *Tyrtaeus and *Solon, Xenophanes carried the Ionian intellectual enlightenment to *Magna Graecia.


Xenophon (1), Greek historian  

Christopher J. Tuplin

Xenophon (c. 430–c. 353 bce) came from a wealthy Athenian background and in his youth associated with Socrates. Participation in Cyrus’s unsuccessful rebellion in 401 and mercenary service with Spartan armies in Anatolia in 399–394 bce was followed by exile and prolonged residence near Olympia. Although there was a reconciliation with the Athenian state after 371, he may never have returned to live there permanently. In exile Xenophon became a writer, producing historical narratives, Socratic literature, technical treatises, an encomium of Agesilaus, a dialogue on tyranny, an analysis of Spartan success and failure, and a pamphlet on Athenian political economy. Many of these are the earliest (surviving) examples of particular genres or unusual variants on existing genres. Common to this extraordinarily diverse range of works are a didactic inclination, an intimate relationship with the author’s personal experiences combined with a variable authorial persona, use of the past as a way of talking about the present, a belief that purely practical pursuits have a moral component because they have social implications, and a style of exposition designed for engaged and informed readers who will ask questions of an apparently straightforward text while being prepared to be unsettled or wryly amused by the answers. The topic most persistently addressed by Xenophon’s oeuvre is leadership, broadly conceived—a task that demands special personal qualities, requires persistent careful effort, and, thanks to the unpredictability of events and of human behaviour, can rarely be pursued with prolonged and continuous success.


Xenophon (2), Greek novelist  

Ewen Bowie

Greek novelist (see novel, greek), author of The Ephesian story of Anthia and Habrocomes (Τὰ κατὰ Ἀνθίαν καὶ Ἁβροκόμην Ἐφεσιακά). Mention (2. 13. 3) of an eirenarch, an office not attested before *Trajan, together with the early place in the genre's development suggested by Xenophon's unambitious treatment of his story, indicates a date between ce 100 and 150: so far no papyri have been published. The *Suda calls him a historian and alleges other works, specifying only one, On the city of Ephesus, and gives *Ephesus as his origin, though the novel's knowledge of Ephesus has been argued to be second-hand. Xenophon tells, as omniscient narrator, how the young lovers from Ephesus were sent abroad by their parents soon after marriage in response to an oracle, became separated whilst on a voyage, and were conveyed round much of the Mediterranean world (even Italy), surviving all sorts of trials (shipwrecks, attacks by pirates and brigands, enslavement, advances by powerful suitors) and remaining faithful to each other. Reunited at last in *Rhodes they returned to Ephesus, to live happily ever after.


Zenodotus, of Ephesus, b. c. 325 BCE  

John Francis Lockwood, Robert Browning, and Nigel Wilson

Zenodotus of Ephesus (b. c. 325 bce), pupil of *Philitas, became the first head of the Library at *Alexandria (c. 284) and undertook the classification of the Greek epic and lyric poets, some of whom he edited.(1) Lexicography: Homeric Glossary (Γλῶσσαι), which was in alphabetical order. There was also a collection of words used in Greek dialects. (2) Editions (διορθώσεις). His recension of *Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, in which the poems may have been divided into twenty-four books for the first time, represented the first scientific attempt to get back to the original Homeric text by the collation of several manuscripts. He marked lines of the genuineness of which he felt doubt with a newly-invented sign, the obelus. Some modern critics have accused him of altering the text drastically; more recent research suggests that this picture of an arbitrary and subjective manipulator of the text is unfair. (3) He produced also recensions of .


Zonas, of Sardis  

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

Zonas of *Sardis, author of nine *epigrams in the Greek *anthology from the Garland of Philip. If the Diodorus Zonas of Strabo 627–8, then he lived about 80 bce (see Page in GLP 2. 263–4). He writes on humble folk and rural themes, ‘among the most attractive of the imitators of *Leonidas, far superior to their model’ (GLP413).