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Agathocles (1), tyrant  

Klaus Meister

Agathocles (1) tyrant, later king of *Syracuse, born 361/0 bce in Thermae, Sicily. His father Carcinus, an exile from *Rhegium, received Syracusan citizenship under *Timoleon343/2 and owned a large pottery manufactory. The young Agathocles took part in various military enterprises and early on nurtured political ambitions. The oligarchy of six hundred that ruled Syracuse after Timoleon's death distrusted the active young man with popular tendencies and he was banished c.330. During his exile he attempted to obtain a power base in southern Italy, operating as a condottiere in *Croton or *Tarentum. He successfully relieved Rhegium when it was besieged by the six hundred, thereby toppling the oligarchy. Recalled by the people in Syracuse he was exiled again after the oligarchs had been reinstated. Subsequently he threatened the oligarchs and their Carthaginian allies (see carthage) with a private army of mercenaries from the Sicilian inland. Hamilcar changed sides and through his mediation Agathocles was able to return to Syracuse and in 319/8 was made ‘stratēgos with absolute power in the cities of Sicily’ (FGrH239 B 12).


Agis II, Spartan king of the Eurypontid house, c. 427–400 BCE  

Paul Cartledge

(the first to be given a name belonging naturally to the *Agiads) from c.427 to 400 bce; he was son of *Archidamus II by his first wife. He achieved widespread prominence in 418, as nominal victor of the Battle of *Mantinea, a success that both stilled powerful domestic criticism of his leadership and restored Sparta's authority in the Peloponnese and outside. In 413, perhaps glad to escape scandal on his own doorstep, he was appointed general commanding the Peloponnesian forces in central Greece, and permanently occupied a fortified base actually within Athens' borders at *Decelea. The centre of the *Peloponnesian War, however, shifted to Asia, and Agis' role in the eventual reduction of Athens by siege in 404 was subsidiary to that of *Lysander. In the aftermath of victory Agis voted for the condemnation of his Agiad fellow king *Pausanias (2) on a charge of high treason.


Agyrrhius, Athenian politician, fl. c. 405–373 BCE  

P. J. Rhodes

Agyrrhius (fl. c. 405–373 BCE). Athenian politician, introduced payment of one obol for attending the assembly (see ekklesia), and later increased it from two obols to three; sometimes, but probably wrongly, thought to have introduced the *theōrika. He spent some years in prison as a debtor to the state, but must have resumed political activity afterwards, since a corn law proposed by him in 374/3 has recently been discovered (RO no.


Alcibiades, 451/450–404/403 BCE  

Henry Dickinson Westlake and P. J. Rhodes

Alcibiades (451/0–404/3 BCE), son of Cleinias, Athenian general and politician. Brought up in the household of his guardian *Pericles (1), he became the pupil and intimate friend of *Socrates. A flamboyant aristocrat, he competed in politics with the new-style *demagogues, and his ambitious imperialism drew Athens into a coalition with *Argos (1) and other enemies of *Sparta. This policy, half-heartedly supported by the Athenians, was largely discredited by the Spartan victory at *Mantinea (418). Though Alcibiades temporarily allied with *Nicias (1) to avoid *ostracism, the two were normally adversaries and rivals, and when Alcibiades sponsored the plan for a major Sicilian expedition, Nicias unsuccessfully opposed it. Both were appointed, together with *Lamachus, to command this expedition (415). After the mutilation of the *herms, Alcibiades had been accused of involvement in other religious scandals, and soon after the fleet reached Sicily he was recalled for trial. He escaped, however, to Sparta, where he encouraged the Spartans to send a general to Syracuse, and to establish a permanent Spartan post at *Decelea in Attica (which was eventually done in 413).



Rosalind Thomas

Alyattes, fourth *Lydian king (c.610–560 bce), of the house of *Gyges and father of *Croesus, finally drove back the *Cimmerians, extended Lydian control to the *Halys, and made war on Cyaxares the Mede (585), during which occurred a solar eclipse (supposedly foretold by *Thales). Peace was concluded with the marriage of Alyattes' daughter to Astyages. He continued Lydian campaigns against *Ionia, captured *Smyrna, but failed against *Clazomenae and *Miletus. Lydia prospered, electrum coinage was used for the first time (see coinage, greek), and there was increasing interaction with the Greeks. Alyattes built two temples to Athena near *Miletus and sent offerings to *Delphi; he has been seen as the founder of the Lydian empire. His vast burial mound, the largest at Bin Tepe, was praised by Herodotus (1. 93) and Strabo (13. 627), and is now excavated.



C. J. Tuplin

Amadocus, name of two Thracian kings (see thrace). (1), Odrysian Thracian king who offered Athens military support against Sparta (405 bce)—fruitlessly since Athenian generals refused co-operation with his intermediary, *Alcibiades. Associated with him was Seuthes, a protégé who, still loyal in 400 (when he employed *Xenophon (1)), became over-ambitious, but was reconciled when *Thrasybulus made both him and Amadocus Athenian allies (390/89 ).

Amadocus (2) fought with *Cersobleptes and Berisades for control of the Odrysian kingdom after Cotys' death, apparently established himself immediately east of the Nestos, and was finally eliminated by *Philip (1) II after 354 bce.



Peter Sidney Derow

Amynander, king of the *Athamanes, perhaps already from 220 bce (if he is the Amynas of Polyb. 4. 16. 9), and for many years junior partner in the kingship with Theodorus. An able diplomat, his policy was aimed at maintaining unity within his kingdom and independence from Macedon. In 209 he negotiated on behalf of the Aetolians with *Philip (3) V and in 205 was instrumental in arranging the Peace of Phoenice between Rome and Philip. In 200/199 he joined the Romans against Philip, helped to bring the *Aetolian Confederacy back into alliance with Rome, joined in T. *Quinctius Flamininus' diplomacy after the conference at Nicaea (1) (198/7), and fought at *Cynoscephalae (197). Feeling threatened, like many, by Rome's subsequent rapprochement with Philip, Amynander joined *Antiochus (3) III and the Aetolians against Rome (192/1). Driven from his kingdom by Philip (191), he fled to *Ambracia, persuaded the Ambraciotes to surrender to Rome, and regained his kingdom and peace with Rome (189).


Amyntas (1), dynastic line of Macedonian kings  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Amyntas (1), dynastic name in the royal house of the Macedonians. The most famous bearer of the name, Amyntas III, king of Macedon c.393–370 bce, increased the power of his kingdom by withstanding the pressure of the Illyrians and the Dardanian king, *Bardylis I, and by astute diplomacy. He managed to ally himself with whatever Greek state became his most powerful neighbour: the Chalcidic Confederacy (RO no. 12; see chalcidice), the Spartans who destroyed the Chalcidic Confederacy, the Athenians when they replaced Sparta (Tod no. 129) and then *Jason (2) of Pherae. His consolidation of Macedonia and his example in diplomacy were important factors in the success of his son *Philip (1) II. see macedonia.


Anaxilas (1), tyrant of Rhegium, 494–476 BCE  

Brian M. Caven

Tyrant of *Rhegium (mod. Reggio), 494–476 bce. Of Messenian descent (see messenia); seized and recolonized Zancle on the death of *Hippocrates (1), renaming it *Messana (Messina). Leagued with Terillus of Himera and (c.483) Carthage against the growing power of *Gelon and *Theron, he was reconciled with Gelon after the defeat of *Hamilcar (1), his daughter marrying *Hieron (1). He was restrained from attacking *Locri Epizephyrii (477) by Hieron. A just and moderate ruler.


Andriscus, of Adramyttion, d. c. 148 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Andriscus of Adramyttio (d. c. 148 BCE), pretender to the Macedonian throne, claimed to be Philip, son of *Perseus (2), hence called ‘Pseudophilip’. *Demetrius (10) I of Syria, whom he asked for assistance, sent him to Rome, but he escaped to Asia Minor and received some encouragement from the Macedonian wife of the Pergamene prince Athenaeus. In Thrace he raised some troops from the chieftains Teres and Barsabas, with which he invaded Macedonia and quickly took control (149).