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Antisthenes (2), of Rhodes, Greek historian and Peripatetic philosopher, early 2nd cent. BCE  

Kenneth S. Sacks

Antisthenes (2), of *Rhodes (fl. early 2nd cent. bce), wrote a history, perhaps of Rhodes, down to his own time (used by *Polybius (1) via *Zeno (4)). He is probably the Peripatetic philosopher who wrote a history of the philosophical schools (Διαδοχαὶ φιλοσόφων).


Antoninus Liberalis  

Antoninus Liberalis, *mythographer, probably of Antonine times, published a Μεταμορφώσεωνσυναγωγή (‘Collection of Metamorphoses’) based on Hellenistic sources, e.g. *Nicander.



Michael Gagarin

Anytus, a wealthy Athenian and democratic leader, best known as a prosecutor of *Socrates (399 bce). As general in 409, he failed to prevent the loss of *Pylos (Ath. pol. 27. 5); at his trial he reportedly bribed the entire jury. After 403 bce he was a respected, moderate leader of the restored democracy. *Plato (1) (Meno 91) introduces him as a passionate enemy of the *sophists.


Apollonius (3), chief minister of Ptolemy (1), 3rd cent. BCE  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Apollonius (3) (3rd cent. bce) served *Ptolemy (1) II as chief minister (dioikētēs) in Egypt and is best known as holder of a 10,000-aroura (2,750-ha: 6,800-acre) crown-gift estate near Philadelphia (1) in the *Fayūm. This estate formed the centre of a series of agricultural experiments (in *arboriculture, viticulture, crops, and livestock) and was managed by Zenon, a Carian immigrant from *Caunus, who came to the Fayūm in 256 and stayed on in the area after leaving Apollonius' service in 248/7. The collection of Zenon's papyri is the largest from the period and is now scattered throughout European and North American collections. It illustrates these and Apollonius' other interests: *textile-manufacturing at *Memphis, his contacts in *Alexandria (1), and commercial dealings, including slave-trading, in the Levant (see slavery).



Kai Brodersen

Appian (Ἀππιανός) of Alexandria, Greek historian. Born in Alexandria (1) at the end of the 1st centuryce, died in Rome c. 160ce; the inscription on a particular Roman sarcophagus (IGUR IV 1700) suggests that it may well be his. Appian experienced the Jewish uprising of 116/7ce, became a Roman citizen, moved to Rome as an advocate, and eventually gained, through the influence of his friend M. Cornelius Fronto, the dignitas (“honorary position”) of a procurator under Antoninus Pius, which enabled him to devote his time to writing his Roman History. After the preface and Book 1 on early Rome in the period of the kings, this work is arranged ethnographically, dealing with the individual peoples as Rome conquered them: Book 2 covers the Italians; Book 3, the Samnites; Book 4, the Celts; Book 5, the Sicilians; Book 6, the Iberians; Book 7, Hannibal; Book 8, the Carthaginians (as well as the Libyans and Nomads); Book 9, the Macedonians and Illyrians; Book 10, the Greeks and Ionians; Book 11, the Syrians (Seleucids) and Parthians; and Book 12, Mithridates VI.


Aratus (2), 271–213 BCE  

Peter Sidney Derow

*Sicyonian statesman. He fled to *Argos (1) after the murder of his father Cleinias in 264 and was educated there. In 251 he expelled the tyrant Nicocles from *Sicyon and joined the city to the *Achaean Confederacy. From 245 on he occupied a dominant position amongst the Achaeans, normally holding the generalship of the confederacy in alternate years. His policy was for long based upon opposition to Macedon, especially Macedonian influence in the *Peloponnese, and co-operation with Egypt, where he visited *Ptolemy (1) II Philadelphus and whence he obtained substantial subsidies. He seized the Acrocorinth from a Macedonian garrison in 243 and united Corinth to the Achaean Confederacy. In 241 he defeated *Antigonus (2) Gonatas' Aetolian allies at Pellene and thereafter, in alliance with Aetolia against Macedon (239–229), frequently attacked Athens and Argos; in 229 Argos was brought into the Achaean Confederacy and Athens, with Aratus' help, was freed from Macedonian control. These years also saw the addition of *Megalopolis (235) and *Orchomenus (2) to the confederacy.



John MacGinnis and David Michelmore

The history of Arbela (cuneiform Urbilum/Urbel/Arbail, modern Erbil) is documented in archaeological and textual sources. From the point when it first entered history in the middle of the 3rd millennium, the city’s fortunes alternated between periods of independence and incorporation within the super-regional states of Mesopotamia, including the Ur III kingdom and, more briefly, the Upper Mesopotamian empire of Shamshi-Adad I. In the later 2nd millennium the city was incorporated within the Assyrian Empire, rising to become a regional capital of major importance. Following the fall of Assyria, the city was incorporated within the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Arsacid, and Sasanian empires. A period of independence as an emirate in the early mediaeval period was a golden age. This came to an end with the city’s submission to the Mongols, after which it came under the control of the Black Sheep and White Sheep Turcomans and the Safavid and Ottoman empires.Arbela—modern Erbil—is a city in the Kurdish region of northern Iraq with a documented history going back more than four thousand years. It is situated in the trans-Tigris region at the interface of the Zagros Mountains and the fertile plains of .


Arcadian League  

James Roy

Common ethnic identity led to Arcadian federation (see federal states), particularly in the 4th cent. bce. The coin-legend Arkadikon suggests federal ambitions in the 5th cent. bce, and the Spartan king *Cleomenes (1) I tried to unite the Arcadians against Sparta, but there is no clear evidence of a functioning Arcadian League in the 5th cent.After *Leuctra an anti-Spartan democratic movement in Arcadia, led initially by *Mantinea and *Tegea, produced a federal state; most, if not all, Arcadian states joined, willingly or not, by 369 bce. Despite poor information the constitution's main elements are known. There was a large primary assembly (the ‘Ten Thousand’) and a council. An inscription (IG 5. 2. 1, RO 32) lists 50 dāmiorgoi (see demiourgoi), apparently appointed in rough proportion to their home state's size (10 from *Megalopolis, 5 each from seven other states, 3 from Maenalia, and 2 from Lepreum); the date of the inscription (though 4th cent.) is not clear, nor is it easy to see why some Arcadian communities are omitted. The federal magistrates were headed by a stratēgos, presented as a powerful leader.


Arcesilas I, II, III, IV  

Alexander John Graham and Simon Hornblower

Arcesilas I, II, III, IV, second, fourth, sixth, and eighth kings of the Battiads, who ruled *Cyrene from its foundation (c.630 bce) for some 200 years. Information on their reigns comes almost entirely from *Herodotus (1) and from *Pindar and his scholiasts (see scholia). In detail the chronology is uncertain. Arcesilas I (c.591?–c.575?) seems to have followed closely in the founder's footsteps. Arcesilas II, the Cruel (after 570), quarrelled with his brothers, who seceded and founded Barca. They stirred up the Libyans against him, and he was defeated by them, and then murdered by his brother Learchus. He is the Arcesilas depicted supervising the loading of merchandise on the famous cup in Paris (E. Simon and M. and A. Hirmer, Die Griechischen Vasen (1976), pl. 15). Arcesilas III (before 525–after 522) succeeded to a monarchy stripped of its powers by the reform of Demonax of Mantinea (Hdt. 4. 161 f.). He seems to have tried to establish a demagogic *tyranny, was forced into exile, collected mercenaries on Samos with the help of *Polycrates (1), and regained power in Cyrene, only to be murdered later at Barca.


Archelaus (2), Macedonian king, 413–399 BCE  

C. J. Tuplin

A legitimized son of *Perdiccas (2) II, he gained the throne by murder and was eventually assassinated by two male lovers. His reign, for which see esp. Thuc. 2. 100. 2, is notable for co-operation with Athens (supply of shipbuilding materials; capture of Pydna), increasing security (fortress- and road-building; improvement of infantry and cavalry; matrimonial alliances), increasing wealth (resumption of silver coinage), transfer of major residence to *Pella because of the primary importance of north-eastern frontiers, and a ‘Hellenizing’ policy (theatre festival at Dium; patronage of *Zeuxis (1), *Timotheus (1), *Choerilus (2), *Agathon, and *Euripides) whose pretensions perhaps promoted the Athenian hostility reflected e.g. in Plato's Gorgias.


archers, Greek and Hellenistic  

John F. Lazenby

Archaeological evidence shows that both the ‘self’ (i.e. made of one piece) and the ‘composite’ bow were known to bronze age Greece, and the considerable quantities of arrow-heads—flint, obsidian, and bronze—suggest that it was used for more than hunting; a bronze tablet from Cnossus alone (see minoan civilization) records 8,640. Fewer arrow-heads are known from the early iron age, but late geometric Attic vases show that the bow was important again by the 8th cent. bce.In *Homer's Iliad it is only used by one or two heroes on either side, and there is some suggestion that archers were despised. *Pandarus' bow was clearly composite since horn was used in its construction (cf. 4. 105 ff.), and the epithet ‘back-springing’ (παλίντονος) applied to this and other bows is also appropriate to this type. Horn was also used in the construction of *Odysseus' bow (Od.


Archidamian War  

Simon Hornblower

The Archidamian War is the name given to the first decade (431–421 bce) of the main *Peloponnesian War. The name derives from King *Archidamus II of Sparta, who had, however, opposed the war. *Thucydides (2) called this war the ‘ten-years war’ (5. 25. 1); the earliest attested use of the title ‘Archidamian’ is in *Lysias (*Harpocration, entry under Archidameios polemos), in a speech which does not survive.


Archidamus, 'leader of the damos'  

Paul Cartledge

Archidamus, ‘leader of the damos’, was the name of several *Eurypontid kings of Sparta, of whom the most notable were:Archidamus II, who married an aunt and reigned for over 40 years (?469–427 bce), in succession to *Leotychidas II. He first distinguished himself by his resolute response to the great *earthquake of 464, which had prompted a massive revolt of the *helots aided by a couple of the communities of the *perioikoi in Messenia. But even his seniority was insufficient to dissuade the Spartan assembly (*Apellai (1)) from voting for war with Athens in 432, and he led the allied forces in invasions of Attica on three occasions (431, 430, 428); in 429 he inaugurated the siege of *Plataea. Twice married, he was allegedly fined on the first occasion for marrying a too short wife (the mother of .



Paul Cartledge

Areus, self-styled ‘king of the Spartans’, was the first Spartan king to hold an elaborate court and to issue silver coins (using types of *Alexander (3) the Great of Macedon). He was the addressee of a begging letter purportedly written by the high priest of Jerusalem, who based his appeal in part on the alleged kinship of the Spartans and the Jews. His long reign (c.309–265 bce) witnessed some notable successes. In 280 he invaded *Aetolia, after organizing a Peloponnesian coalition against the Greeks' Macedonian suzerain. In 272 he was abroad assisting Gortyn in Crete when King *Pyrrhus of Epirus attacked Sparta, but returned in time to repulse Pyrrhus before assisting in his destruction at *Argos (1). But his reign also coincided with the incipient collapse of the famed Spartan domestic regimen (see agōgē), and he fell in battle outside Corinth in 265, having failed to force the Macedonians' Isthmus lines during the *Chremonidean War.



Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Antony Spawforth

Ariobarzanes, the name of some kings of *Cappadocia:(c.95–63/2), a Cappadocian noble whom the Cappadocians chose in preference to *Ariarathes IX when the previous dynasty came to an end. His career consists almost entirely of a series of expulsions and restorations. Installed by *Sulla (c.95), driven out by *Tigranes (1) II of Armenia, and restored by M'. *Aquillius (2) (90/89 bce ), driven out again the following year, and restored by C. *Scribonius Curio (1) at Sulla's command in 85/4, he had to retire before Tigranes again in 78, suffered the ravages of the Third Mithradatic War, and the renewed attacks of Tigranes in 67. *Pompey increased his kingdom to include, in the east, Sophene and *Gordyene, and, in the west, Cybistra, restored his capital Mazaca, and gave him large loans. Yet in .



Anna Tiziana Drago

The collection of fifty fictitious love letters (epistulae amatoriae) subdivided into two books contained in a single Greek manuscript (codex unicus) copied in the south of Italy around 1200 ce and now housed in Vienna (V = Cod. Vindobonensis phil. Graec. 310) has had a curious history. This manuscript identifies its epistolographer as a certain Aristaenetus, but in fact the author’s name is as uncertain as his birthplace and the dates of his career. The corpus might have been composed between the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th centuries ce, and its author could be an epistolographer belonging to the literary humanist circles formed in the imperial atmosphere of Constantinople under Justinian I (including Procopius, Agathias, and Paulus Silentiarius). The letters are written from a variety of senders to diverse addressees, including historical or literary figures (often professional epistolographers: Alciphron, Aelian, Philostratus, but also Lucian, Stesichorus, Eratosthenes, Archilochus, and Terpander). Aristaenetus’ epistolary collection has a dominant thematic nucleus: the description, conquest, and defence of love. This thematic nucleus gathers around itself conventional amatory topics: the flame of love; love at first sight; servitium amoris (“love slavery”); love-sickness; the erōtodidaskalos (teacher of love); the paraclausithyron (lover’s lament by a locked door).


Aristagoras (1), deputy tyrant of Miletus, c. 505–496 BCE  

D. Lateiner

Aristagoras (1), deputy tyrant of *Miletusc.505–496 bce in *Histiaeus' absence and influential rebel with too many causes. Trying to extend Miletus' Aegean power, he promoted a joint Ionian-Phoenician expedition of 100 ships against prosperous, independent *Naxos (1) in 500 (Hdt. 5. 30). Failing in the four-month siege, facing large military debts, and perhaps contemplating an independent east Aegean empire, he arrested and deposed fellow autocrats before demobilization (and thereby curried favour with ordinary Greeks along the coast), seized the Persians' Ionian fleet, abdicated Histiaeus' de iure tyrannical powers at Miletus, and promoted revolt against *Persia from the Black Sea (see euxine) to *Cyprus (Hdt. 5. 37–8). Control of land and sea was quickly achieved. Seeking allies and cash, Aristagoras sailed to Europe (499/8 ). Spartans declined, Athenians and Eretrians (see eretria) briefly enlisted, but, faced with Phoenician sea-power and Persian access by land, the *Ionian Revolt faltered.


Aristides (1), Athenian politician, 5th cent. BCE  

Simon Hornblower

Aristides (1) 5th-cent. bce Athenian politician, probably cousin of the rich and well-born *Callias (1) son of Hipponicus and friend of *Cleisthenes (2), and not as poor as generally alleged in antiquity. He was probably archon (see archontes) in 489/8, less probably general in 490 at the battle of *Marathon (AO 56 f.). Famously just, he is often represented as an upright and ‘aristocratic’ foil to duplicitous and ‘democratic’ *Themistocles; but the contrast is bad and another tradition (Callaeschrus, Ep. Gr. p. 743) called him ‘more fox by nature than by *deme’, μᾶλλον τΩΙ̑τρόπῳ Ἀλωπεκῆθεν ἢ τΩΙ̑δήμῳ. His *ostracism was in 483/2: Ath. pol. 22. 7. Surviving ostraca accuse him of *Medism (‘brother of *Datis’) and spurning suppliants: ML 21 = Fornara 41D. He returned from exile under an act of recall, and at the battle of *Salamis in 480 led a hoplite engagement on the island of Psyttaleia (Hdt.



Antony Spawforth

Aristion, Athenian citizen and partisan of *Mithradates VI, with the backing of *Archelaus (3) made himself tyrant of *Athens in 87 bce in succession to Athenion, a *Peripatetic philosopher elected hoplite-general in 88 bce on a pro-Mithradates, anti-Rome, platform (*Posidonius, FGrH87 F 36—highly coloured), whereupon he disappears from the historical record. Besieged by *Sulla on the Acropolis, Aristion was executed on his surrender. Since the 18th cent. he and Athenion have sometimes been confused: for their separate identities see I. Kidd, Posidonius: The Commentary 2 (1988), 884 ff. and in M. Griffin and J. Barnes (eds.), Philosophia Togata (1989), 41 ff.; also C. Habicht, Athen: die Geschichte der Stadt in hellenistischer Zeit (1995), ch. 13 esp. 304 n. 20.


Aristobulus (1), of Cassandreia, Greek historian, 4th–3rd cent. BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Aristobulus of Cassandreia, historian of *Alexander (3) the Great, served with the king as a minor officer and in his old age, after *Ipsus (301 bce), wrote an influential history of the reign. Known only from fragments, it was a major source for *Strabo on India; and for *Arrian it is subsidiary only to *Ptolemy (1) I (and occasionally given preference). Aristobulus was indicted in antiquity as a flatterer and did apparently give a eulogistic portrait of Alexander, at times with a blatant suggestio falsi (he states that *Philotas and *Callisthenes actually conspired and repeatedly denies Alexander's predilection for strong drink). In some cases (e.g. the Gordian Knot and the murder of *Cleitus (1)) his version is contrasted with the rest of the tradition and is clearly eccentric. On the other hand he gives invaluable chronological data (particularly for the Indian campaign) and recorded a wealth of geographical and botanical detail.