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Article

Deva  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Deva, the river Dee, whence the name was applied to the legionary fortress at its mouth, modern Chester. Some Pre-Flavian military activity can be inferred, but the legionary fortress with earth bank and timber buildings dates from c.78 and was used first by *legion II Adiutrix and subsequently by XX Valeria Victrix. Timber was replaced by stone, with stone wall, c.

Article

Simon J. Keay

Emerita Augusta (mod. Mérida), a colony on the Anas (Guadiana) founded by Augustus in 25 bce for *veterans of *legions V and X. It was approached from the south by a 64-arch bridge. Many monuments partly survive, including an amphitheatre, circus, and temple: *Agrippa presented it with a great theatre. It also had colonial and provincial fora. Its aqueducts were fed from a large reservoir constructed near by. The colony was reinforced by *Otho.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Eporedia (mod. Ivrea), founded c.100 bce as a Roman colony at the foot of the Alps, to guard over the *Salassi. A theatre, amphitheatre, and aqueduct are known. Under the late empire it was a garrison town and the seat of a bishopric.

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

The name, in the form Esquiliae, denoted the eastern plateau formed in Rome by montes Oppius and Cispius (Varro, Ling. 5. 49–50 (see regio)). The densely inhabited area within the *wall of Servius provided sites for *Augustus’ Porticus Liviae (replacing P. *Vedius Pollio's house), *Nero's *Domus Aurea and the Thermae (see baths) of *Titus and *Trajan. Outside the Porta Esquilena (preserved as the ‘arch of *Gallienus’) was the Macellum Liviae and a cemetery area, notable for the mass graves of the poor and for the tombs of distinguished men (in the Campus Esquilinsus); also *gardens belonging to wealthy aristocrats, notably the Horti Maecenatis (see maecenas). Many of these subsequently came into the possession of the emperors. Beyond lay Spes Vetus, where several aqueducts reached the city, and the Sessorium, an imperial residence.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Ferentinum (mod. Ferentino), town of the *Hernici, whose loyalty to Rome in 306 bce secured a measure of independence for it until 90 bce Its well-preserved walls, with polygonal lower and squared upper courses, are singularly interesting: the two styles may be coeval (1st cent. bce for the citadel fortifications).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Florentia (mod. Firenze, Florence) may have been in existence by the mid-first cent. bce (Florus 2. 8: text doubtful), but this, and the date of the colonia there, is disputed. It was laid out as a rectangular walled castrum (fort), and expanded rapidly. The forum, baths, theatre, and amphitheatre are known, as are two early Christian basilicas. It was the seat of a bishopric and a considerable fortress (Procop. Goth.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Fregellae, in the Liris valley near modern Ceprano, was a Latin colony (see ius latii) established in 328 bce; this provoked the Second Samnite War (see samnium). Staunchly loyal to Rome against Pyrrhus and Hannibal (when, c. 211 bce, the city walls may have been built), it revolted against Rome in 125 bce, and was largely destroyed. A new foundation, Fabrateria Nova, some kilometres away, replaced it, although Strabo (5.3.10) reports the existence of a village and festivals. An important sanctuary of *Asclepius, built in the second quarter of the 2nd century bce, has been excavated, and was apparently destroyed in 125 bce. There are signs that some occupation continued down to the 4th century ce.

Article

Gabii  

T. W. Potter

Gabii, an ancient Latin city (see latini) 19 km. (12 mi.) to the east of Rome, and situated in a geographically critical position on both east–west and north routes. Occupied from the middle bronze age, it developed rapidly from the 9th cent. bce; c.350 tombs of the Latian culture have been excavated at Osteria dell'Osa. According to tradition it was founded by *Alba Longa (Verg.Aen. 6. 773). Its resistance to *Tarquinius Superbus, separate treaty with Rome, and special role in augural practices (see augures) prove its early importance (Livy 1. 53 f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4. 53; Varro, Ling. 5. 33). After 493 bce Gabii appears as Rome's ally. Under the empire Gabii was a prosperous *municipium with celebrated baths and ornate Hadrianic buildings (ILS272). Although still a bishopric in the 9th cent. ce, there are few standing remains, most notably the temple of *Juno (early 5th cent.

Article

Glanum  

A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater

Glanum (Γλανόν), a Greek and Roman town south of St-Rémy-de-Provence. The earliest element was a *Ligurian shrine, but in the 2nd cent. bce a Massiliote settlement grew up (see massalia), owing its prosperity to its location on a major route between Italy and the Rhône (Rhodanus). Structures uncovered include several Hellenistic houses and a possible bouleutērion, and the town struck its own coins.*Romanization was under way in the 1st cent. bce, but swiftly accelerated under Augustus, with the construction of extensive public buildings, and the acquisition of Latin rights (*ius Latii: Plin., HN 3. 37). To the north stand ‘Les Antiques’, a monumental arch and a mausoleum; the latter has been claimed as a cenotaph for Gaius *Iulius Caesar (2) and his brother Lucius *Iulius Caesar (4). After the destruction of Glanum by barbarians (c.ce 275) the site was abandoned and a new walled town built at St-Rémy itself.

Article

Philip de Souza

The earliest man-made harbour facilities in the Mediterranean region were the riverside quays of Mesopotamia and Egypt, for which records go back to at least the second millennium bce. Maritime installations probably began to appear around the Levantine coast in the early iron age, but the earliest securely datable harbour-works are the late 6th-cent. breakwater and ship-sheds of *Polycrates (1), tyrant of *Samos (Hdt. 3. 60). The development of specialized naval and merchant vessels, and a gradual increase in overseas trade, meant that quays and docks of increasing size and complexity were required in the Classical and Hellenistic periods.Early construction techniques made the most of natural features such as sheltered bays and headlands, as at *Cnidus. Exposed shores were protected with breakwaters and moles, like that at Samos. The development in Roman times of concrete which could set underwater enabled ambitious offshore constructions to be attempted, notably *Caesarea (2) in Palestine.

Article

Nicholas Purcell

Roman municipium on a spur of Vesuvius commanding the coast-road, 8 km. (5 mi.) south-east of Naples (Strabo 5. 4. 8; see neapolis). An independent member of the Samnite league centred on Nuceria in the 4th cent. bce and subsequently allied to Rome, it joined the allied cause in the *Social War (3): Oscan civic institutions (see oscans) were replaced by Roman ones in 89 bce. Its origins are still obscure, though the regular street-plan and the name suggest that it may have been a dependency of the Greek *apoikia at Naples (perhaps of the 6th or 5th cent.).Recent discoveries have made its municipal life seem comparably vigorous with its neighbours', but restricted hinterland, limited communications, and a small harbour denied it much economic opportunity. On present evidence, the streets (whose plan is more regular than that of *Pompeii) show little sign of heavy traffic (nor are there stepping-stones for pedestrians); shops and workshops are unobtrusive. As the centre of a resort-coast, however, renowned for its beauty and salubrious climate, and close enough to Naples to be a kind of luxury suburb, the town benefited from the wealth of local proprietors (including Roman senators). The grandest property (known from its rifling in 1750–61), the Villa of the Papyri, north-west of the town, on terraces overlooking the sea, was embellished with gardens, waterworks, and statues and inspired the mod.

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Herdonia (mod. Ordona), *Messapian city, 25 km. (15½ mi.) south of Foggia. It was powerful in the 4th cent. bce, becoming a Roman ally during the Second Samnite War. In 214, it seceded to *Hannibal, and was destroyed in 212. Although Herdonia recovered enough to be recognized as a municipium, the Roman city was much smaller than the Messapian one.

Article

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Hippo Regius (near mod. Annaba, Algeria), a harbour town probably of Carthaginian origin. Its first historical mention is in 310/9bce when Agathocles of Syracuse took two towns of that name, Hippo Diarrhytus being the other (Diod. Sic. 20. 57. 6). The name Regius implies it was later the residence of Numidian princes (cf. Sil. Pun. 3. 259), although nothing is known of this phase. In 205 bce Scipio's legate C. *Laelius landed here during the Second *Punic War (Livy 29. 3. 7), and in its harbour *Sittius captured the Pompeians' fleet in 46 bce (BAfr.96). It became a *municipium under *Augustus, and probably by the late-1st cent. ce had acquired colonial status. Later in the 2nd cent. it became the base of one of the three legati of the proconsul of Africa. It controlled a vast territory (ILAlg.

Article

Simon J. Keay

Hispalis (mod. Sevilla), on the lower Baetis (Guadalquívir), was a native settlement founded in the 8th cent. bce. First mentioned in *Caesar's Civil War (see bellum civile), it was a shipbuilding and trading port. It received a modest deductio of veterans from Caesar as the Colonia Hispalis Romula, which was reinforced by *Otho. Hispalis soon grew in size and importance. Excavations have revealed a temple, public baths, and houses and it has been suggested that it had two fora. It was the principal port for the export of oil and metals from the richest province of the west. Imperial procurators and agents of the praefectus annonae operated there. It had a bishop from the early 4th cent., and later became the metropolitan see, occupied in the 7th cent. by *Isidorus(2).

Article

Iguvium  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Modern Gubbio in Umbria (see umbrians). First settled in the bronze age, it was an important iron age centre, which minted its own coins. The *tabulae Iguvinae were found here in 1444. There is a fine Roman theatre.

Article

Italica  

Simon J. Keay

Italica (mod. Santiponce, near Seville), a strategic foundation by P. *Cornelius Scipio Africanus in 206 bce at the site of a native Turdetanian town. Under *Augustus (?) it received municipal status (see municipium), was walled, and provided with a theatre. It was the ancestral home of the emperors *Trajan and *Hadrian.

Article

M. Stephen Spurr

Latifundia (large estates) ‘have ruined Italy and are now ruining the provinces’. *Pliny (1) the Elder (HN 18. 35) put latifundia at the centre of debate about the development of the Roman rural economy. But what were latifundia? Divergent modern definitions abound and confuse: large pastoral ranches beginning in the 3rd cent. bce; slave-staffed oil- and wine-producing villas (either single properties or the scattered estates of one owner) first described by M. *Porcius Cato(1)c. 160 bce (see villa; slavery); any property above 500 iugera (125 ha.: 309 acres) of whatever period: all of which ‘ruined’ Italy by forcing *peasants from the land. Others dismiss Pliny's remark as generalized nostalgia and refer to archaeological surveys that not only emphasize the diversity of rural settlement but also show that villas and peasant farms often existed side by side. Yet if Pliny is allowed credence, the term latifundia applies strictly to extensive unitary estates, resulting from an aggregation of properties, too large to farm according to the labour-intensive methods of cultivation of the slave-staffed villas recommended by the *agricultural writers (HN 18.

Article

T. W. Potter

Laurentum (mod. Tor Paterno), on the Tyrrhenian coast, to the south of *Ostia; an imperial *villa, much developed in the Antonine period, and covering at least 27 ha. (66 acres); *Commodus stayed there (Hdn. 1. 12. 2). Near by was the associated Vicus Laurentium Augustanorum, which developed rapidly from Tiberian times (see tiberius), and was replanned with imperial support in the Antonine period.

Article

Lindum  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Sheppard S. Frere, and Martin Millett

Lindum (Lincoln), town in *Britain, lay in the territory of the *Corieltauvi, whose capital was *Ratae (Leicester). It began as a fortress for Legio IX Hispana (See legion) c.55 ce/60 (RIB254–7, 260). Soon after 71 this legion advanced to *Eburacum (York) and Lindum seems to have been held by Legio II Adiutrix perhaps till c.78 (RIB253, 258). A colonia was founded c.90–6 (CIL 13. 6679). The new town, with colonnaded main streets, small insulae (blocks of buildings), a piped aqueduct, and notable sewers, occupied the site of the fortress, spreading down the slope to the river Witham, so covering more than 39 ha. (96 acres). The town was an important road-centre and enjoyed good water communications (via the river Witham); in the 4th cent. it was the seat of a bishopric and perhaps the capital of Flavia Caesariensis. Excavations have revealed an early church within the forum.

Article

Martin Millett

Londinium (mod. London). The Roman settlement had no iron age predecessor and was not established until c.47/8 ce, earlier routes crossing the Thames up river. The settlement stood on Cornhill and Ludgate Hill north of the river, with a suburb across the bridge in Southwark. The original settlement was laid out around the northern bridgehead, beside modern London Bridge; it grew to c. 25 ha. (62 acres) by the time of its destruction in the *Boudiccan revolt of 60/1, when *Tacitus states that it was an important trading centre (Ann. 14. 33). There is no evidence for any early military presence and the settlement's early status is uncertain. It was most likely a community of traders from other provinces.Following 61 ce there was a major public building programme including the construction of two successive fora (Flavian and early 2nd cent.), the latter of enormous size, covering c.