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Tanagra  

John Buckler

Tanagra, in *Boeotia, city dominating the eastern part of the Asopus plain, Homer's Graia by the sea. *Herodotus(1) (5. 55–61) states that the earliest inhabitants were the Gephyraioi, who entered Boeotia from *Eretria. He equated them with the Phoenician followers of *Cadmus, whom the Boeotians later expelled. The Tanagrans refused to join the expedition to Troy. The most famous literary figure from Tanagra was the poetess *Corinna, who legend avers had won a victory over *Pindar at *Thebes (1). The scanty remains of Tanagra include the circuit-wall and foundations of a few buildings within it. In art it is best known for its numerous, beautiful *terracotta figurines.In 457 bce Tanagra was the scene of a major Spartan and Boeotian victory over Athens. Months later Athens defeated the Boeotians at nearby Oenophyta, and overran Boeotia and Locris. After Tolmides' defeat at *Coronea in 447 bce, Tanagra rejoined the new Boeotian Confederacy, in which it held one vote (see federal states).

Article

Tanaïs  

David C. Braund

Tanaïs, the river Don and a city at its estuary, at the modern village of Nedvigovka. The river was usually taken to be the boundary between Europe and Asia (but see phasis). The river offered access deep into the hinterland towards the Volga basin, though the Graeco-Roman world seems to have had only the most imprecise notion of its geography.Tanaïs was established c. 300 bce, apparently taking over from the earlier Greek presence (from c. 500 bce) in the Don delta at Elizavetovskoye. *Strabo describes lively trade at Tanaïs, confirmed archaeologically from the 3rd cent. bce onwards, Rhodian *amphorae (see rhodes) being particularly commonplace. The lack of coin-finds before the 1st cent. bce may indicate that barter was the norm there. Archaeology also shows agriculture, herding, fishing, and fish-salting at Tanais, not simply trade.Epigraphy shows its population divided between Greeks and Tanaites by the early centuries ce, which may explain the division of the city into two sectors, divided by substantial walls, in the Hellenistic period, destroyed in the sack of *Polemon (1) I.

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Tarentum (Taras; mod. Taranto), in S. Italy, an 8th-cent. Spartan colony (see colonization, greek; sparta) dominating the best harbour on the gulf of Tarentum. The literary tradition dates it to 706 bce and names Phalanthus as founder. The colonists were said to be the offspring of *helots and Spartan women. Mycenaean finds close to Taranto (see mycenaean civilization) suggest a long-standing Greek connection with the area. Initially, Tarentum seems to have been overshadowed by its more powerful Greek neighbours, but victories over the Messapians and Peucetians c. 490 and 460 bce, which were commemorated at *Delphi, mark the beginning of Tarentine expansion (see messapii for refs.). In c. 475, however, it suffered a heavy defeat by the Messapians which destroyed much of the army and was a catalyst for the overthrow of the ruling élite and establishment of a democracy. Towards the end of the 5th cent. it recovered and began to expand into the power vacuum left by the decline of *Croton.

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

A precipitous cliff on the *Capitol from which murderers and traitors were thrown (see tarpeia). Some ancient sources (e.g. Varro, Ling. 5. 41) place it close to the temple of *Jupiter Capitolinus; Dion. Hal. (7. 35. 4; 8. 78. 5), however, locates it at the south-east corner of the hill above the Roman Forum. The latter seems more likely, given the proximity of the Carcer and Scalae Gemoniae, which were also traditional places of execution.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Tarquinii (Etr. Tarχ(u)na-; mod. Tarquiniaformerly Corneto), the chief of the twelve cities of Etruria, stood on a high plateau about 90 km. (56 mi.) from Rome and 6 km. (3½ mi.) inland; it was the reputed refuge after 657 of the Corinthian merchant *Demaratus(1). The greatest glory of Tarquinii is the series, much augmented by modern Tarquinii, of painted chamber-tombs dating from the mid-6th cent. onwards. The wealth of material found in Tarquinia's vast cemeteries has made them basic to the study of *Villanovan chronology and Etruscan arts and crafts; traces of an extensive Villanovan settlement have been revealed beneath the Etruscan tumuli in the Monterozzi cemetery. The chief surviving monument of the later city is a 4th-cent. temple, the so-called Ara della Regina on the Pian di Civita; there too, excavation (1982 onwards) has unexpectedly revealed an isolated 9th-cent. child burial that was clearly the object of prolonged subsequent veneration (CAH 42 (1988), plate 295: *Tages?).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Tarracina (mod. Terracina), the former Volscian stronghold (see volsci) of Anxur. A citizen colony from 329 bce, it was the southern terminus of the *Pomptine Marshes canal, and an important station on the via Appia (re-routed by Trajan). There was a major sanctuary to Jupiter Anxur (1st cent. bce).

Article

Tarraco  

Simon J. Keay

Tarraco (mod. Tarragona), on the north-east coast of *Spain, was placed on or near Iberian Cese (Κίσσα, Cissis), city of the Cessetani people. In 218 bce it was the base of P. Cornelius Scipio and Cn. *Cornelius Scipio Calvus, whose fortifications still enclose part of the citadel. It was important as a Roman strategic centre during the Celtiberian wars (155–133 bce) and issued coins until the reign of *Tiberius. Under *Caesar it became the Colonia Iulia Urbs Triumphalis. Under *Augustus Tarraco became capital of Hispania *Tarraconensis. It also erected an altar to Augustus and a posthumous temple to him in the lower town. Other monuments include a theatre and amphitheatre. Later in the 1st cent. ce a terraced complex of temple-precinct for the provincial cult, forum for the provincial *concilium, and a circus was built in the citadel. Tarraco survived the Frankish sack (ce 264).

Article

Simon J. Keay

Tarraconensis was the largest of Rome's Spanish provinces under the early empire. Its initial nucleus had been formed by the province originally (197 bce) called Hispania Citerior (Hither Spain), which had important *silver*mines at *Carthago Nova. This grew in size as Rome advanced westwards in the 2nd cent. bce and only reached its full extent at the end of the Cantabrian wars (19 bce). Under *Augustus (27 bce) it came to be administered as an imperial province which comprised all of Iberia except for *Baetica and *Lusitania: after 9 bce it gained Callaecia from Lusitania and the eastern edge of Baetica. The province was subdivided into seven *conventus centred at *Tarraco (the capital), Carthago Nova, *Caesaraugusta, *Clunia, Asturica (see astures), Bracara, and Lucus. By the reign of *Vespasian the military garrison comprised one legion (VII Gemina; see legion) stationed at Legio (mod.

Article

Tarsus  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Stephen Mitchell

Tarsus, a native Cilician (see cilicia) town with a long prehistoric past, which later claimed *Triptolemus, *Perseus(1), and above all *Heracles as its founder. It was capital of the Cilician kings and of the Persian satraps of the region (see persia; satrap), but it issued coins in its own name with Greek and *Aramaic legends and with predominantly Persian types during the 5th and 4th cents. bce. It was renamed Antioch on the Cydnus and issued coins in this name under *Antiochus (4) IV between 175 and 164; the old name prevailed later and is still used today. Annexed to Cilicia by *Pompey it was granted freedom and immunity (see free cities; immunitas) by Antony (M. *Antonius(2)) and was capital of the province of Cilicia from c. ce 72. The city's prosperity owed much to the linen industry and it was a notable centre of commerce. During the 1st cent. bce it was the centre of a famous philosophical school and was the birthplace of St *Paul.

Article

Simon J. Keay

Tartessus, a cultural grouping in south Spain between the lower Guadalquivir valley and the Guadiana which is often identified with biblical Tarshish. Tartessus developed from strong native roots from c. 750 bce by exploiting the rich metal resources in the hinterland of Onoba (mod. Huelva). These were traded with *Gades (Gadir) and the *Phoenicianemporia (see emporion (first entry)) along the south coast in exchange for exotic metalwork, jewellery, ivory, and ceramics, which were then traded within Iberia and further afield. Contact with the Phoenicians and Phocaean Greeks generated a unique Tartessian *orientalizing culture, reflected in sculpture, jewellery, and architecture, along with the introduction of iron-technology, the potter's wheel, and indigenous scripts. The reason for the collapse of Tartessus c. 550 bce is unknown, but has been linked to historically documented external conflicts or an internal crisis. It precipitated the fragmentation of the region into the peoples of the Turdetani, Bastetani, etc.

Article

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Tauromenium (Ταυρομένιον; mod. Taormina), in eastern Sicily above *Naxos(2), was established in 396/5 bce by the Carthaginian *Himilco(2), who planted there on the site of a small existing settlement (already Hellenized (see hellenism) in the Archaic period, as painted architectural terracottas show) the *Sicels to whom *Dionysius(1) I had given the site of Naxos. Dionysius captured it and refounded it as a Greek city (392). In 358 Andromachus, father of the historian *Timaeus(2), gathered the Naxian refugees there and became tyrant. The Tauromenitans promptly gave support to *Timoleon and *Pyrrhus in 344 and 278. About 316 Tauromenium passed under the control of *Agathocles(1) of Syracuse and about 285 under that of a local tyrant Tyndarion, but under *Hieron (2) II it again formed part of the Syracusan dominions. On his death it submitted to Rome, becoming a civitas foederata (see socii; foedus): its chief magistrates then were stratēgoi.

Article

Eric Herbert Warmington

Taurus mountain range, properly the mostly well-wooded heights (average 2,100 m./7,000 ft.) beginning in SW Asia Minor, and continuing along the coast of *Lycia and through *Pisidia and *Isauria to the borders of *Cilicia and *Lycaonia. It then divides into: (1) Antitaurus, apparently the heights going north-east through *Cappadocia (mons Argaeus) and *Armenia (mons Capotes) towards the *Caucasus; (2) Abus or Macis (Massis), through Armenia towards the *Caspian Sea, keeping the name Taurus and sending southwards Mt. *Amanus and (beyond the *Euphrates) Mt. Masius. There were subsidiary ranges south of the Euphrates, and Mt. Zagrus separating *Media from *Assyria and *Babylonia. The name Taurus was extended to include not only the heights of north Iran, but also the Paropamisus (Hindu Kush) and Emodus or Imaus (Himalayas); and was continued by hearsay to the eastern Ocean at ‘Tamus Headland’. The whole range was regarded as the backbone of *Asia, and along it *Dicaearchus (c.

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Teanum Apulum (modrtn S. Paolo), in central Italy, a *Daunian city, originally called Teate. It was on the borders between Daunian and Frentanian territory and shows signs of Oscanization (see OSCANS) by the 4th century bce, notably in issues of coins with *Oscan legends. It fought against Rome in the Second Samnite War (see SAMNIUM), but became an ally in 318 bce and remained loyal thereafter. The Daunian city was fortified with an 11-km. (7-mi.) earth rampart and is similar to *Arpi in size and structure. A Roman aqueduct and temple have been discovered.

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Teanum Sidicinum (mod. Teano), in Italy, the second city of *Campania after *Neapolis (Naples), located on the *via Latina south-east of Roccamonfina. Inhabited from the 7th century bce, it grew rapidly in the 4th. Archaeological evidence includes an Archaic sanctuary, Hellenistic and Roman cemeteries, baths, an amphitheatre, and a sanctuary and theatre similar to *Pietrabbondante.

Article

Tegea  

James Roy

Tegea, a *polis of SE *Arcadia situated in a high upland basin crossed by important routes to *Argos(1), Sparta, and SW and E. Arcadia. The polis was formed from nine local communities, but when an urban centre was created (before the later 5th cent. bce) is unknown. Few traces of the town survive. Outside it there was, however, an important cult of *Athena Alea; its site has yielded finds from Mycenaean times onwards (see mycenaean civilization), and there was a cult centre at least from the 8th cent.; current excavation has found a Geometric temple; and the later Classical temple, burnt down in 395, was magnificently replaced by *Scopas. Around 550 Tegea was compelled by its southern neighbour Sparta to become an ally, and remained so, despite occasional reaction against Sparta, till *Leuctra. Tegea none the less provided asylum for several prominent Spartan exiles. It was also a bitter rival of its northern neighbour *Mantinea.

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Tegianum (mod. Teggiano), in southern Italy, a Hellenized Lucanian (see hellenism; lucania) settlement in the Valle di Diano. There was Gracchan colonization (see sempronius gracchus, c.) in the 2nd century bce, and a larger colonization programme under *Nero (Plin.HN 3.98). See colonization, roman.

Article

Tegyra  

Simon Hornblower

North of *Orchomenus(1) and close to Lake *Copais in *Boeotia, site of an oracular sanctuary of *Apollo (Plut.Pelop.16; see leto and oracles) and of a battle in 375 bce when the Theban *Pelopidas inflicted a defeat on the Spartans (Diod. Sic. 15. 37, FGrH124 Callisthenes F 11 and 18, and Plut.Pelop.16–17). This Spartan reverse is notoriously not mentioned by *Xenophon(1) (though see Hellenica 6. 4. 10) but is important as anticipating the battle of *Leuctra in 371.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Telamon (2), modern Talamone on the coast of Etruria (midway between Rome and Pisa; see pisae), was already inhabited in *Etruscan times. Here the Romans annihilated the *Celts of Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul (cisalpine)) in 225 bce (Polyb. 2.27–31). Here too C. *Marius(1) landed in 87 bce (Plut.

Article

Temesa  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Temesa, in S. Italy, a 6th-cent. bce Aetolian colony (see aetolia; colonization, greek) noted for its copper (Strabo 6. 1. 5), whose site is not identified. It fell under Bruttian control in the 4th cent., but was devastated and abandoned during the *Punic Wars. The Roman colony of Tempsa was founded there in 194 bce (Livy 34.

Article

Tempe  

Bruno Helly

Tempe, defile about 8 km. (5 mi.) long in NE *Thessaly by which the river Peneus reaches the sea. The common word tempē described all defiles, thessalika tempea all the passes giving access to Thessaly or linking its two plains; the Tempe of the Peneus, between Mts. *Olympus(1) and *Ossa, is the most famous. In antiquity seen as the work of *earthquakes, the gorge was formed by fluvial erosion and tectonic movement. It formed the easiest route between Thessaly and *Macedonia, but could be blocked by a small force; it could be turned by various mountain routes. In 480 bce the Greeks occupied Tempe with Thessalian cavalry; but *Xerxes opted for a mountain route, a scenario repeated in later antiquity. See persian wars.