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Article

Janet DeLaine

Templum Pacis, later called forum Pacis or Vespasiani, was the precinct of the temple of Peace at Rome, dedicated by *Vespasian in 75 ce. The area (145×100 m.) was surrounded by marble porticoes within an enclosure wall of peperino and laid out as a garden. The temple, a rectangular hall in the centre of the east side set flush with the portico, housed the spoils from *Jerusalem. It was flanked by a library, the bibliotheca Pacis, and various other halls. One of these carried the *Forma urbis and may have housed the office of the urban prefect. After the fire of *Commodus the complex was restored by *Septimius Severus.

Article

Tenos  

R. W. V. Catling

Tenos, a large island (195 sq. km.) in the northern *Cyclades. A Mycenaean tholos-tomb (see mycenaean civilization) is the only noteworthy relic from prehistory. Settled by *Ioniansc. 950 bce, it had connections with the Thessalo-Euboean region (see thessaly; euboea) in the Geometric period. The city was initially at Xobourgo, a massive granite outcrop overlooking the fertile central plateau. Having submitted to *Persia its *trireme deserted to the Greek fleet before Salamis (see salamis, battle of). Under the Athenian empire its tribute was reduced from three to two talents c. 446 bce. The city was relocated in the later 4th cent. to the south coast. Simultaneously a sanctuary of *Poseidon and Amphitrite was founded near by, an important cult centre in the Hellenistic period. In the early 2nd cent. bce Tenos became the centre of the revived Island League (see delos; sea power).

Article

Teos  

George Ewart Bean and Simon Hornblower

Teos (Τέως), one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League (see ionians; panionium), on the coast north of *Ephesus. Tradition said that it was founded first by *Minyans from *Orchomenus(1), then by Ionians and Athenians under the sons of *Codrus. Teians participated in the Hellenion at *Naucratis. After the Persian occupation of Ionia the Teians sailed in a body to *Thrace, where they founded *Abderac. 544 (and then Phanagoria in the Black Sea, c. 540); many soon returned and took part in the battle of Lade in 494 bce. In the *Delian League Teos was assessed at six talents, on a par with *Ephesus. *Antigonus(1) proposed to synoecize Teos and Lebedus (see synoecism), but this was never carried out. About 200 bce Teos was chosen as the seat of the artists of Dionysus (see dionysus, artists of), but these soon made themselves unpopular and were moved elsewhere.

Article

Howard Hayes Scullard and T. W. Potter

Tergeste (mod. Trieste), in north Italy, probably in origin a settlement of the *Veneti (2), was a Roman colony (see colonization, roman), whose foundation date is disputed. *Augustus provided the walls and towers, and the city, as a hub in the road-network and a port, flourished in imperial times. Monuments included a gate (?Augustan) and a Trajanic *basilica and theatre.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Teutoburgiensis, saltus, the district where, in 9 ce, the army of P. *Quinctilius Varus was destroyed on the march from summer to winter quarters. Its location was until very recently the subject of much speculation: the Teutoburger Wald of modern maps was no indication, being an archaizing name given in the 17th cent. However, striking archaeological discoveries (especially, of coins, legionary weaponry, and the usual impedimenta of a full Roman army on the march—including artillery and surgical equipment) now appear to confirm Mommsen's suggestion that the battle took place near modern Kalkriese, 16 km. (10 mi.) north of Osnabrück. Study of the remains of barricades reveals the skill of the German commanders in harassing, frustrating, and exhausting the Roman troops as they marched through a depression between a hillside and a moor. The Hermannsdenkmal (Hermann monument i.e. monument to *Arminius) at Detmold lies over 70 km. (44 mi.) to the south-east.

Article

William Nassau Weech and R. J. A. Wilson

Thamugadi (modern Timgad, Algeria), a settlement in *Numidia 32 km. (20 mi.) east of *Lambaesis, is one of the few almost totally excavated towns in the Roman empire. Founded in 100ce by *Trajan as a veteran colony,1 the original town was designed on a very regular orthogonal street grid; cardo and decumanus intersect at right angles, curia, basilica, and forum were placed at this intersection, and smaller streets run parallel to the two main roads. Thamugadi had fourteen public baths and a theatre; public-spirited citizens gave it a market and (in the 4th century) a library. When it outgrew the original walled square (which measured 200 Roman ft. each side, making it a 12.5-ha. (30-acre) settlement), an enormous Capitoline temple was built in the second half of the 2nd century outside the walls (which were largely dismantled as the city grew). African cults, however, with thinly Romanizing veneer, flourished: especially numerous are stelai (see stele) to Baal-Saturn, worshipped in another extramural temple.

Article

Thasos  

Eugene N. Borza

Thasos, a large wooded island of the north *Aegean, colonized from *Paros (see colonization, greek) in the early 7th cent. bce. It was rich in *timber and precious metals. Thasos sent colonists to the nearby Thracian mainland to develop gold mines in the region of Mt. *Pangaeus. In the 6th cent. a mining outpost was established at Crenides, which was seized by *Philip (1) II of Macedon in 356 bce, and refounded as *Philippi. Various commercial and mining interests produced a revenue of 200–300 talents (if Hdt. 6. 46. 2 is to be trusted), making Thasos the most prosperous state in the region. It was part of the *Delian League but seceded c.465 in a dispute with the Athenians over mining and trading rights on the mainland. It took the Athenians more than two years to subdue the island, and the Thasians were deprived of their *peraea or mainland possessions (Thuc.

Article

Richard J. A. Talbert

Theophanes, an early 4th centuryce lawyer (scholasticus) at Hermopolis Magna in Egypt, is known to us from an “archive” of Greek papyri (Fig. 1). It was unearthed at an unknown location, purchased around 1896, and has been housed in the Rylands Library, Manchester, UK, since 1901. Along with letters and other documents, this “archive” preserves accounts (about 1,500 lines in all) compiled in the early 320s during a return journey that Theophanes made with an entourage from Hermopolis to Syrian Antioch; he stayed there for two and a half months, and was away for five months in all. Publication of these accounts was delayed until 1952, when they were presented by Colin Roberts with minimal commentary and no translation (PRyl. 616–651).1. Thereafter they attracted little attention until 2006,2. when John Matthews realized their remarkable potential. His English translation and analysis demonstrate the scope for reconstructing Theophanes’s progress by riverboat and highway in remarkable detail, including the meals consumed by him and his social peers on the one hand, and their servants on the other. The daily log of purchases offers insight not only into diet (typically “Mediterranean” in character) and drinkinghabits, but also into the identification of vegetables, fruits, and many other items, their availability in markets, and the prices charged there. From this data an attempt can be made to calculate the total daily caloric value of the food purchases. The prices in turn invite efforts to estimate the level of inflation since the promulgation of Diocletian’s Edict on Maximum Prices twenty years earlier.

Article

Thera  

R. W. V. Catling

Thera (mod. Santorini, 76 km.2), the southernmost of the *Cyclades. It and Therasia are the remnants of a volcanic island destroyed in a cataclysmic eruption c.1650–1500 bce, burying the prehistoric landscape under volcanic ash. The absolute date of the eruption and its impact on *Minoan civilization are disputed (see atlantis). Viticulture thrives in its arid climate and light soils.At Akroteri a bronze age town, deserted before the final eruption, has been uncovered, providing unique insights into the life of a community c.1600 bce. Buildings survive up to two storeys and preserve a splendid series of frescos depicting scenes of nature, daily life, and cult. Most remarkable is a frieze in miniature style showing ships, towns, and landscapes. Of neolithic origins, Akroteri flourished between c.2000 and 1600 bce, when it had close connections with Crete. Local art combines Minoan influences with a vigorous naturalistic style (see minoan civilization).

Article

Andrew Robert Burn and Antony Spawforth

Thermopylae, or just the ‘Gates’ (Πύλαι), strategic pass between Mt. Callidromus and the Euripus channel carrying what is usually considered to have been the main land-route in antiquity from north to central and southern Greece (since when the coast-line has receded); also site of the sanctuary of *Demeter at Pylaea (Πυλαία), one of the twin cult-centres of the Delphic–Pylaean Amphictiony (see delphi; amphictiony), of which traces survive ( Plut.Mor. 409a for its Hadrianic refurbishment, with Sanchez (below), 448-50). As a defence position, where the road defiled between fierce cliffs and the sea, its weakness was that there is easy ground above, ‘along the spine of the mountain’ (Hdt. 7. 216), could an invader but find his way to it; and thus the pass was outflanked repeatedly, by 6th-cent. Thessalians, by the Persians, by the Gauls in 279 (Paus. 10. 22), and by Cato in 191 (Plut.

Article

John Buckler and Antony Spawforth

Thespiae, city in south-central *Boeotia, commanding a small region of rich river valleys overlooked by low hills, with access to the Corinthian Gulf at Creusis. The few surviving remains include a polyandreion, thought to have contained the remains of Thespians who fell in the battle of *Delion (424 bce); the city-site and the surrounding country have been intensively surveyed by British archaeologists, permitting a detailed reconstruction of regional settlement-history. Thespians fought at Thermopylae (see thermopylae, battle of); and after the battle of *Coronea in 447 bce, together with *Thisbe and Eutresis, held two votes in the new Boeotian Confederacy (see federal states). The losses suffered at Delion afforded *Thebes (1) the opportunity to dismantle Thespiae's walls. Resulting political unrest continued until 415 bce, when Thebes crushed pro-Athenian elements within the city. Autonomous after the *King's Peace, Thespiae was again subdued by Thebes in 373 bce, but *Epaminondas allowed the Thespian contingent to withdraw before the battle of *Leuctra in 371 bce.

Article

Bruno Helly

Thessaliotis, one of the four tetrades (districts) of *Thessaly, organized by Aleuas the Red in the 6th cent. bce (see aleuadae), and located in the southern half of the west Thessalian plain (region at the east of mod. Karditsa) on the fertile terraces stretching between the foothills of Mt. Pindus and the river Peneus. The local post Mycenean population of pastoralists and peasant-farmers was submitted by an intrusive group coming from the mountain of Pindos, self-called Thessaloi, which gradually acquired a distinctive identity marked by Greek culture and a ‘mixed’ language, Proto-Aeolian (see greek language). The emergence of this population of self-styled Thessaloi occurred between 1000 and 800 bce. Myth gives as the oldest settlement of Thessaliotis Arne, later Cierium; archaeology has revealed, a few km. to the south, the site of the sanctuary of the Thessalian ethnos, the Itonium, with its temple of Athena Itonia.

Article

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Thessalonica, a city of *Macedonia, founded by *Cassander, who synoecized the small towns at the head of the Thermaic Gulf (see synoecism); perhaps on the site of Therme (Strabo 7 fr. 24). It was named after Cassander's wife. It stood at the junction of the Morava–Axius route from the Danube basin with the route from the Adriatic to Byzantium (the later *via Egnatia). An open roadstead sheltered by *Chalcidice, Thessalonica became the chief Macedonian port, displacing *Pella when its harbour was silted up. Strongly fortified, it withstood a Roman siege but surrendered after the battle of *Pydna. It became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia (see provincia), and it served as Pompey's base in the Civil War. As a ‘*free city’ and as the main station on the *via Egnatia, it enjoyed great prosperity, to which its prolific *coinage bears witness.

Article

Bruno Helly

Thessaly, region of northern Greece, divided into the four tetrades (districts) of *Thessaliotis, *Hestiaeotis, *Pelasgiotis, and *Phthiotis, along with the so-called perioecic regions (see perioikoi) of Perrhaebia (see perrhaebi), Magnesia, Achaea Phthiotis, and Dolopia. Comprising two vast plains divided by the modern Revenia hills, Thessaly is enclosed by mountains (notably *Olympus(1), *Ossa, *Pelion, Othrys, and Pindus) which, far from forming obstacles to communication with neighbours, are pierced by valleys and passes with the generic ancient name of tempē (cf. tempe), by which, in all periods, travellers, merchants, and armies have reached the Thessalian plains. Thessaly has access to the sea only by the gulf of *Pagasae, with its two neighbouring ports, the one in the bay of Volos, in antiquity successively Iolcus, Pagasai, and *Demetrias, and the other in the bay of Halmyrus (Pyrasus, or Demetrieum, absorbed c.

Article

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Theveste (mod. Tébessa), an old Berber town commanding the upper Ampsaga, at the east end of the High Plateaux in eastern Algeria, 38 km. (25 mi.) south-west of *Ammaedara. It is probably to be identified with the Hecatompylos of *Polybius(1) (1. 73. 1) and *Diodorus(3) (4. 18. 1 and 24. 10. 2); the earliest occupation archaeologically attested is of the 4th/3rd cent. bce. *Hanno(2) conquered it for *Carthagec.247 bce. From the early Flavian period (c.ce 75) to late in *Trajan's reign (c.115/17 ), when it was moved to *Lambaesis, the Legio III Augusta (see legion) was stationed at Theveste on the evidence of tombstones and other military inscriptions, but no archaeological trace of the fortress has ever been found. The town that replaced it soon became a colonia, possibly already under Trajan, and certainly no later than 180/2 (ILAlg.

Article

Thisbe  

John Buckler

Thisbe, city in SW *Boeotia, described in *Homer's Iliad (2. 502) as rich in doves. Situated at the eastern defile of Mt. *Helicon, it commanded a small plain near the Corinthian Gulf. Together with *Thespiae and Eutresis it contributed two units to the Boeotian Confederacy (see federal states).

Article

John Ellis Jones

Thoricus, coastal *deme of SE *Attica, now a bare twin-peaked hill (Velatouri) north of modern Laurion. In legend, one of King *Cecrops' twelve Attic townships, home of the hunter king *Cephalus, and landing-place of *Demeter, travelling from *Crete to *Eleusis. An important centre of the Classical silver-mine industry, it became a ghost-town by the 1st cent. ce (partly reoccupied in 5th/6th cent. ce). Excavated remains include, on the higher slopes, five Helladic tombs, Geometric graves and houses, and, lower down, extensive remains of the Archaic–Classical town: a theatre of unusual plan (see theatres (greek and roman), structure; theatre staging, greek), adjacent temple-foundations, tombs, houses, ore-washeries (one restored) and a large mine-gallery (with early bronze to later Roman sherds), and an ‘industrial quarter’ of streets, houses and washeries, an outlying tower, and a silted-over temple, perhaps Demeter's. A remarkable inscription (Ant.

Article

Thrace  

James Maxwell Ross Cormack and John Wilkes

The boundaries of Thrace varied at different times; in the 5th cent. bce the kingdom of the Odrysae, the leading tribe of Thrace, extended over present-day Bulgaria, Turkish Thrace (east of the Hebrus), and Greece between the Hebrus and Strymon, except for the coastal strip with its Greek cities, i.e. from the Danube on the north to the *Hellespont and the Greek fringe on the south, and from *Byzantium to the sources of the Strymon in south-west Bulgaria; whereas the Roman province (see provincia) of Thrace was bounded on the north by the Haemus, on the east by the *Euxine, on the south by the *Propontis, Hellespont, and Aegean, and on the west by the Nestus.By ancient writers the Thracians (who were of *Indo-European stock) were considered a primitive people, consisting of the warlike and ferocious tribes dwelling in the mountains of Haemus and Rhodope, and the peaceable dwellers in the plain, who came into contact with the Greek colonies on the Aegean and the Propontis. Until Classical times the Thracians lived in open villages; only in Roman times was urban civilization developed. *Herodotus(1) remarks (5.

Article

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Thubursicum Numidarum (near mod. Khamissa), a market town on a hilly site in eastern Algeria, on the road from *Hippo Regius to *Theveste. Lying in the rich Bagradas valley, it first became a prosperous agricultural centre under *Masinissa (although little is known of this phase), and played a part in Tacfarinas' revolt (ce 17–24), if *Tacitus (1)'s Thubuscum (Ann. 4. 24. 1) is a corruption of Thubursicum, as seems probable. Under Roman rule it remained the centre of one of the tribes called Numidae, as its name reflects, and was jointly administered by native chieftains and military prefects. The separate existence of the native community was acknowledged even after the town achieved the status of *municipiumc.ce 100/13 (ILAlg. 1. 1240), since a ‘chief of the tribe of the Numidae’ (princeps gentis Numidarum) is still attested in the mid-2nd cent. (ILAlg.

Article

Thugga  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Thugga (mod. Dougga), a hill-town of Africa Proconsularis west of the road from *Carthage to *Theveste. Already a settlement of considerable size in the 4th cent. bce, when *Agathocles of Syracuse took it (Diod. Sic. 20. 57. 4: Tōkai), Thugga was the seat of a Numidian chieftain (see numidia) under *Masinissa and his successors, when it was much influenced by Carthaginian civilization: a mausoleum of the 2nd cent. bce survives, built for an unknown prince by the Numidian master-craftsman Atban (a less likely interpretation of the bilingual Numidian and Punic inscription makes Atban the tomb's occupant). Marian colonists were settled in the vicinity and in the 1st cent. members of the colonia of Carthage had lands near by. An unusual double community of native *civitas (governed by suffetes) and Roman *pagus (at first dependent on Carthage) existed until they were united by Septimius Severus (205), when Thugga became a *municipium.