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Thule  

Eric Herbert Warmington and Martin Millett

Thule (Θούλη), a northern land first heard of and described by *Pytheas. It was said to lie six days' sail to the north of *Britain. At midsummer the sun's and the Bear's paths, as seen at Thule, coincided, and neither set. The inhabitants ate berries, ‘millet’ (oats?) threshed in barns because of the dampness and the lack of sun, herbs, fruits, roots, and honey. Round Thule everything was held in an impalpable mass (perhaps thick freezing fog?) which Pytheas himself saw. It is uncertain whether Thule was Iceland or Norway and in many sources from *Virgil onwards it became a proverbial expression for the furthest place on earth. *Eratosthenes drew a parallel through Thule at 66° (Arctic Circle) which remained for long on maps. *Ptolemy (4) gave Thule a north–south extension of 88 km. (55 mi.) and located it at Mainland (Shetland), though he retained the belief in its midsummer midnight sun. The land of Thule which Cn.

Article

Thurii  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Thurii (mod. Sibari), a Greek colony in S. Italy, founded in 444/3 bce on the site of *Sybaris. It was a panhellenic foundation (see panhellenism), but the main impetus was Athenian. *Herodotus(1) and *Lysias were reputedly colonists, and it was planned by *Hippodamus of Miletus. There was initial *stasis between the surviving Sybarites and the other colonists, but the city flourished. In 390 bce, it was defeated by the Lucanians, and was under pressure from Bruttian raids for most of the 4th cent (see lucania; bruttii). In the 330s it was the headquarters of the Italiote League for a short time (Strabo 6. 3. 4). A rift with *Tarentum occurred in 282, when Thurii appealed for Roman help against the Lucanians and a Roman garrison was installed. The Tarentines ejected it and the incident contributed to the outbreak of the Pyrrhic War (see pyrrhus).

Article

R. J. A. Wilson

Thysdrus (mod. El Djem), a market-town in eastern Tunisia lying inland, midway between *Hadrumetum (mod. Sousse) and Tacapae (mod. Sfax). Its origins are obscure, but it was probably an indigenous rather than a Punic settlement since only a single neo-Punic inscription has been found. First mentioned as a source of grain in 46 bce (Caes.BAfr. 36. 2), it remained an insignificant oppidum liberum (‘free *oppidum’) for much of the 1st cent. ce, but its prosperity, based on its position at the centre of a huge olive-growing area, grew rapidly during the 2nd cent. Surprisingly, however, it became a *municipium only in *Septimius Severus' reign (ILS1911) and did not achieve colonial rank until after 244. The Roman city at its greatest extent was very large, covering between 150 and 200 hectares, but excavation is hampered by the presence of the modern town. The impressively preserved amphitheatre, a spectacular witness to Thysdrus' prosperity, is the best-known public monument: measuring 148 m. by 122 m. and capable of holding at least 25,000 spectators, it was built, probably in the early 3rd cent., to replace an earlier (?Flavian) and smaller amphitheatre to the south. Baths and the sites of the circus and forum are also known. Over a dozen private houses, many very spacious and nearly all with 2nd- and 3rd-cent. figured and ornamental mosaics, are a further testimony to Thysdrus' wealth. Pottery manufacture and lead- and bone-working are attested in an artisans' quarter. The elder *Gordian I was proclaimed emperor at Thysdrus in ce 238.

Article

Tiber  

Edward Togo Salmon

Rises as a creek in the *Apennines near *Arretium, develops into central Italy's greatest river, meanders south to *Narnia (confluence with the Nar), then south-west past Rome (where it divides about the insula Tiberina), and enters the Tyrrhenian sea at *Ostia. The silt it carries down with it on its 250-mile journey accounts for its tawny colour (‘Tiber-yellow’, flavus Tiberis); it accumulates at its mouth to choke the harbour works (*Portus) built by *Trajan and others (*Claudius even excavated a separate, artificial mouth), and constantly advances the coastline at Ostia. Its tributaries are the Tinia-*Clitumnus, Clanis, Nar, *Anio, *Allia, and numerous brooks (*Pliny(1)'s 42 is actually an underestimate). *Navigation, although possible as far as Narnia, was hazardous owing to the swift current. Inundations are first recorded in 241 bce (Oros. 4. 11), but were frequent in all periods, even after Augustus instituted ‘curatores riparum et alvei Tiberis’ (i.e. officials responsible for the banks and channels of the Tiber: Suet. Aug.

Article

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Tessa Rajak

Tiberias, on the west side of Lake Galilee, was founded by *Herod (2) Antipas. Despite its Greek constitution, it was a primarily Jewish city. It was generally treated as capital of *Galilee until *Nero gave Galilee to M. *Iulius Agrippa (2) II. In the Jewish revolt, the people were anti-Roman, but the upper classes loyal; according to *Josephus' Life, the city repeatedly changed sides, then surrendered to *Vespasian.

Article

Tibur  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Occupies a commanding site controlling the route up the Aniene valley (see anio) east into the central *Apennines. Traditionally founded before Rome, it was certainly a major settlement by the end of the 7th cent. bce. An important member of the Latin League (Plin.HN 16. 237), in the 4th cent. bce it frequently fought Rome until deprived of its territory in 338 bce (Livy 7–8. 14). Tibur, however, remained independent, acquiring Roman citizenship (see citizenship, roman) only in 90 bce. The monuments of the Roman town are conspicuous, and include the forum; a sanctuary to Hercules Victor (?of Sullan date) and other temples; an amphitheatre and a rotunda (?4th cent. ce). The airy foothills of the Apennines around Tibur were fashionable locations for villas (e.g. those of *Catullus(1) and *Augustus). The most extraordinary was that of *Hadrian, begun c.

Article

Ticinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Ticinum, in northern Italy near the confluence of the Ticinus and *Padus (Po). *Hannibal defeated the Romans here (218 bce), but Ticinum itself is unrecorded until imperial times. In the late empire it was an important fortress which *Attila sacked, *Theoderic(1) strengthened, and the *Lombards made their capital, calling it Papia (mod.

Article

Tifata  

Edward Togo Salmon and Simon Hornblower

Tifata, mountain overlooking *Capua and *Campania. The name allegedly meant ‘oak-grove’ (Festus 503 Lindsay). The basilica of Sant'Angelo in Formis has occupied the site of its famous sanctuary to *Diana (ILS 6306; Vell. Pat. 2. 25. 4) since the 10th cent.

Article

Tingis  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Tingis (mod. Tangier), a harbour town facing Gibraltar across the Straits, was a *Phoenician foundation, probably in the late 8th/early 7th cents. bce, when Phoenician goods are attested in rural necropoleis in the hinterland; legend had it that it was founded by *Antaeus (Pomponius Mela 1. 5; Plin.HN 5. 2). It is first mentioned (as Thymiaterion) by *Hecataeus(1) of Miletus (Hanno, Periplus 2). Tingis’ free-born inhabitants received the Roman citizenship from Octavian in 38 bce (Dio Cass. 48. 45; see augustus; citizenship, roman) as a reward for supporting him in the civil war rather than the pro-Antonian *Bogud (cf. antonius (2), m.); it was thenceforth detached from the *client kings of *Mauretania. When Mauretania became a province (see provincia) under *Claudius, Tingis became a full colonia and the capital of the governor (*procurator) of Mauretania Tingitana.

Article

Tipasa  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Tipasa, a Roman town in *Mauretania on the Algerian coast between Icosium (mod. Algiers) and *Caesarea(3). A Carthaginian settlement (see carthage), at least from the 6th cent. bce, it was given *ius Latii by *Claudius when Mauretania was annexed to the Roman empire in 46 (Plin.HN 5. 2. 20). The town was originally situated round the harbour, but by the 2nd cent. had expanded enormously: the city walls of that date were 2.3 km. (1¼ mi.) long. It became a colonia (see colonization, roman) under Antonius Pius. Pagan monuments include forum, *basilica, theatre, amphitheatre, and temples; there are also numerous and important early Christian monuments, including churches, chapels, and cemeteries.

Article

Tiryns  

Joseph Maran

The strongly fortified acropolis of Mycenaean Tiryns is situated about 1.5 kilometres from the present coast of the Bay of Nauplion (but only about five hundred metres in the Early Bronze Age and one kilometre in the Late Bronze Age), where it perches on a narrow, rocky outcrop that reaches a height of up to twenty-eight metres above sea level (Fig. 1). The hill slopes from south to north, a topographic feature used during the Mycenaean period to create a division into an upper citadel, a middle citadel, and a lower citadel by demarcating the limits of the different parts of the hill with strong, supporting walls. The acropolis was surrounded by an extensive settlement, the lower town, whose size during the different phases of occupation is still difficult to determine.Because of its impressive appearance, the identification of the site as ancient Tiryns was never disputed, which is why the site very early on attracted the attention of travellers and archaeologists. The remains of the last Mycenaean palace on the upper citadel were largely uncovered in 1884 and 1885 by Heinrich Schliemann and Wilhelm Dörpfeld.

Article

Tolosa  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Tolosa (mod. Toulouse), developed at an important pre-Roman road and river junction, and under *Augustus completely superseded other Hallstatt–La Tène sites (St-Roch, Butte de Cluzel, Vieille-Toulouse) to its south. In 106 bce Tolosa was wantonly sacked by the consul Q. *Servilius Caepio(1), who carried off a huge spoil. Under the empire Tolosa possessed *ius Latii and perhaps the title of colony (Ptol.

Article

Tomis  

David C. Braund

Literary sources describe Tomis as a colony of the Milesians (e.g. Ps.-Scymnus, 765–6; Ov.Tri. 1. 10, 3. 9; see miletus; colonization, greek), but give no date for its foundation, which the majority of archaeologists place in the 6th cent. bce. The earliest Greek material evidence dates from c.

Article

Torone  

Simon Hornblower

Torone, Greek city near the end of the middle prong (Sithonia) of *Chalcidice, on the south-western side, and one of the richest and most important cities of Chalcidice, at least until 432 bce and the rise of *Olynthus as centre of the new Chalcidic league or state, for which see chalcidice. (There is some evidence for tension between Torone and Olynthus, see e.g. Thuc. 4. 110. 2; in the 5th cent. at least, Torone remained separate from the league, partly through relative geographical remoteness.) The usual view that Torone was chiefly colonized from *Chalkis in *Euboea is probably right (that is the natural meaning of ‘Chalcidic Torone’ at Thuc. 4. 110. 1), but a more mixed settlement picture is indicated by recent Greek/Australian excavations, to which, together with *Thucydides(2)'s rich and detailed account at 4. 110–16, we owe most of our knowledge of Torone's topography. There was a well-fortified acropolis (partly excavated), ending in the ‘Lekythos’ (‘oil-bottle’) promontory, on which stood a temple of *Athena (a potsherd inscribed ΑΘΗ- has been found, SEG 37 no.

Article

tourism  

Antony Spawforth

Well-known Greek tourists include *Solon, said (Hdt. 1. 30) to have visited Egypt and Lydia ‘for the sake of seeing’ (theōria), and *Herodotus (1) himself. Sea-borne *trade and sightseeing were surely companions from an early date, as they still were in the 4th cent. (Isoc. Trapeziticus 17. 4). A genre of Greek periegetic (‘travel’) literature arose by the 3rd cent., from which date fragments survive of a descriptive work, On the Cities in Greece, by Heraclides Criticus (ed. F. Pfister (1951); for partial trans. see Austin83); the only fully preserved work of this type is *Pausanias (3) (see polemon(3)), illustrating the thin line between sightseers and pilgrims. Under Rome ancient sightseeing came into its own. A papyrus (PTeb. 1. 33 = Bagnall and Derow 58) of 112 bce gives instructions to prepare for a Roman senator's visit to the *Fayūm, including titbits for the crocodiles; the colossi of *Memnon and other pharaonic monuments are encrusted with Greek and Latin graffiti.

Article

Tralles  

William Moir Calder, John Manuel Cook, and Charlotte Roueché

Tralles, a city sometimes attributed to *Lydia, sometimes to *Caria, on a strong position on the north side of the richest section of the *Maeander valley; its wealth and commercial advantages are inherited by the modern Aydın. First mentioned by *Xenophon(1) (Hell. 3. 2. 19), it belonged to *Mausolus in the mid-4th cent., and was an important city in the Hellenistic period, called Seleuceia while controlled by the *Seleucids (before 188 bce); it was restored by Augustus after an earthquake and given the name Caesarea. Tralles seems to have flourished in late antiquity, with several new buildings; in the 6th cent. it was an important centre of Monophysite activity and missionary work among local pagans.

Article

Transpadana, that part of Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul (cisalpine)) which lies beyond (from the Roman point of view) the river Po (see padus), as opposed to Cispadana, the area ‘this side’ of the Po.

See pompeius strabo, cn., and crassus.

Article

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Stephen Mitchell

Trapezus, a colony of *Sinope (see colonization, greek), traditionally founded in 756 bce as a trading-post in the south-east corner of the Black (*Euxine) Sea with access to the mineral wealth of eastern *Pontus and *Colchis and to the native, east Anatolian kingdom of *Urartu. Its mediocre harbour and inhospitable neighbours retarded its development and in 399 it was still only a small town tributary to Sinope. It formed part of the kingdoms of *Mithradates VI, *Deiotarus, and *Polemon(1), before it was annexed to the Roman empire in ce 64 as part of Pontus Polemoniacus, and was given the status of a free city. Thereafter its importance grew as it was the nearest port to the upper *Euphrates frontier and the harbour works were improved by *Hadrian. It was sacked by the *Goths in the late 250s but remained a garrison town of importance and was to become an important centre in the Byzantine age.

Article

John F. Lazenby

An ambush on a huge scale, Trasimene was the second of Hannibal's victories. The consul, C. *Flaminius (1), with probably some 25,000 men, followed Hannibal, with perhaps some 60,000, into the narrow passage along the north shore of the lake, and found his path blocked by Spaniards and Africans, while slingers and pikemen attacked his right, Celts his left, and cavalry his rear. The consul himself fell, with 15,000 of his soldiers, and all but a handful of the rest were taken prisoner. There is some doubt about where exactly the battle took place. *Polybius(1)'s account fits the area between Passignano and Magione, and is probably to be preferred, although it has been claimed that archaeological evidence—which may not be relevant—supports Livy's apparent location between Pieve Confini and Passignano.

Article

Trebia  

John F. Lazenby

Trebia (now Trebbia), a river flowing north into the Po (see padus) near *Placentia (mod. Piacenza), and the scene of Hannibal's first victory in Italy (December 218 bce). By sending his Numidians to harass his camp (see numidia), Hannibal induced the Roman commander, Ti. Sempronius Longus, to lead his 36,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry across to the left bank of the river and to deploy with it at his back; Hannibal had about 29,000 infantry and 11,000 cavalry. His cavalry routed the inferior Roman cavalry, exposing their infantry's flanks to attack from cavalry, light troops, and elephants, and their rear was attacked by 2,000 picked troops, led by his brother, *Mago(2), who had been hidden somewhere to one side of the Roman line of approach. The Roman wings disintegrated and were annihilated against the river, but the Roman centre managed to break through and make its way to Placentia.