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Article

Olwen Phillis Frances Brogan and R. J. A. Wilson

Tripolitania, name given to an area of western *Libya containing the three cities of *Sabratha, *Oea, and *Lepcis (‘Tripolis’), and their hinterlands. Founded as *Phoenician or at least Punic emporia (see emporion, first entry), they provided sheltered harbours on an otherwise inhospitable shore, but owed their importance largely to trans-Saharan trade and the considerable *olive-oil production of their hinterlands. For long dependencies of *Carthage, they were annexed by *Masinissa and remained in theory subject to the Numidian kings until the Jugurthine War (see numidia; jugurtha). Under Augustus they became part of Africa Proconsularis (see africa, roman), which extended eastwards as far as the Arae Philaenorum on the Greater Syrtis. Their southern frontier zone was administered by the legate of Numidia from early in the 1st cent. ce. The Tripolis had bishops by the mid-3rd cent.The Tripolitanian pre-desert has been extensively surveyed, especially c.

Article

Troas  

Donald Ernest Wilson Wormell and Stephen Mitchell

Troas, or Troad, the mountainous north-west corner of Asia Minor forming a geographical unit dominated by the Ida massif and washed on three sides by the sea. Its name derives from the belief that all this area was once under Trojan rule (see troy). The interior is inaccessible, and the more important cities were situated on the coast. The historical significance of the Troas derives from its strategic position flanking the *Hellespont (a factor which may already have weighed with the Achaeans in their attack on Troy). From the 6th cent. Athens became increasingly interested in holding the straits (see chersonesus(1); sigeum), but after Aegospotami (see athens, History) Persia nominally controlled the Troas. It became the battlefield in the struggle between east and west when *Alexander(3) the Great routed the Persian first line of resistance at the *Granicus. Later the Troas was ruled by *Antigonus(1), who founded Antigoneia—afterwards *Alexandria(7) Troas—and from him the country passed successively under the power of *Lysimachus, the *Seleucids, and *Attalus I of Pergamum.

Article

Tuder  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Tuder (mod. Todi), in Umbria (see umbrians). An important pre-Roman settlement from at least the 6th cent. bce, Todi has produced a famous bronze statue (c. early 4th cent. bce) of *Mars (cf. Sil. 4. 222, 8. 462). Brought early under Roman domination (c.

Article

Tunis  

Brian Herbert Warmington

Tunis (or Tunes), a Libyan town on the site of modern Tunis. It is frequently mentioned in connection with fighting in the vicinity of *Carthage in the campaigns of *Agathocles (1), M. *Atilius Regulus, and P. *Cornelius Scipio Africanus. Although overshadowed by Carthage, situated only a few miles away, it remained a separate community to the end of the Roman period.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Tusculum, a city near modern Frascati, 24 km. (15 mi.) south-east of Rome. Its extensive remains occupy a strong, bracing site 668 m. (2,198 ft.) above sea-level. Myths shroud its origin, but Tusculum was certainly powerful in early *Latium. Its *dictatorOctavius *Mamilius allegedly supported his son-in-law *Tarquinius Superbus (508 bce); but traditions associating Tusculum with Etruscans may be mere aetiological fictions to explain its name. More credibly, Tusculum reputedly led the Latins (see latini) at lake *Regillusc.496, when Mamilius himself fell. Thereafter, however, being exposed to Aequian attacks (see aequi) via *Algidus, it became Rome's ally and staunchly resisted Aequi, *Volsci, and Gauls. Tusculum, the first Latin city to obtain Roman citizenship (381; see citizenship, roman), supplied Rome with several illustrious families (Mamilii, Fulvii, Fonteii, Iuventii, Porcii). Some Tusculans joined the Latin revolt in 340 bce but usually Tusculum remained loyal (e.

Article

Radcliffe G. Edmonds III

Depictions of the underworld, in ancient Greek and Roman textual and visual sources, differ significantly from source to source, but they all draw on a common pool of traditional mythic motifs. These motifs, such as the realm of Hades and its denizens, the rivers of the underworld, the paradise of the blessed dead, and the places of punishment for the wicked, are developed and transformed through all their uses throughout the ages, depending upon the aims of the author or artist depicting the underworld. Some sources explore the relation of the world of the living to that of the dead through descriptions of the location of the underworld and the difficulties of entering it. By contrast, discussions of the regions within the underworld and existence therein often relate to ideas of afterlife as a continuation of or compensation for life in the world above. All of these depictions made use of the same basic set of elements, adapting them in their own ways to describe the location of, the entering into, and the regions within the underworld.

Article

Urso  

John James van Nostrand, M. Isobel Henderson, and Simon J. Keay

Urso (mod. Osuna), a native settlement in Spain some 96 km. (60 mi.) east of Seville (see hispalis). A centre of Pompeian resistance in 45 bce (see pompeius magnus (2), cn.; pompeius magnus (pius), sex.), it was stormed by *Caesar, who later established a colonia (see colonization, roman) drawing on Rome's urban *plebs. Bronze tablets survive containing part of the colonial charter (lex Coloniae Genetivae Iuliae)—an administrative regulation (lex data), based on a legislative act (lex rogata), issued by M. *Antonius(2) on behalf of Caesar. The theatre, water cisterns, and a rock-cut cemetery survive, and distinctive military sculptures from a native funerary monument have been found.

Article

Uthina  

R. J. A. Wilson

Uthina (mod. Oudna), a Roman city in the fertile plain of the Meliana valley, 32 km. (20 mi.) south-west of *Carthage. Originally an indigenous civitas governed by Punic magistrates called suffetes (and possibly the Adys of Polyb. 1. 30. 5, a fortified city besieged by M. *Atilius Regulus in 256/5 bce), it was chosen as a colonia by Augustus for veterans of Legio XIII (see legion). Also favoured by *Hadrian (ILS6784), who may have given citizenship to *peregrini in its territory, it rapidly grew to be a city of great size and prosperity, as witnessed both by the scale of its public buildings and by the luxury of its private houses from the mid-2nd cent. onwards: 67 figured *mosaics from the latter were transported to the Bardo Museum in Tunis in the 19th cent. Its 2nd-cent. *amphitheatre is one of the biggest in Africa (112 m.

Article

Utica  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Utica, by tradition the oldest Phoenician settlement on the north African coast, in Tunisia, 33 km. (21 mi.) north-east of *Tunis. The traditional foundation date of 1101 bce (Plin.HN 16. 216; Vell. Pat. 1. 2. 4; Sil. 3. 241) is not borne out by the archaeological evidence: Utica's earliest traces are burials of the later 8th cent. bce. Although it now lies 11 km. (7 mi.) inland because of coastline changes as a result of silting, Utica was in antiquity an important port at the mouth of the river Bagradas. Within the empire of *Carthage it always retained a position of importance (Polyb. 3. 24. 2; 7. 9. 5). Utica was conquered by *Agathocles (1) of Syracuse in 308 (Diod. Sic. 20. 54) and besieged by P. *Cornelius Scipio Africanus in 204 (Livy 30. 10. 3). A supporter of *Masinissa against Carthage in 149, Utica was rewarded by Rome with lands of the defeated city, and was made a civitas libera (see free cities) and the capital of the new Roman province of *Africa in 146.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Uxellodunum, an *oppidum of the Cadurci, in 51 bce the scene of the last Gallic resistance to *Caesar, who took it by diverting its spring. The precise location of the place remains a little problematic. It is now generally identified with Puy d'Issolu (Lot, near Vayrac) where in 1862 Cessac discovered diversionary works at a spring on the west side of the hill-fort.

Article

Simon J. Keay

On the south-east coast of Hispania Citerior (Hither *Spain), probably founded by D. *Iunius Brutus Callaicus (138 bce) for soldiers who had fought under him against *Viriatus. The inhabitants supported *Sertorius' cause even after his death. It was a mint, and had become a Latin colony by 60 bce (see colonization, roman).

Article

Vectis  

Martin Millett

(also Victis or Ictis), the classical name of the Isle of Wight. The separate identification of Ictis with St Michael's Mount is not favoured, given the confusion surrounding its mention in relation to the mythical *Cassiterides. The Isle of Wight was well settled and an important navigation point.

Article

Veii  

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and D. W. R. Ridgway

Veii (mod. Isola Farnese), 16 km. (10 mi.) north of Rome, was the most southerly of the great Etruscan cities. Habitation and burial are attested from the culturally proto-*Villanovan final bronze age onwards, and document growing exchanges with the outside world; the vast Villanovan cemeteries have yielded a particularly instructive range of imported Greek and locally made Geometric pottery. Later, the inexorable expansion of Rome led to rivalry; after a long siege the city was destroyed in 396 bce (Livy, 5. 1–22; Plut.Cam.2–6) and its territory annexed. A small urban nucleus survived and shortly before 2 bce became the modest municipium Augustum Veiens (Prop. 4. 10. 27 ff.). The *Etruscan city, of which little is known, was provided with imposing defences in the late 5th cent. It was famous for its statuary: *Pliny(1) (HN 35. 157) records the name of Vulca, commissioned to furnish statues for *Jupiter's temple on the Roman *Capitol.

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Velabrum, according to *Varro (Ling. 5. 43), the landing-place of an ancient ferry connecting the Aventine with the Palatine in Rome; more generally, an area of low ground between the Capitol and Palatine. Originally open to seasonal floods of the Tiber, it was drained by the *Cloaca Maxima, and eventually became one of the busiest commercial centres of the city; the vicus Tuscus and vicus Iugarius, which carried traffic between the *forum Romanum and the Tiber, passed through.

Article

Velia  

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Velia, a hill located between the *Palatine and Oppian hills of Rome, overlooking the *forum Romanum; traditionally King Tullus *Hostilius lived here, and P. *Valerius Poplicola (consul 509 bce). The Temple of the *Penates was also located on the hill. The appearance of the area under the republic is now difficult to reconstruct due to the effect of major imperial building projects (the vestibule of *Nero's*Domus Aurea, *Hadrian's temple of Venus and Rome, and the *basilica of *Maxentius) and the destruction caused by the building of the via dell'Impero (now via dei Fori Imperiali) in 1932–3.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Volscian town (see volsci) on the southern rim of the Alban hills (see albanus mons) in *Latium. It frequently fought early Rome, until annexed by the latter (338 bce). It still spoke Volscian then, but was soon completely Latinized. *Augustus originated from Velitrae. *Claudius made it a colonia (see colonization, roman).

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Venafrum (mod. Venafro), a Samnite (Pentrian; see samnium) city on the borders of *Latium and *Campania. It came under Roman control c.290 bce. In the *Social War (3), it was captured and the Roman garrison slaughtered. A colony was founded there, possibly Augustan (CIL 10.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Inhabited fertile country about the head of the Adriatic. Chief cities: *Ateste in prehistoric times, *Patavium in historic (see antenor (1)). They may be of Illyrian extraction (cf. Hdt. 1. 196), although their surviving inscriptions (5th–1st cent. bce) are not in an *Illyrian language. Archaeological evidence reveals that they immigrated into north Italy c.950; here they preceded and later successfully resisted *Etruscans and Gauls. They were highly civilized, preferred horse-breeding and commerce to war, and early organized the Baltic *amber trade. They particularly worshipped a goddess of healing, Rehtia (or Reitia: see religion, italic). Always friendly to the Romans, the Veneti aided them against Gauls (390 bce) and *Hannibal (see punic wars). Later from allies they became subjects, though retaining local autonomy. Presumably they obtained Latin rights (see ius latii) in 89, full citizenship in 49 bce (see citizenship, roman).

Article

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Venta Silurum, a town of Roman *Britain in South Wales (mod. Caerwent) the civitas-capital of the *Silures. A dedication to Ti. Claudius Paulinus, former commander of Legio II Augusta (RIB311; see legion), forms important evidence for the character of local government in Britain. Although it was founded in the late 1st cent. ce, there is little evidence for development until into the 2nd cent. Recent excavations in the *forum-*basilica suggest mid-2nd-cent. construction. The town was defended by earthworks in the late 2nd cent. and a town wall was added after ce 330; this was supplemented with external towers dated to after ce 348–9. These defences enclosed only 18 hectares, which were extensively explored between 1899 and 1913. More recent work has examined a temple, the forum-basilica, and private housing.

Article

Venusia  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Venusia (mod. Venosa), in south Italy, a Peucetian city (see messapii) on the *via Appia, 82 km. (51 mi.) north of Potenza (see potentia). There was a pre-Roman settlement, but there is little evidence for it. It came into contact with Rome in 317 bce, and it may by this date have been Oscanized (see oscans). A large Latin colony was founded there in 291 (Dion. Hal.Ant. Rom.17–18), after which it became increasingly important. It remained loyal to Rome until 90 bce, when it revolted, and was not recaptured until 88. It became a *municipium but regained colonial status (see colonization, roman) in the 1st cent. ce; continuing to be noted as one of the most important cities of *Apulia, it was the birthplace of *Horace (Sat. 2. 1. 34). Recent surveys of its territory have revealed clusters of farms and smallholdings, probably pertaining to various colonial settlements.