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Verona  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Verona, a town of the *Veneti(2) on the river Adige, perhaps also occupied by the *Cenomani (Plin. HN 3. 130; Livy, 5. 35). Little is known of this period in its history, but the oldest inscription is a milestone from the *via Postumia of 148 bce. *Catullus (1) was born here, and *Martial (14. 195. 1) and *Strabo (5. 1. 6) call Roman Verona a large and important city. By ce 69 it was a colonia (Tac.Hist. 3. 8; see colonization, roman). There are many monuments including the magnificent 1st-cent. amphitheatre; a theatre; and walls of *Gallienus. The *gens Gavia were generous patrons. It retained its importance in late antiquity, and was occupied by *Constantine I (312), *Theoderic(1) (499), and the *Lombards (568). Excavation suggests that occupation continued unbroken into the Middle Ages, although in an impoverished way.

Article

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Verulamium, a town in *Britain near modern St Albans (Herts.). The town was built on part of the iron age *oppidum (Verlami (n)), capital of *Tasciovanus, which developed into a town after the Roman conquest. The settlement was probably accorded the status of *municipium by *Claudius (Tac.Ann. 14. 33). The earliest shops were half-timbered multiple buildings used for commercial purposes. After the sack by *Boudicca (ce 60/61) rebuilding was delayed, but by ce 79 a new masonry forum of Gallic design was dedicated, under Cn. *Iulius Agricola, as the dedication inscription shows (RIB 3123). The earliest defensive earthwork (perhaps pre-Flavian) enclosed 48 ha.; it became obsolete early in the 2nd cent. and the town expanded over it. Stone public buildings of the late 1st and early 2nd cents. include two temples of non-classical type and a market hall; but domestic building was still in half-timber. About ce 155 much of the town, including the forum, was burnt down; in the restoration a theatre and palatial town houses in masonry were built.

Article

A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater

Vesontio (mod. Besançon), capital of the Sequani, an advanced central Gallic people (cf. *Aedui, *Allobroges, *Arverni). Strategically important for its command of the Belfort gap, it was occupied by *Caesar in 58 bce and in ce 68 saw the conflict between C. *Iulius Vindex and *Verginius Rufus. Included in Gallia Belgica (see gaul (transalpine)) by *Augustus, the Sequani were transferred under the Flavians to *Germania Superior, and in the late empire Vesontio became the provincial capital of Maxima Sequanorum. The Roman city directly succeeded the Celtic *oppidum sited, as Caesar accurately described, in a bend of the river Dubis (now Doubs). The most important surviving monument is the Porte Noire, but the forum and amphitheatre are also known.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and Nicholas Purcell

Vesuvius, the famous volcano on the bay of Naples, rises isolated out of the surrounding plain of *Campania. Its base is some 48 km. (30 mi.) in circumference, its central cone over 1,216 m. (4,000 ft.) high, and its general appearance picturesque since the mountain-sides have been largely blown away. Vesuvius is mentioned only twice during the Roman republic: in the Latin War of 340, where the allusion (Livy, 8. 8. 19) seems erroneous, and in the revolt of *Spartacus, who used its crater as a stronghold in 73. It appeared extinct (Diod. 4. 21. 5), and its fertile slopes were extensively cultivated, with vineyards mostly (Strabo 5. 4. 8, 247). On 5 February ce 63 a damaging earthquake presaged the first recorded eruption, the severe one of 24 August 79 that buried *Pompeii in sand, stones, and mud, *Herculaneum in liquid tufa, and *Stabiae in ashes, asphyxiated *Pliny(1) the Elder, and is described by *Pliny(2) the Younger, an eyewitness, in letters to *Tacitus(1) (Ep.

Article

Vetera  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Vetera, near Birten, a major Augustan military base on the Rhine, and then a permanent station for two legions. After its destruction by C. *Iulius Civilis in 70, a one-legion fortress was erected on a new site. This appears to have been occupied to the late 3rd/early 4th cent., and may have been refortified by Julian. A walled colony (Colonia Ulpia Traiana) was founded (between 98 and 107) nearby at Xanten; see colonization, roman.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Vetulonia (Etr. Vetluna), in the hills to the west of the bay that is now the Grosseto plain, was one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans). Excavation has been mainly confined to the extensive cemeteries. The earliest material is Protovillanovan (see villanovan culture); the most notable comes from a series of wealthy orientalizing ‘circle tombs’, consisting of trenches surrounded by stones and covered by a tumulus. The Circolo dei Lebeti contained bronze cauldrons with siren heads and griffin protomes that have Greek and oriental parallels respectively. The Pietrera tumulus contained a single chamber in which a central pillar supports a corbelled dome: here as elsewhere in northern Etruria, the suggestion of affinities with Sardinian building techniques gains credit from the presence of nuragic imports in a number of other graves (see sardinia). According to *Silius Italicus (8. 484–8) the Romans assumed the Etruscan royal insignia of fasces, sella curulis, etc.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Aemilia, named after its builder, M. *Aemilius Lepidus(1), consul 187 bce (Livy, 39. 2), and subsequently repaired by *Augustus and *Trajan, ran from *Ariminum 281 km. (176 mi.) north-west to *Placentia (with later extensions to *Augusta Praetoria (Aosta), to Segusio, to *Aquileia, all somewhat inaccurately called via Aemilia).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Aemilia Scauri, highway built by M. *Aemilius Scaurus(1), *censor109 bce, linking the *via Aurelia and *via Postumia. It ran from Vada Volaterrana through *Pisae, *Genua, and Vada Sabatia and thence inland to Dertona. From Vada Sabatia the via Iulia Augusta (built by *Augustus) continued along the coast to beyond Albintimilium (mod.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Highway built in northern Italy, perhaps by T. Annius Luscus, consul 153 bce. It probably linked *Bononia with *Aquileia via *Patavium, *Altinum, and Concordia. (2) The extension of the via Appia, which ran from *Capua through *Nola, *Nuceria (1), *Consentia, and Vibo (see hipponium) to *Rhegium, may also have been a via Annia (not via Popillia, as usually stated), built perhaps by T.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Appia, the Romans' principal route to south Italy and beyond (Strabo, 6. 283). Ap. *Claudius Caecus, *censor312 bce, built and named the 211-km. (132-mi.) section from Rome to *Capua (Livy, 9. 29). It had probably been extended by 244 through *Beneventum, *Venusia, and *Tarentum to *Brundisium (374 km., 234 mi.). Paving of the Appia commenced in 295 and apparently was complete by *Gracchan times (Livy, 10. 23; Plut.Gracch.7; reject Diod. Sic. 20. 36). In imperial times a praetorian curator (see cura(tio), curator; praetor, Caesar and imperial period) kept the road in order. Its exact line can be traced most of the way to Beneventum, but less securely beyond, since the shorter route to Brundisium via *Canusium and *Barium, which the via Traiana later used, led to neglect of the Appia. Between Rome and Beneventum, however, one can still see roadside tombs (e.g. the Scipios', Caecilia Metella's), the ancient pavement, a rock-cutting (at *Tarracina), embankments (e.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Aurelia, an important highway up the western coast of Italy. Possibly first laid out as far as Cosa by C. Aurelius Cotta, *censor in 241 bce, it was later rebuilt on a different line, and extended by M. *Aemilius Scaurus(1) in 109 bce to Dertona and thence to *Arelate, in the newly acquired Gallia Narbonensis (see narbo; gaul (transalpine)).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Cassia, a road running north from Rome through *Sutrium, *Volsinii to *Arretium. Here it joined with a road which led across the *Apennines to *Bononia and then *Aquileia. The Cassia proper was almost certainly the work of C. Cassius Longinus, *censor in 154 bce, and is notable for the way that it bypassed old *Etruscan cities such as *Veii.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Clodia, a road running north from Rome, through south-western Etruria (see etruscans) via the west side of Lake Bracciano and Etruscan towns such as Blera, Norchia, and Tuscania as far as *Saturnia. Incorporating many stretches of older Etruscan roads, it was probably laid out as a middle-distance route in the first half of the 3rd cent. bce.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and T. W. Potter

Via Domitia, a road which probably ran from *Narbo through *Nemausus to *Arelate on the Rhône. It was built by the conqueror of Narbonensis (see gaul (transalpine)), Cn. *Domitius Ahenobarbus(2) (121 bce); a milestone of Domitius survives (A. Degrassi, ILLRP 460a).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Highway built by *Domitian (95 ce), running from Sinuessa on the *via Appia through Volturnum, *Liternum, and *Cumae to *Puteoli, where it joined a road to *Neapolis.

Article

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Via Egnatia, Roman road built c.130 bce from the *Adriatic coast to *Byzantium; named after the proconsul in Macedonia Cn. *Egnatius (AE1973, 492), the via Egnatia was the main route from Rome to the east. Two branches of the road, starting respectively from *Dyrrhachium and *Apollonia, united in the Skumbi valley, crossed the Balkan range by Lake Lychnidus (now Ochrida), and descended to *Thessalonica by way of Heraclea, Eordaea, *Aegae, and *Pella, whence it followed the Thracian coast to Byzantium. It followed the line of a trade-route through the Balkan range which Corinth had exploited.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Flaminia, the great northern highway of Italy, built 220 bce by C. *Flaminius (1), when censor (Livy, Epit.20; reject Strabo 5. 217). It was 334 km. (209 mi.) long from Rome by way of *Narnia, Mevania, *Nuceria(2), and Helvillum to *Fanum Fortunae, where it turned north-west and followed the Adriatic coastline via Pisaurum to *Ariminum. After ce 69 the section between Narnia and Nuceria was provided with an alternative, 9-km. (5½-mi.) longer route through *Interamna Nahars, *Spoletium, and Fulginium. From its earliest days the Flaminia was much frequented; its importance was, if anything, enhanced in late imperial times when the imperial court was at Milan (*Mediolanum) or *Ravenna. Large towns grew up along its tomb-lined course. The road was often repaired: by C. *Sempronius Gracchus, *Augustus (parts of whose bridge at Narnia and whose honorific arch at Ariminum survive), Vespasian (whose tunnel through the Intercisa Pass still exists near Calles), *Trajan, *Hadrian.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Labicana, highway running south-east from Rome to Labici and the country of the *Hernici. Avoiding the Alban hills (see albanus mons), it joined the *via Latina near *Anagnia.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Latina had both an ‘old’ and a ‘new’ route, as curators' inscriptions make clear (ILS1159, 1174, 8980). The older ran south-west from Rome, through the country of the Latins (see latini) and down the Sacco and *Liris valleys into *Campania; it may have been established during Etruscan expansion in the 6th cent. bce. The later road followed the Trerus valley through the Hernici country where the via Labicana joined it near *Anagnia. It crossed the Liris at *Fregellae, then proceeded via Aquinium, *Casinum, *Venafrum, *Teanum Sidicinum, and *Cales across the *Volturnus to *Casilinum, where it merged with the Appia (see via appia). It may have been built by the consul L. Cornelius Cinna in 127 bce (ILLRP457). The Latina was much frequented (Strabo 5. 237), and was used by both *Pyrrhus and *Hannibal, presumably because it followed an easier line than the via Appia.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Popillia, highway in northern Italy, linking *Ariminum, *Atria, and *Altinum with *Aquileia, built by P. *Popillius Laenas, consul 132 bce (H. Dessau, ILS 5807). The road from *Capua to *Rhegium in southern Italy is also often attributed to him, but incorrectly: see via annia (2).