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Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Postumia, north Italian highway centring on *Cremona, whence it ran in one direction through Placentia and Dertona to *Genua, and in the other through *Bedriacum, *Verona, Vicetia, and Opitergium to *Aquileia. Built by Sp. *Postumius Albinus (consul 148 bce), it consolidated the conquest of the Transpadane region (see transpadana).

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Via Sacra, the ‘sacred way’, street connecting the *forum Romanum with the *Velia, affording access to the *Palatine. According to *Varro and *Pompeius Festus, the stretch of road popularly known as via Sacra lay between the *Regia and the house of the rex sacrorum, which was at a location known as Summa Sacra Via; as properly defined, however, the road led from the Sacellum Streniae (cf. strenae) on the Carinae to the Arx (Varro, Ling. 5. 47; Festus, 372 Lindsay). The position of Summa Sacra Via is, however, disputed by modern scholars, who variously locate it close to the Basilica of *Maxentius or near the arch of *Titus. Following the fire of ce 64, the street became a noble avenue, leading from the forum to the entrance to the *Domus Aurea, which was flanked by shops for jewellers, and other luxury-traders.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Salaria, an old-established route which facilitated the salt trade from the *Tiber mouth. It ran north-east from Rome to *Reate in the Sabine country. Later extensions,

(1) through Amiternum and

(2) through *Asculum Picenum, carried it to the *Adriatic.

Article

Stephen Mitchell

Via Sebaste, the Roman key to the control and pacification of *Pisidia, in the southern part of the Augustan province of *Galatia. It ran from the coast of *Pamphylia (probably *Perge), through the Döşeme pass (known to Polybius as the Climax) into the Pisidian highlands, past the Roman colonies or colonial settlements of Comama and Apollonia, until it reached the caput viae, Pisidian *Antioch (2). A further extension continued east to the colonies of Iconium and Lystra. According to *milestones it was completed in 6 bce by the governor of Galatia, Cornutus Arruntius Aquila. Archaeological remains show that it was a highway between 6 and 8 m. (20–6 ft.) broad, which could carry wheeled traffic along its entire length. Its significance may be compared with that of the *via Domitia in Gallia Narbonensis, of the *via Egnatia in Macedonia, and of the road built from Pergamum to Pamphylia at the creation of the Asian province by M'.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Highway built (109ce) by *Trajan, which replaced the *via Appia as the usual route between *Beneventum and *Brundisium. It touched Aequum Tuticum, *Aecae, *Herdonia, *Canusium, *Barium, and *Gnathia. Its identification with the republican via Minucia mentioned by *Cicero (Att.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Valeria, an important road that ran eastwards from Rome to its colony of *Alba Fucens (founded 303 bce), and later to Aternum on the *Adriatic. Of great antiquity, it may have originated as a *transhumance track, used by shepherds taking their flocks into the *Apennines to graze on the summer pastures. The first 28 km. (18 mi.) comprised the via Tiburtina. The extension of the road to Alba Fucens may have been the work of the censor M. Valerius Maximus in 307 bce (Livy, 9. 43. 25). This later became a paved highway, perhaps in the censorship of M. Valerius Messalla (154 bce) and was the via Valeria proper (cf. Strabo, 5. 238). Finally, the emperor *Claudius continued the road as the via Claudia Valeria from Cerfennia to the Adriatic.

Article

David Paniagua

Vibius Sequester is the author of the De fluminibus, fontibus, lacubus, nemoribus, paludibus, montibus, gentibus per litteras, a short repertoire of geographical names mentioned by Virgil, Silius, Lucan and Ovid. The text, written at the end of the 4th or in the 5th century ce for the author’s son, Vergilianus, was likely intended to be used at school as an instrument providing basic information about the collected toponyms and ethnonyms. Despite the occasional mistakes in the text, Sequester’s repertoire represent a fine instance of school culture in Western Late Antiquity. The work was much appreciated by Italian humanists, which explains that it was copied in nearly 50 recentiores manuscripts; all of them, however, descend from a second-half of the 9th century manuscript (Vat. Lat. 4929).Vibius Sequester was the author of a short alphabetic repertoire of geographical names mentioned in Latin poetry, probably compiled at the end of the 4th or in the 5th century .

Article

Vienna  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Vienna (mod. Vienne), a town in Gallia Narbonensis (see gaul (transalpine)), *civitas-capital of the *Allobroges. Perhaps created a colonia Latina by *Caesar, it was made a full colony by *Gaius(1) (as Colonia Iulia Augusta Florentia Vienna; see colonization, roman). It subsequently flourished, even though, in 69, it narrowly escaped destruction from A.

Article

John Wilkes

Viminacium (mod. Kostolac), on the Danube east of Belgrade, was a Celtic settlement (see celts) which became a legionary fortress and city in *Moesia Superior. Its permanent garrison (probably from ce 56/7 ) was Legio VII Claudia (see legion); for a period under *Trajan it was also occupied by Legio IV Flavia.

Article

Viminal  

One of the *Seven hills of Rome. It lay between the *Esquiline and the *Quirinal.

Article

John Wilkes

On the Danube, lay in the territory of the *Boii, a Celtic people (see celts) included within *Pannonia (Superior). In the 1st cent. ce it was garrisoned by the Ala Flavia Domitiana Augusta Britannica milliaria civium Romanorum (under *Domitian: CIL 3. 15197; see alae). At the beginning of *Trajan's reign, probably on the occasion of his visit in 98, Legio XIII Gemina (see legion) was moved there from *Poetovio and began the construction of a legionary fortress before it departed for the Dacian Wars (CIL 3. 14359 no. 32). In its place came Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix, which remained until the end of Trajan's reign when it moved to *Carnuntum, while Legio X Gemina was moved from *Aquincum to become the permanent garrison at Vindobona.At some date in the 3rd cent. a civil settlement became a *municipium (CIL 3.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Vindonissa (mod. Windisch, Switzerland), a prehistoric site on the lower Aar, occupied c.17 ce by Legio XIII, which was replaced in 45–6 by Legio XXI Rapax (see legion), whose violent behaviour to the *Helvetii induced *Vespasian to send it elsewhere. Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis then held Vindonissa to c.

Article

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Viroconium (also Uri(o)conium or Viriconium), a town in Roman *Britain (mod. Wroxeter, in Shropshire). The site, which controlled the route via the Severn valley into Wales, was the focus of considerable military activity during the conquest and afterwards. Numerous forts have been found hereabouts. A fortress of Legio XIV Gemina (see legion) was established at Wroxeter c.ce 55 until 66. Its legion was reoccupied by Legio XX Valeria in ce 75, which remained in occupation until c.ce 83/4. After this the fortress site was developed as the civitas capital of the *Cornovii. Late 1st-cent. baths, perhaps intended for the legion, were left incomplete, to be swept away by *Hadrian, in whose reign a normal forum-basilica replaced them. The forum is dated by a dedication to Hadrian of ce 120–30 by the civitas Cornoviorum (RIB 288). Big new public baths, architecturally combined with a shopping precinct and large public latrine (see sanitation), were built shortly after ce 150; they were provided with a great open-air swimming bath and a covered exercise hall.

Article

Virunum  

John Wilkes

Virunum, a city in southern *Noricum near the river Glan at modern Zollfeld. It lay in the territory of the Celtic Norici, whose centre was on the Magdalensberg 1,058 metres (half a mile) south-east of Klagenfurt. At first the site of a Celtic *oppidum, terraces on the hillside were occupied by more than three square kilometres of buildings, including a forum, a temple, and a centre for the imperial cult constructed by the Norican peoples under *Augustus. Most of the buildings are in the classical style and date from the late 1st cent. bce to the reign of *Claudius. From here the Norici were administered by a Roman *conventus organization and the place was also the centre of the *conciliumprovinciae. Under Claudius a *municipium was established at Virunum (CIL 3. 11555: municipium Claudium Virunum), enrolled in the voting-tribe Claudia. Until the establishment of the legionary fortress at *Lauriacum under Marcus *Aurelius, Virunum was the residence of the governing procurator.

Article

Vix  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Vix, a Hallstatt (late 6th-cent. bce) sepulchral mound by Mont Lassois (Côte-d'Or). Its rich grave goods, including a massive bronze Greek mixing-bowl, suggest the growing influence of the cities of the Mediterranean littoral (principally *Massalia) on the tribes of the Celtic hinterland.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Volaterrae (Etr. VelaθRi; mod. Volterra), one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and capital of the mineral-rich zone of central Tuscany, was established in Villanovan times on a hill dominating the Cecina valley. It is notable for its 4th-cent. walls with arched gates. Volaterrae produced distinctive Archaic and Hellenistic votive bronzes, early stone funerary stelae, (late) red-figured and black-glazed pottery, and carved alabaster ash urns: 109 of the latter were found in a circular chamber-tomb, ranging in date from the late 4th to the 1st cent. bce. The city withstood a two-year (82–80 bce) siege by *Sulla's army, and subsequently became a colony for his veterans; *Cicero defended a native of Volaterrae against the loss of his rights of citizenship (Cic. Caecin.).

Article

Volcei  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Volcei (mod. Buccino), in south Italy, Lucanian city (see lucania) near the Valle di Diano. It was inhabited from the bronze age, and prominent under Roman rule. It entered alliance with Rome c.327/6 bce, but revolted during the Hannibalic War (see punic wars). By resuming alliance with Rome voluntarily in 209, it escaped punishment, and later became a *municipium, absorbing several neighbouring settlements (Plin.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Veteres, one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans), may safely be equated with medieval and modern Orvieto and its temples (notably Belvedere, of *Vitruvius' Tuscan type), painted tombs, and 6th-/5th-cent. Cannicella and Crocefisso del Tufo cemeteries. The latter are laid out in well-planned ‘streets’ of built chambers; epigraphy attests 90 prosperous families at Crocefisso del Tufo between 550 and 500 bce, among them Italic foreigners and at least one Celt. The survivors of the Volsinian rebellion of 264 bce were resettled by Rome at Volsinii Novi (Zonar. 8. 7. 8), identified with the late republican centre excavated (1946 onwards) near Bolsena by the École Française. The original Volsinii was traditionally associated with the federal sanctuary of the twelve Etruscan cities known as the Fanum Voltumnae (Livy, 4. 60. 9–5. 1): see voltumna; this continues to elude archaeological definition.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon

Volturnus, the principal river of *Campania, a considerable stream often mentioned in ancient accounts of Samnite and Hannibalic Wars (see samnium; punic wars). It rises in Samnium and flows southward past *Aesernia, *Venafrum, and *Allifae until joined by its tributary, the Calor, whereupon it turns abruptly westward to enter the Tyrrhenian sea about 32 km. (20 mi.) below *Casilinum.

Article

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Volubilis (mod. Oubili), a town in the Djebel Zerhoun plain in Morocco, 20 km. (12 mi.) north of Meknes. Already in existence in the 4th or early 3rd cent. bce, it soon became thoroughly Punicized, with suffetes as chief magistrates (see carthage). The 2nd- and 1st-cent. bce town already covered some 15 ha. and had a regular street grid. It particularly flourished as the western capital of *Juba II; two temples under the later forum, and a monumental altar under the capitolium (see capitol), belong to this phase. It was rewarded by *Claudius with the rank of *municipium for supporting Rome against Aedmon's rebellion. Thereafter expansion was rapid. The forum is probably Neronian (i.e. ce 54–68, see nero), the two sets of baths are both Flavian in origin, and two street grids with different orientations in the north and north-eastern quarters are both now known to date from before the end of the 1st cent. The city walls (2.35 km. (1.5 mi.) long, with eight gates), enclosing an area of c.