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West, Western Greeks  

Modern expressions for the Greeks of Italy and Sicily, cf. magna graecia. (But ‘western Greece’ can mean the western part of Greece proper.).

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Zeuxis(1), of Heraclea (1) in Lucania, painter, 397 BCE  

Karim Arafat

Zeuxis (1), painter, of *Heraclea(1) in Lucania, pupil of Neseus of Thasos or Damophilus of Himera. *Pliny(1) dates him 397 bce, rejecting 424. *Quintilian dates both him and *Parrhasius to the *Peloponnesian War. In *Plato(1)'s Protagoras (dramatic date about 430) he is young and a newcomer to Athens. His rose-wreathed *Eros is mentioned in Ar. Ach.991–2 (425). He painted Alcmena for Acragas before 406, and *Archelaus (2)'s palace between 413 and 399. He ‘entered the door opened by Apollodorus and stole his art’; he added the use of highlights to shading, and *Lucian praises in the *Centaur family (an instance of the unusual subjects which Zeuxis preferred) the subtle gradation of colour from the human to the animal body of the female Centaur; his paintings of grapes were said to have deceived birds; he said that if he had painted the boy carrying the grapes better, the birds would have been frightened off. His figures lacked the ethos (character) of *Polygnotus, although his Penelope was morality itself, and his Helen (for Croton or Acragas) an ideal picture compiled from several models; pathos (emotion) rather than ethos distinguished the Autoboreas with *Titan look and wild hair, and the *Menelaus (1) drenched in tears.

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Agesilaus II, Spartan king of the Eurypontid house, c. 445–359 BCE  

Paul Cartledge

Agesilaus II (c. 445–359 bce), Spartan king of the junior, *Eurypontid line. Son of *Archidamus II by his second wife, he was not expected to succeed his older half-brother *Agis II and so went through the prescribed educational curriculum (*agōgē) like any other Spartan boy. In 400 he unexpectedly secured the succession, with the aid of his former lover *Lysander, ahead of Agis' son Leotychidas, whose parentage was suspect (rumour had it that his true father was the exiled *Alcibiades).The first king to be sent on campaign in Asia, where his proclaimed aim was to liberate the Greeks from Persian suzerainty, Agesilaus achieved some success against the Persian viceroys *Pharnabazus and *Tissaphernes in 396–5 before his enforced recall to face a coalition of Sparta's Greek enemies in central and southern Greece. The battle of *Coronea (394) was a Pyrrhic victory, and, despite some minor successes of his around *Corinth and in *Acarnania (391–388), the coalition was defeated not on land by Agesilaus but at sea by the Spartan *nauarchos*Antalcidas with a Persian-financed fleet.

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Alexander III(3), 'the Great', of Macedon, 356–323 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Son of *Philip (1) II and *Olympias. As crown prince he was taught by *Aristotle (from 342); he was his father's deputy in Macedon (340) and fought with distinction at the battle of *Chaeronea (338). Philip's last marriage created a serious rift, but a formal reconciliation had been effected by the time of his death (autumn 336), and Alexander was proclaimed king against a background of dynastic intrigue, in which his rivals (notably Amyntas, son of Perdiccas, and the faction of Attalus) were eliminated. A show of force in southern Greece saw him acknowledged Philip's successor as hēgemōn of the League of *Corinth; and in 335, when the Thebans took advantage of his absence campaigning on the Danube and rebelled, he destroyed the city and enslaved the survivors. The exemplary punishment enabled him to leave the Greek world under the supervision of *Antipater (1) with little fear of revolt, while he turned to the war of revenge against Persia.

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Cleitus (2), 'the White', Macedonian commander, d. 318 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Cleitus, (d. 318 bce) Macedonian officer, held senior infantry and cavalry commands under *Alexander (3) the Great (from 327) and returned to the west with *Craterus (1) and the veterans of Opis (324. As Craterus’ admiral he won two (?) naval victories which sealed Athens’ fate in the *Lamian War (322, and was rewarded for his continued loyalty in the war against *Perdiccas (3) (Justin falsely implies that he defected) with the satrapy of *Lydia (321. Expelled by *Antigonus (1) I (319/18), he assumed command of the fleet which *Polyperchon sent to check Antigonus’ ambitions in the *Propontis. Initially successful, he was surprised and crushingly defeated by Antigonus. He died alone in *Thrace.

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Delian League  

Russell Meiggs and Simon Hornblower

Modern name for the alliance formed 478/7 bce against the Persians (also known as the ‘Athenian empire’). In 478 the Greeks, led by the Spartan *Pausanias (1), campaigned in *Cyprus and secured *Byzantium; but Pausanias abused his power and was recalled to Sparta. At the request of the allies, who pleaded Pausanias' behaviour and ‘*Ionian kinship’ (Thuc. 1. 95. 1), Athens accepted leadership. The Peloponnesians acquiesced (some evidence suggests reluctance), and a new alliance was formed with its headquarters on the sacred island of *Delos—a traditional Ionian festival centre but one which had appeal for Dorian islanders also. Athens provided the commander of the allied forces and settled which cities were to provide ships and which money; the treasurers also, ten *hellēnotamiae, were Athenians, and the Athenian *Aristides (1) made the first assessment. But at the outset policy was determined at meetings on Delos at which every member, including Athens, had just one equal vote. The nucleus of the alliance was formed by the Ionian cities of the west coast of *Asia Minor, the *Hellespont, and the *Propontis, and most of the Aegean islands.

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Delphic oracle  

Michael Scott

The origins of the oracle of Apollo date to the very end of the 9th centurybce. Eventually it developed into the most important Greek oracle and was consulted by poleis (see polis) as well as individuals. It played an important guiding role in the formation of the Greek poleis and in colonization; it gave guidance on warfare, pollution, “release from evils,” (rarely) laws, and—above all—cult. The story that Apollo was not the original owner of the oracle but replaced an earlier deity (different versions naming different deities, but all including Gaia or Themis, or both) is unlikely to reflect cult history; it is a myth, expressing the perception that at Delphi the chthonian, dangerous, and disorderly aspects of the cosmos have been defeated by, and subordinated to, the celestial guide and lawgiver.1 Apollo’s oracle has tamed the darker side of the cosmos—both at the theological (Gaia’s defeat) and at the human level: it therefore gives men divine guidance through which they can cope with this side of the cosmos.

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education, Greek  

Frederick Arthur George Beck and Rosalind Thomas

Greek ideas of education (paideia), whether theoretical or practical, encompassed upbringing and cultural training in the widest sense, not merely schooling and formal education. The poets were regarded as the educators of their society, particularly in the Archaic period, but also well into the classical, when *Plato (1) could attack *Homer's status as educator of Greece (e.g. Resp. 606e, and generally, bks. 2, 3, 10; cf. Xen. Symp. 4. 6 for the conventional view). Much education would have taken place in an aristocratic milieu informally through institutions like the *symposium (as in the poetry of *Theognis (1)) or *festivals (cf. the children reciting *Solon's poetry at the *Apaturia, Pl. Ti. 21b), backed up by the old assumption that the *aristocracy possessed inherited, not instructed, excellence. Important educational functions were seen by some in the relationship of a boy and an older lover (see homosexuality); or in the very institutions of the city-state (*polis), the city festivals and rituals (e.

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Peloponnesian League  

Paul Cartledge

Peloponnesian League, the earliest known and the most long-lived Greek summachia or offensive and defensive *alliance. The name is modern and strictly inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all- and only Peloponnesian nor a league (the members were not all allied to each other, and when no League war was in progress, members were free to carry on separate wars even against other members); the usual ancient name was ‘the Lacedaemonians (Spartans) and their allies’. In the 6th cent. Sparta used personal ties of xenia (see friendship, ritualized) to negotiate treaties of alliance with Peloponnesian cities, the first being with either *Tegea or *Elis. Some hold that a period of separate treaties with individual cities was followed shortly before 500 by the organization of the League as a permanent alliance (see cleomenes(1)i); others date the organization earlier (see chilon), others later. Allies swore to have the same friends and enemies as Sparta, and to follow the Spartans whithersoever they might lead; Sparta did not reciprocate these oaths, but did bind itself to go to the aid of an ally attacked by a third party with all strength and to the utmost of its ability. Sparta thus summoned and presided over the assembly of its allies, each of whom had one vote. Sparta could not be committed by the allies to a policy which it did not approve, but did require the approval of a majority vote of an allied congress to implement any joint policy it advocated. In war Sparta always held the command, appointed Spartan officers to levy and command allied contingents, and decided how many troops each ally must commit and the terms of engagement. In peace the League's main function from Sparta's standpoint was to act as a shield around its vulnerable domestic economic base (see helots); for the allies the benefits were less clear-cut, except for aristocrats and oligarchs whom Sparta tended to champion, not always successfully, against incipient democratic movements.

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Pisistratus  

Rosalind Thomas

Pisistratus (Πεισίστρατος), tyrant of Athens (see tyranny), claimed descent from the Neleids (see neleus) of *Pylos and Pisistratus, archon (see archontes) at Athens 669/8 bce. He first came to prominence through his success in the war against *Megara (c.565). In a period of aristocratic faction between Lycurgus and the Pedieis (party ‘of the Plain’) and *Megacles and Paralioi (coast party), he created a third faction, the Hyperakrioi or Diakrioi (referring to ‘hill country’, probably NE *Attica: the factions probably reflect regional bases of support, Hdt. 1. 59). He first seized power with the bodyguard granted him by the Athenians (c.560). Ousted by the other two factions, he returned again with Megacles' allegiance and, if we can extract anything from the ruse in *Herodotus (1) (1. 60), a claim to the protection of *Athena.