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Stephen Hodkinson

Antalcidas (occasional deviant version, Antialcidas), Spartan statesman. He came from a prominent family and was probably related by marriage to King *Agesilaus II. He first appears as Sparta's representative at the Graeco-Persian conference at *Sardis in 392 bce. He negotiated a Sparto-Persian alliance with *Artaxerxes (2) II in 388 and, as admiral (*nauarchos), blockaded the Hellespont with Persian naval assistance, forcing the Athenians and their allies to agree to the *King's Peace (or Peace of Antalcidas) in 387/6. Its terms abandoned the Greek cities of Asia to Persia and established peace (probably the first officially named ‘*Common Peace’) in mainland Greece and the Aegean based upon the principle of autonomy, although the practical effect was the establishment of Spartan hegemony. Although the tradition of his long-standing enmity with Agesilaus is doubtful, he reproved the king for his unrelenting hostility towards Thebes (1) in the 370s. He successfully negotiated Persian support in 372/1 and was elected *ephor for 370/69.


Antigonus (2), 'Gonatas', c. 320–239 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Antigonus (2) (c. 320–239 BCE), king of Macedonia (c.277/6–239 bce), son of *Demetrius (4) I and Phila, nicknamed ‘Gonatas’ (meaning unknown). He served under his father in Greece in 292, commanded his possessions there from 287, and took the royal title on Demetrius' death in 282, though he failed to gain Macedonia until 277/6. Before then his military ability won widespread recognition, not only in Macedonia, through a major victory near Lysimacheia in 277 over *Celts who had overrun Macedonia and Thrace. Cassandreia still resisted him for ten months but his dynastic alliance with *Antiochus (1) I, whose sister Phila he married, ended Seleucid competition. *Pyrrhus occupied western Macedonia and Thessaly in 274 but his death in 272 removed this threat. In Greece Demetrius' old naval bases—*Piraeus, *Chalcis, *Corinth, and *Demetrias—guaranteed Antigonus' influence, and although an alliance led by Athens and Sparta and supported by *Ptolemy (1) II Philadelphus tried to eject the Macedonians (in the ‘*Chremonidean War’ of c.


Antiochus (3) III, 'Megas' ('the Great'), Seleucid king, c. 242–187 BCE  

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (3) III Megas (the Great (c. 242–187 BCE), second son of *Seleucus (2) II, king of the *Seleucid empire (222–187). After the assassination of his elder brother, *Seleucus (3) III, who was childless, he was called from *Babylon to *Antioch to be king. From the outset he faced many problems within the empire: in the east, a rebellion in *Media led by the satrap Molon (222), with the support of the satrap of Persis, Alexander (brother of Molon); Molon invaded Babylonia, seized the royal capital, *Seleuceia (1) on Tigris, and took the title ‘king’. In the west, *Achaeus (3), viceroy of Seleucid Asia Minor, was in revolt and in control of the royal capital of *Sardis. The Ptolemies still retained control of *Seleuceia (2) -Pieria in north Syria.Within the next 25 years, Antiochus put down the revolt of Molon (220) (Polyb.


Antiochus (9), names of kings of Commagene  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Antiochus (9), the name of some kings of *Commagene:(full title, Theos Dikaios Epiphanēs Philorhōmaios kai Philhellēn), son of Mithradates Callinicus and Laodice (daughter of the Seleucid king Antiochus VIII Grypus), reigned in Commagene from c.69 to c.36 bce. After the Roman victory over *Tigranes (1) of Armenia, *Pompey recognized Antiochus' kingdom (64) and added strategic holdings across the Euphrates (e.g. Seleuceia-on-the-Eulaeus). As a cautious statesman Antiochus tried to find his own way in the Roman civil war and in the Romano-Parthian Wars: He announced the Parthian invasion of 51 to *Cicero in Cilicia, only nominally supported Pompey at Pharsalus (48), but later went over to the Parthian side (his daughter Laodice was the wife of the Arsacid king *Orodes II). After the defeat of the Parthian prince Pacorus (38), Antiochus was besieged in Samosata by P. *Ventidius.



Phillip Harding

Atthis was the title given in post-*Alexandrian scholarship to the genre of Greek *historiography that narrated the local history of *Attica. The title, derived from the name of the daughter of the mythical king Cranaus (Strabo 9. 1. 8), was probably invented by *Callimachus (3) for cataloguing purposes. The authors themselves used a variety of titles (Protogonia, Attika, Attikē Syngraphē) or none. The genre was probably created by *Hellanicus (1) in the late 5th cent., though *Pausanias (3) (10. 15. 5) credits *Cleidemus. It was most popular in the 4th cent. when Atthides were written by Cleidemus, *Androtion, *Phanodemus, and perhaps *Melanthius (3). *Demon and *Philochorus, the last and most respected atthidographer, wrote in the 3rd. Later *Ister compiled an epitome of these Atthides.In structure the Atthis was a chronicle, based upon a hypothetical list of kings (for the mythical period) and, after 683/2 bce, on the eponymous archons.


careers, Greek  

John Davies

In virtually all the Greek-speaking areas, pressures to evolve clear career structures in public life were countered by social or political considerations, thereby preventing the emergence of recognizable *cursus honorum on the Roman republican model. Though, for example, *Thucydides (2) (5. 66. 3–4) credited the Spartan army with a clear hierarchical command structure, promotions and careers within it were by appointment and co-optation rather than by election. Hence they were as much a matter of belonging to a notable lineage, or of influence with kings or ephors, as of merit. At Athens a simple hierarchy of military command in both infantry and cavalry is attested, while re-election to the generalship (see stratēgoi) was common and helped to provide a clear career path for professional soldiers, often interspersed with spells of mercenary command abroad. In contrast, careers in civilian office-holding in Classical Athens were effectively precluded by the short-term tenure and non-repeatability of office, by collegiality, and above all by selection by lot (see sortition).


Cephisodorus (2), Greek historian  

Cephisodorus of Athens or Thebes (1), wrote a history of the Third *Sacred War.


Chabrias, c. 420–357/356 BCE  

George Law Cawkwell

Chabrias (c. 420–357/6 bce), of Athens, a professional soldier who for over 30 years was frequently engaged in warfare for Athens (being a general at least thirteen times) and for the kings of *Cyprus and *Egypt in revolt from *Persia. His greatest achievements were the defence of *Boeotia in 378, during which he invented a useful method of defence against *hoplites, the decisive naval victory over Sparta near *Naxos in 376, and the extension of the *Second Athenian Confederacy. After 370 he fought in the Peloponnese, and his fortunes seem to be linked to those of *Callistratus (2), with whom he was prosecuted by Leodamas, the Boeotian sympathizer, in 366; like Callistratus he was restored to power shortly before the battle of *Mantinea, and, when soon afterwards Callistratus was in exile, Chabrias was with *Agesilaus in Egypt supporting King Tachos.


Charon (2), of Lampsacus, historian  

Klaus Meister

Tradition (Dion. Hal.Thuc. 5, Pomp. 3. 7; Plut.Mor. 859b; Tert.De anim. 46 = T 4a–d) made him an older contemporary and source of *Herodotus. The Suda (entry under the name = T 1) confirms this dating (despite contradictory statements within the work) and lists the following works: Aethiopica, Persica in 2 bks., Hellenica in 4 bks., On Lampsacus in 4 bks., Libyca, Chronicles (Oroi) of the Lampsacenes in 4 bks., Prytaneis of the Lacedaemonians, Κτίσεις πόλεων in 2 bks., Cretica in 3 bks., Periplus of the Area outside the Pillars of Heracles.Historians operating with the traditional dating accepted only Yearbooks of Samos and the Persica as genuine, since neither the scale nor the subject-matter of the other works is compatible with an early date. Jacoby, however, dates Charon later and makes him a younger contemporary of *Hellanicus (1), mainly because of the similar subject-matter (so recently Lendle). Von Fritz does not commit himself on the issue of the dating: ‘as far as the fragments are concerned Charon may just as well have been an older contemporary of Herodotus as a younger contemporary of Hellanicus.


Cineas (2), Thessalian orator and author  

Peter Sidney Derow

The Thessalian was an uncommonly able orator (he was a pupil of *Demosthenes (2)) and diplomat in the service of King *Pyrrhus of Epirus. Best known for his dealings with Rome during Pyrrhus’ Italian venture (not least because he was adopted by the Roman tradition as an early Hellenic admirer of Rome), he also wrote an epitome of the tactical treatise of *Aeneas Tacticus of Stymphalus and a historical work, possibly focused upon Pyrrhus and *Epirus but dealing also with *Thessaly.