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Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Arae Flaviae (mod. Rottweil), on the Neckar. In ce 74 the Roman Rhine–Danube frontier was shortened by carrying a road south-eastwards from Strasburg (*Argentorate) to the *Danube. A fort was built at the point where another road coming up from Vindonissa joined it. At the same time a civilian settlement, ‘The Flavian Altars’, was developed as a centre of the imperial cult devoted to the ruling dynasty (see ruler-cult).

Article

Arausio  

A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater

A town in Gallia Narbonensis (mod. Orange). Near here the *Cimbri defeated Cn. Mallius and Q. *Servilius Caepio (1) with huge losses (105 bce). Under Octavian a colony for *veterans of Legio II Gallica (Colonia Firma Iulia Arausio Secundanorum) was established on land taken from the federation of the Cavares (which included the Tricastini) and neighbouring peoples. Fascinating details of the *centuriation are preserved on marble tablets, of which many fragments have been recovered. Several important monuments survive, including the magnificent theatre, with an enigmatic semicircular structure adjoining, two temples, and the triumphal arch (possibly associated with the suppression of the rebellion of Florus and *Iulius Sacrovir in ce 21, though this remains controversial) which stands outside the north gate.

Article

Arcadia  

James Roy

The central region of the Peloponnese, reaching the sea only in the SW (territory of Phigalia). It is separated by mountains from its neighbours (less so in the west towards *Elis and in the south towards Sparta), and divided internally by mountains into upland valleys. The area is mainly drained by the river *Alpheus and its tributaries, but in the east and north-east closed basins with no overground drainage were until recently liable to flooding. The valleys offer limited fertile areas, and grazing for sheep and goats; Arcadia was the home of the goat-god *Pan. Limited economic resources left Arcadia as a relatively poor area of Greece, and emigrant Arcadian *mercenaries were well known in the 5th and 4th cents. bce. Known Mycenaean sites in Arcadia are few but interesting (notably the LH IIIB/C cemetery at Palaiokastro in west Arcadia). The Arcadian dialect, resembling Cypriot, differed markedly from other Peloponnesian dialects. Arcadians shared a common Arcadian identity, expressed in myth (e.g. their common ancestor *Arcas), but also in the 5th-cent.

Article

Ardea  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

A city of the Rutuli, a Latin people. Although 4.5 km. (3 mi.) from the sea, it served as a port for *Latium. First settled in the bronze age, its elaborate defences and rich temples that long served as federal sanctuaries for the Latin League confirm the tradition that Ardea was once an important city, worthy of signing a separate treaty with Rome (444 bce). In 442 a Latin colony (see ius latii) strengthened Ardea against the *Volsci and in 390M. *Furius Camillus, it was said, set out from here to repel the Gauls. Apparently, too, Ardea remained loyal in the Latin War (Livy 8. 12). A Samnite raid c.315 bce and subsequently malaria caused Ardea to decline. However, the erection of numerous villas and possibly the dispatch of a Hadrianic colony prevented the village from entirely disappearing. In republican times Ardea served as a state prison; later its fields supported the imperial *elephants.

Article

Arelate  

John Frederick Drinkwater

A town in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Arles-sur-Rhône. Literary references to its Greek origins have been confirmed by archaeology. It became important with the construction of the ‘Fossae Marianae’ and was used as a naval base by Caesar against *Massilia (49 bce). A colony of veterans of the sixth legion (Colonia Iulia Paterna Sextanorum Arelate) was founded here in 46 bce on land taken mainly from Massilia. Arelate was much enlarged by Augustus, to whom the earliest surviving town-wall and probably the still visible east gate are due, and further significantly developed by the Flavians. Early buildings still visible are the forum, magnificent *amphitheatre (136 m. × 107 m. (446 × 351 ft.) externally), and theatre. An extensive suburb, linked by a bridge, developed at Trinquetaille. The original importance of Arelate was due to its position as a port of transhipment for seagoing vessels. In the Later empire it gained hugely in status as an occasional imperial residence: *Constantine I ordered the first Christian council here in 314.

Article

Theodore John Cadoux and P. J. Rhodes

Areopagus, the ‘Hill of Ares’ (Ἄρειος πάγος) at *Athens, north-west of the Acropolis, and the ancient council associated with it. There are no substantial remains on the hill; the council's meeting-place may have been on a terrace on the north-east side rather than on the summit. Probably the council was called simply boulē (‘council’) at first, and was named after the hill when a second council from which it had to be distinguished was created, probably by *Solon.In early Athens the membership of the council will have been aristocratic. By the time of Solon, if not earlier, it came to comprise all ex-archons (see archontes), who entered it at the end of their year of office and remained members for the rest of their lives. The annual entry of nine new members in middle life maintained a strength of about 150. Changes in recruitment depended on changes in the recruitment of the archons: based on wealth rather than family from the time of *Solon; including the *zeugitai, the third property class, from 457/6 bce; and no longer attracting the men with the highest political ambitions from the first half of the 5th cent.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Perhaps first occupied as one of *Drusus' castella, it was garrisoned c. 12–43 ce by Legio II Augusta, then by legionary detachments including one of XXI Rapax, who constructed the first basalt wall. Legio VIII was transferred here c.80. Its 2nd-cent. fortress (606×300 m.; 663×328 yds.) was defended by an earth bank with a 90-cm. (35-in.) thick revetment wall of small blocks and brick borders. From the 3rd cent. Argentorate was exposed to barbarian attack, and in the mid-4th cent. its original wall was fronted by another, 2.5 m. (8.2 ft.) thick, of reused masonry with bastions c.25 m. (82 ft.) apart. In this period the *canabae, previously important, were given up as the civil population crowded into the fortress.

Article

John F. Lazenby

Arginusae, small islands between Lesbos and the mainland (now Garipadasi and Kalemadasi), scene of a battle between the Athenian and Spartan fleets in 406 bce. There is some doubt about dispositions, but Sparta's 120 triremes were probably in a single line abeam, Athens' 150 in a double line abeam, possibly on either side of the westernmost island. *Xenophon (1) says the Athenians, on this occasion having the inferior fleet, adopted this formation in order to prevent the enemy breaking through their line in the manœuvre known as the *‘diekplous', and then swinging round to attack from the stern. The result was a victory for the Athenians, but this was marred by the failure to pick up survivors from their crippled ships, when a storm arose.

Article

Argos  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and Antony Spawforth

Argos (1) (city), in the southern part of the Argive plain 5 km. (3 mi.) from the sea, at the foot of the Larissa hill which was occupied from prehistoric, through Classical and Hellenistic, to Frankish and Turkish times. A low hill, the Aspis, which has remains of earlier bronze age occupation, formed part of the city. Middle bronze age remains have been found over a wide area (the Deiras ridge, and the South Quarter), and a Mycenaean cemetery with chamber-tombs on the Deiras. Mycenaean Argos appears to have been at its height in Mycenaean IIIA–B (roughly later 14th–13th cents.) at which time the Aspis was fortified; these fortifications were rebuilt in the Classical period. After the disintegration of *Mycenaean civilization, a community continued to live on the Aspis, burying its dead in the Deiras cemetery. By the end of the 10th cent. a new community had grown up on the flanks of the Larissa, and it seems sensible to associate this with the settlement at Argos of a population of *Dorians.

Article

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Argos (2) Amphilochicum, traditionally founded by *Amphilochus after the Trojan War, on the eastern shore of the Ambraciote Gulf. In its struggles against *Ambracia (Thuc. 2. 68) it was helped by Athens and *Acarnania, and played its part in Athenian operations in NW Greece in the early years of the *Peloponnesian War.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Ariminum (mod. Rimini), on the Adriatic, was an *Umbrian and Gallic settlement, which became a Latin colony (see ius latii) in 268 bce (Vell. Pat. 1. 14). An important harbour and road-centre, Ariminum was the key to *Gaul (Cisalpine), controlling the bottle-neck between Apennines and Adriatic (Polyb. 3. 61, etc. ; Livy 24. 44, etc. ; Strabo 5. 217). It remained loyal to Rome against *Hannibal (Livy 27. 10) and obtained Roman *citizenshipc.89 bce (Plin. HN 3. 115). Surviving sack by *Sulla, occupation by *Caesar, confiscation and colonization by the *triumvirs, attacks by Flavians (ce 69) and Goths (538), it became one of five towns composing the pentapolis maritima under the Ravenna exarchs (App. BCiv. 1. 67, 4. 3; Plut. Caes.32; Tac. Hist. 3. 41; Procop. 2. 10). Surviving monuments include the arch of Augustus, marking the end of the *via Flaminia, and a Tiberian bridge.

Article

Arpi  

Geraint Dyfed Barri Jones and T. W. Potter

Arpi, in Italy, Argos Hippion or Argyrippa, the largest of the *Daunian cities, in the Tavoliere of Apulia. It was in existence from at least as early as the 6th cent. bce, and made a treaty with Rome in 326 bce (Livy 9. 13). Thenceforth it flourished. It surrendered to *Hannibal, who wintered there in 215 bce, and lost its port when the Romans built the colony of *Sipontum in 194 bce.

Article

Arpinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Arpinum, in Italy, a Volscian hill-town (see volsci) in the *Liris valley, modern Arpino, with interesting polygonal walls. Rome captured Arpinum from its Samnite conquerors and gave it civitas sine suffragio (see citizenship, roman), 305–303 bce (Diod. Sic. 20. 90; Livy 9. 44, 10. 1). After 188 it enjoyed full citizenship, being administered as a *praefectura and, after 90, as a *municipium (Livy 38.

Article

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and D. W. R. Ridgway

Arretium (mod. Arezzo), north-easternmost of the cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and one of the latest founded. It is not certain when it passed under Roman rule, but in the 3rd cent. bce it was an important base for Roman operations in north Italy, and it acquired additional importance in the mid-2nd cent. from the construction of the *via Cassia, of which it was the first terminal. It became a *municipium in the 2nd cent. bce and a colony under Sulla, and again under Caesar. From it comes a fine series of archaic and later bronzes, notably the Chimaera (cf. also Livy 28. 45, where Arretium supplies large quantities of bronze weapons for *Scipio Africanus' African expedition); and for nearly a century after c.30 bce its red-gloss table wares, both plain and relief-moulded, dominated the markets of the Roman world (see pottery, roman).

Article

Eric Herbert Warmington and Simon Hornblower

Artemidorus (2) (fl. 104–101 BCE), a Greek of *Ephesus; his name means ‘gift of *Artemis', the city’s most important goddess. He voyaged along Mediterranean shores, outer Spain (and Gaul?), and in *Alexandria (1) wrote eleven geographical books (Περίπλους, Τὰ γεωγραφούμενα, Γεωγραφίας Βιβλία), often quoted. His records, especially of distances in western regions, including (misapplied) use of Roman measurements, were fair, with errors and confusions (K. Miller, Mappaemundi (1898), 6. 127 ff.). For eastern waters and Ethiopia Artemidorus relied on *Agatharchides, adding distances and details as far as Cape Guardafui; for India, on *Alexander (3) the Great's writers and *Megasthenes. He made two calculations of the inhabited world's length and two of its breadth, without determining positions by latitude and longitude. He was an important intermediary source between Agatharchides and *Strabo. A remarkable new papyrus of Artemidorus, including *maps and other drawings, was published in 2008.

Article

Piero Treves and Antony Spawforth

Artemisium, a promontory on the NE coast of *Euboea, so called from a temple of Artemis Proseoa on this site. The place is perhaps to be identified with the village of Potaki near the bay of Pevki. An ancient shipwreck yielding bronze statuary was found in the 1920s. For the naval battle of 480 bcesee artemisium, battle of.

Article

Ascra  

John Buckler

Ascra (local form: Askre), a Greek village in the territory of *Thespiae, founded by Diocles and the *Aloadae, best known as the home of *Hesiod, who defamed it forever by describing it as ‘bad in winter, hard in summer, but never good’ (Op.640). Located in the Valley of the Muses on Mt. *Helicon, the site of the village is still marked by a stone tower.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon

Asculum Picenum, the capital of *Picenum, strongly placed amid imposing mountains near the Adriatic on the river Truentus (Strabo 5. 241); modern Ascoli Piceno, with numerous ancient remains. Rome captured Asculum in 268 bce and continued the *via Salaria to it (Florus 1. 14). The *Social War (3) broke out here, but the Romans recovered the town after a two-year siege and grimly punished it (App.

Article

Stephen Mitchell

The geographical term Asia Minor is used to denote the westernmost part of the Asian continent, equivalent to modern Turkey between the Aegean and the Euphrates. The western and southern coastal fringes were part of the Mediterranean world; the heartland of Asia Minor lay in the interior of Anatolia, comprising the hilly but fertile uplands of *Phrygia, the steppic central plateau, and the rugged and harsh country of *Cappadocia. These areas were framed by the Pontic ranges which rise steeply from the Black Sea in the north, and the long range of the *Taurus which snakes through southern Anatolia from Lycia to the Euphrates and separates Asia Minor from Syria. In the Graeco-Roman period the region's history is illuminated by an almost limitless flood of historical information, which makes it possible to identify the separate languages, cultures, and religious traditions of its various regions—*Bithynia, Mysia, *Lydia, *Caria, *Lycia, *Pisidia, *Cilicia, *Cappadocia, *Galatia, *Paphlagonia, and *Pontus—and also to document the influence of external powers and cultures, above all of Persia, Greece, and Rome.

Article

William Moir Calder, Eric William Gray, and Stephen Mitchell

*Attalus III of Pergamum bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans. After his death in 133 bce it was constituted as provincia Asia by M. *Aquillius (1). Originally it consisted of Mysia, the Troad (*Troas), *Aeolis, *Lydia, Ionia (see ionians), the islands along the coast, much of *Caria, and at least a land corridor through *Pisidia to *Pamphylia. Part of *Phrygia was given to Mithradates V Euergetes and was not made part of the province until 116 bce. *Lycaonia was added before 100 and the area around Cibyra in 82 bce. After 80 bce, the SE portion was removed and joined to the new province of Cilicia, as were the Phrygian assize-districts of Laodicea, Apamea, and Synnada between 56 and 50 bce. Under the empire Asia included all the territory from Amorium and Philomelium in the east to the sea; it was bounded in the north by Bithynia, in the south by Lycia, and on the east by Galatia.