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Demetrius (19), 'the Cynic', philosopher, 1st cent. CE  

M. T. Griffin

The *Cynic lived in Rome under *Gaius (1), *Nero, and *Vespasian and was friendly with the Stoic philosopher L. *Annaeus Seneca (2). He was probably exiled to Greece under Nero (66 ce) but returned in the time of Vespasian. He was criticized for defending the Stoic philosopher Egnatius Celer when he was accused by C.

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Demetrius (3), of Phaleron, Athenian Peripatetic philosopher and statesman, b. c. 350 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Demetrius (3) of *Phaleron (b. c. 350 bce), son of Phanostratus, Athenian *Peripatetic philosopher (pupil of *Theophrastus) and statesman, began his political life in 325/4 and was probably elected *stratēgos for many of the next few years. He escaped death as a pro-Macedonian in 318, and *Cassander made him absolute governor at Athens, where he held power for ten years. As *nomothetēs he passed comprehensive legislation (317/6 –316/5); military and other service was limited, various forms of extravagance were curbed, measures were taken to regularize contracts and titles to property and *nomophylakes were set up. When *Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes took Athens (307), Demetrius fled to *Boeotia, and was later librarian at *Alexandria (1) (297). He died in disgrace under *Ptolemy (1) II Philadelphus.

Moral treatises, popular tales, declamations, histories, literary criticism, rhetoric, and collections of letters, fables, and proverbs. Though an outstanding orator, Demetrius produced mainly a superficial amalgam of philosophy and rhetoric. He assisted his fellow Peripatetics, and under him Athens enjoyed relative peace.

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Democritus, of Abdera  

David John Furley and C. C. W. Taylor

In *Thrace, b. 460–57 bce (Apollod. in Diog. Laert. 9. 41), 40 years after *Anaxagoras according to his own statement quoted by *Diogenes (6). He travelled widely, according to various later accounts, and lived to a great age. In later times he became known as ‘the laughing philosopher’, probably because he held that ‘cheerfulness’ (euthymiē) was a goal to be pursued in life. There is a story that he visited Athens—‘but no one knew me’ (Diog. Laert. 9. 36); this may be a reflection of the undoubted fact that *Plato (1), although he must have known his work, never mentioned him by name.

Diogenes Laertius 9. 46–9 mentions 70 titles, arranged in tetralogies by *Thrasyllus like the works of Plato, and classified as follows: Ethics, Physics, Unclassified, Mathematics, Music (which includes philological and literary criticism), Technical, and Notes. None of these works survives. Of his physical theories, on which his fame rests, only meagre quotations and summaries remain; the majority of texts that have come down to us under his name are brief and undistinguished moral maxims.

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Demonax, of Cyprus, Cynic philosopher, 2nd cent. CE  

William David Ross and Antony Spawforth

Cynic philosopher, known mainly by the life of him ascribed to Lucian. He was from a wealthy family but renounced his inheritance; among his teachers was *Epictetus. Partly itinerant, with a period of residence in Athens, he dispensed advice to individuals and to cities. He starved himself to death when nearly 100 years old; Athens gave him a public burial.

Article

demons in Christian thought  

Gregory D. Wiebe

The background of early Christian demonology was in both Hebrew and Greek culture. Jews associated the Greek word daimōn with the false gods of the surrounding nations. This was in many ways an intuitive application of the Greek term. It carried the sense of ambivalent divine or semi-divine power, which significant philosophical traditions understood to mediate between humans and gods. The New Testament carries this theme, though its focus is more on Christ’s exorcisms of demons, and his gift of that power to his disciples, with the early church tying the two together in the theological literature, as well as baptismal exorcisms and renunciations of the devil and idolatry.Demons were widely thought to have aerial bodies, which allowed them to perform various marvels, like foretelling the future. They were ultimately taken to be fallen angels with Satan as their leader, though this was not a given early in the tradition. While the Christian understanding was that Christ had defeated them on the cross, this was not taken to preclude the ongoing influence of demons in human affairs prior to the final judgement. Indeed, they constituted a significant moral problem for the Christian life, which absolutely opposed them. For Christians, Christ and the demons were the two sides of the fundamental dilemma of every human soul. The problem of demons manifested differently depending on the context, whether in its encounter with false religion, from idolatry to the persecutions the gods inspired; or in the innumerable tempting thoughts encountered in the pursuit of ascetic discipline.

Article

Derveni papyrus  

Valeria Piano

As one of the most ancient Greek papyri ever found (it dates back to the second half of the 4th century bce), and given the length of its extant part, the Derveni papyrus effectively represents the oldest “book” of Europe. It was found at Derveni, near Thessaloniki, in 1962, close to the rich tomb of a knight belonging to the army of Philip II or Alexander the Great. The volumen had been placed on the funeral pyre along with other offerings, and thanks to the process of semi-carbonisation it underwent, the upper half of the roll was preserved, maintaining a good degree of readability. The papyrus contains a philosophical-religious text, mostly in the form of an allegorical commentary on a theo-cosmogonical poem attributed to Orpheus. The first columns expound a religious and ritual discourse that deals with issues related to sacrifices, souls, daimones, retribution, cosmic justice, and divination. In the commentary (cols. VII–XXVI), the Orphic hexameters are systematically quoted and interpreted in terms of natural philosophy of a Presocratic brand. The mythical narrative of the succession of the gods, as well as of the origin of the cosmos, is thus matched by a cosmological and physical account, which is equally related to the origin and the functioning of the universe, and is sustained by a theologised conception of nature.

Article

dialectic  

D. Sedley

Dialectic, διαλεκτική (sc. ἐπιστήμη or τέχνη): the science of conducting a philosophical dialogue (διαλέγεσθαι, ‘to converse’) by exploring the consequences of premises asserted or conceded by an interlocutor. Aristotle considered *Zeno (1) of Elea its founder (Diog. Laert. 9. 25), no doubt for his antinomies which derived contradictory consequences from a disputed hypothesis. *Socrates (1)' method of cross-examination, the elenchos, was a further landmark in the history of dialectic. But it was his pupil *Plato (1) who formally developed the idea of a dialectical science, and who probably coined the term ‘dialectic’ itself. While Socrates' arguments had regularly taken the form of refutations, Plato (Meno 75c–d) presented dialectic as co-operative investigation based on agreed premisses, in contrast to the essentially obstructive method of ‘eristic’. In his middle and late periods Plato virtually equated dialectic with correct philosophical method, especially for securing definitions (Resp.

Article

diatribe  

J. L. Moles

Modern term for works of Greek or Roman popular philosophy, generally implying the following: that they are direct transcriptions or literary developments of addresses given by *Cynic or Stoic (see Stoicism) philosophers on the streets, before large audiences or by way of moral exhortation to pupils; that they focus on a single theme; that their main aim is to attack vices (hence the modern meaning); that they employ a vigorous, hectoring, colloquial (sometimes vulgar) style, with colourful, everyday imagery; that they sometimes have an anonymous interlocutor, thereby providing a dramatic illusion, a degree of argument and (usually) a butt. Such works are regarded as the pagan equivalent of the Christian sermon, which they are supposed to have influenced (from Paul onwards). Alleged examples include the remains of *Bion (1) (often considered the form's inventor) and *Teles, *Arrian's versions of Epictetus' teachings, and various works of the younger *Seneca, *Dio Cocceianus, and *Plutarch.

Article

Dicaearchus  

Christopher Pelling

Dicaearchus of *Messana, Greek polymath and prolific writer, pupil of *Aristotle and contemporary of *Theophrastus and *Aristoxenus: fl. c.320–300 bce. He spent some of his life in the *Peloponnese. Fragments only survive of his works, but they show a remarkable range:(1) The Life of Greece, a pioneering history of culture in three books: it began with an idealized worldwide golden age and went on to trace the evolution of contemporary Greek culture, pointing the contribution of Chaldaeans and Egyptians as well as Greeks. (2) On Lives, in several books, treating *Plato (1), *Pythagoras (1), and other philosophers: he found ‘juvenile’ and ‘vulgar’ elements in the Phaedrus The title suggests a discussion of different lifestyles rather than straightforward biographies, and he presented his subjects as men of action as well as of reflection. (3) On Alcaeus, perhaps including a commentary; this again treated wider aspects of cultural history. (4) Works on .

Article

Diocles (5), of Magnesia, historian of philosophy  

D. Sedley

Diocles of *Magnesia (1 or *2), mid to late 1st cent. bce, historian of philosophy. Diocles' two attested works, the doxographical Survey of the Philosophers (Ἐπιδρομὴ τῶν φιλοσόφων) and the biographical Lives of the Philosophers (Βίοι τῶν φιλοσόφων) were a major source for *Diogenes Laertius, whose entire account of Stoic dialectic (7.

Article

Dio Cocceianus  

M. B. Trapp

Dio Cocceianus, later surnamed Chrysostom (c.40/50-110/120 ce), Greek orator, writer, local politician and moralist, pursued a double career, as member of the governing elite of his home town of Prusa (Bithynia), and as public speaker and intellectual in pursuit of an international reputation. His oratorical ability took him at a relatively young age to the fringes of the Imperial court, where his contacts included the future Emperor Nerva. Under Domitian, another connection earned him a sentence of exile from Italy and Bithynia that was not rescinded until Nerva's accession in late 96. After his recall, Dio re-established himself at Prusa, and as an international speaker, making appearances in Tarsus and at Olympia, as well as in the cities of Bithynia. Pliny's letters to Trajan (Epp. 10.81-2) show him still engaged in local wrangles in 109/10. How close a relationship with Trajan he himself enjoyed in his later career is debatable.

Article

Diodorus (2) Cronus, dialectician  

D. Sedley

Diodorus (2) Cronus, of *Iasus (died c. 284 bce), virtuoso dialectician and leading member of the Dialectical school (see Megarian school). His pupils included the logician *Philon (6), the founder of Stoicism *Zeno (2), and his own five daughters. His work combined the dialectical traditions founded by *Zeno (1) of Elea and by *Socrates. He was active in both Athens and *Alexandria (1), and profoundly influenced Hellen-istic philosophy. His nickname ‘Cronus’, inherited from his teacher Apollonius Cronus, meant ‘Old Fogey’.

His ‘master argument’ (κυριεύων λόγος), which established his definition of ‘possible’ as ‘what is or will be true’, set the terms of the Hellenistic debate about modality (see Cic. Fat.). He gave his own account of a valid conditional, as one which neither was nor is able to have a true antecedent and a false consequent.

Article

Diogenes (1), of Apollonia, Greek Presocratic philosopher  

Malcolm Schofield

Diogenes (1), of Apollonia (on the Black or *Euxine Sea), is generally reckoned the last of the Presocratic philosophers (cf. *Theophrastus, Phys. op. fr. 2) but evidently himself ‘paid no attention to our usual intellectual boundaries’ (Lloyd). The best evidence of his date is *Aristophanes (1)'s Clouds (423 bce), where his views are parodied. Fragments of On Nature are preserved by *Simplicius, whose mention of other works by Diogenes perhaps rests on a misunderstanding.Probably with his theory of infinite worlds and infinite void and his account of the heavenly bodies in mind, Theophrastus (Phys. op. fr. 2) complains that Diogenes' doctrines were mostly a medley derived from *Leucippus (3) and *Anaxagoras. Diogenes' central argument, however, defended an Anaximenean form of material monism (see Anaximenes (1)). The first move established the truth of monism as such: interaction between bodies would be impossible if they were essentially different (fr. 2). Next came proofs reminiscent of Anaxagoras that there is much intelligence in the world, as witness its orderly structure and the life of men and other animals (frs. 3 and 4). From this Diogenes inferred his principal thesis: the basic body must be air, since air is what pervades and disposes all things and supports life and intelligence. Differentiation (e.g. of temperature) in air explains differences between species (fr. 5). The causal connection between air and life and intelligence was substantiated in a detailed account of the blood channels, preserved by Aristotle (fr.

Article

Diogenes (2), 'the Cynic', c. 412/403–c. 324/321 BCE  

J. L. Moles

The general distortions in the ancient traditions about Cynicism (‘doggishness’) multiply in the case of Diogenes. Ancient and modern reactions range from appreciation of his wit to admiration for his supposed integrity, anxiety to integrate him into a formal philosophical succession from Socrates to the Stoics, denial of his philosophical significance, revulsion at his shamelessness, dislike of the threat he posed to conventional social and political values, and doomed attempts to make him respectable. All accounts are controversial, but the ancient traditions show certain constants and *Diogenes (6) Laertius 6. 70–3 preserves his essential thought.Accused with his father, moneyer at *Sinope, of ‘defacing the currency’ (a phrase which would yield a potent metaphor), Diogenes was exiled some time after 362 and spent the rest of his life in Athens and Corinth. (His capture by pirates, consultation of Delphi, and discipleship of Socrates' follower *Antisthenes (1) are fictitious.

Article

Diogenes (3), of Babylon, Stoic philosopher, c. 240–152 BCE  

Julia Annas

Diogenes (3) of *Babylon (c. 240–152 bce), succeeded *Zeno (3) of Tarsus as head of the Stoa (see Stoicism). His visit to Rome in 156–155 stimulated interest in Stoicism. *Panaetius was his pupil. He developed distinctive positions in some areas, notably philosophy of language and ethics, where he wrote on such topics as the morality of sale. His significance as a figure in the debates of the period and the development of Stoic positions is only now emerging from renewed study of the *Herculaneum papyri, in which his views are frequently discussed.

Article

Diogenes (4), of Tarsus, Epicurean  

Epicurean of uncertain date, but probably identical with the author of a book on ποιητικὰ ζητήματα or ‘poetical inquiries’ (who fl. c.150–100 bce): Strabo 14. 5. 15; Diog. Laert. 6. 81.

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Diogenes (5), of Oenoanda in Lycia, Greek Epicurean  

David Konstan

Diogenes of *Oenoanda in Lycia (near mod. Incealiler in Turkey), author of a massive Greek inscription presenting basic doctrines of Epicureanism. The inscription was carved in a *stoa, probably in the 2nd cent. ce. Between 1884 and 1895, 88 fragments were discovered, and were the basis of successive editions until the publication by M. F. Smith of 124 new fragments (1970–84).

The inscription occupied several courses of a wall c.80 m. (87 yds.) long. In the lowest inscribed course was a treatise on ethics dealing (inter alia) with pleasure, pain, fear, desire, dreams, necessity, and free will; beneath its columns was inscribed a selection of Epicurus' Primary Tenets and other maxims. Immediately above was a treatise on physics, the surviving sections of which include criticisms of rival schools and discussions of epistemology, the origins of civilization and language, astronomy, and theology. Above these main treatises were more maxims, letters of Epicurus (one, addressed to his mother, concerns her anxious dreams), at least three letters written by Diogenes to Epicurean friends, and Diogenes' defence of old age. Fragments survive also of Diogenes' instructions to his friends.

Article

Diogenes (6) Laertius  

Herbert Strainge Long and Robert Sharples

Diogenes (6) Laertius, also called Laërtius Diogenes, author of an extant compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from *Thales to *Epicurus. Since he omits *Neoplatonism and mentions no philosopher after Saturninus (a Pyrrhonian sceptic of the 2nd cent. ce), he probably lived in the first half of the 3rd cent. ce. Nothing whatever is known of his life, not even where and with whom he studied philosophy.

After an introduction on some non-Greek ‘thinkers’ such as the magi (see magus), and some of the early Greek sages, he divides the philosophers into two ‘successions’, an Ionian or eastern (bk. 1. 22 to bk. 7) and an Italian or western (bk. 8), and ends with the ‘sporadics’, important philosophers who did not found successions (bks. 9–10). This arrangement disperses the Presocratics in books 1, 2, 8, and 9. Book 10 is devoted entirely to Epicurus and preserves the texts of several of his works.

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Diogenianus (1), Epicurean  

William David Ross

*Eusebius quotes many passages from his polemic against Chrysippus' doctrine of fate. His date is unknown, but he probably belongs to the 2nd cent. ce, when the polemic of the New *Academy against Chrysippus was at its height.

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Dionysius (8), of Heraclea (3) on Pontus, Greek Stoic philosopher, c. 328–248 BCE  

Julia Annas

Dionysius of *Heraclea (3) on the Pontus (c. 328–248 bce), pupil of *Zeno (2) and others, including *Heraclides (1) of Pontus. As a Stoic (see Stoicism) he wrote philosophical works, and also poetry. An attack of illness in old age led him to abandon the Stoic position that pain, because not morally bad, is not an evil. Subsequently he went over to the *Cyrenaic position that pleasure is our final end; hence his nickname ‘the Renegade’.