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Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Lucus Feroniae, a town in the *Tiber valley north of Rome, which grew up around the sanctuary of the Italic rural goddess, *Feronia. Although it became a colonia (?after *Actium), it never received a planned street-grid. The forum, a temple, baths, and an amphitheatre are known, as is the nearby villa of the Volusii (L. Volusius Saturninus was consul in 12 bce, and patron of the colony).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Luna, a Roman colony near the coast of Liguria, on the river Magra, the boundary with Etruria. Founded in 177 bce, it provided a base for expeditions against the *Ligurians; later *Augustus settled further colonists. The city prospered through exploitation of the nearby *Carrara marble quarries (which were imperial property by 27 ce), and through export of its great cheeses and celebrated *wine. Laid out largely as a square, the *via Aurelia formed the decumanus (main east–west street). The forum, basilica, theatre, amphitheatre, temples, and town houses have been excavated. The forum was out of use by c.400 ce, but Luna was the seat of a bishopric, and participated in major 7th- and 8th-cent. councils. It was later gradually abandoned.

Article

Lupiae  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Lupiae (mod. Lecce), the largest city in the Sallentine peninsula. There was a settlement on the site from the 6th cent. bce but urban development did not take place until the Roman period. There are tombs with Greek and Messapian grave goods (see messapii) from the 4th cent., but most of the urban structures are Augustan or later.

Article

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Madauros (mod. Mdaourouch) in *Numidia was ruled successively by *Syphax and *Masinissa. It was occupied by the Romans to dominate the powerful Musulmani. Probably under *Nerva its native population was supplemented by retired legionaries, and the town received colonial rights as Colonia Flavia Veteranorum Madaurensium. *Apuleius was born at Madauros; and since the city was a noted intellectual centre with several schools, *Augustine received part of his education there. Substantial remains of the Byzantine fortifications survive, bisecting the Roman forum and incorporating the adjacent theatre; other visible monuments include temples, two baths, mausolea, and numerous houses. Over twenty oil presses have been identified in the town, indicating the importance of olives in the local agricultural economy. There has been a rich epigraphic haul of nearly a thousand Latin inscriptions.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Marzabotto, 27 km. (17 mi.) south-west of Bologna (*Felsina), has given its name to the anonymous *Etruscan city (Etr. ? Misa) on the flood-plain of the Reno, which by a subsequent change of course has partially destroyed it. Although Marzabotto has been investigated more extensively than any other Etruscan city, it should not be regarded as typical. It has no direct iron age predecessor, and is accordingly unlikely to be the result of *synoecism: its orthogonal plan and the astronomically precise orientation of its principal axes (identical with that of the temples on the high ground to the north-west) support the hypothesis of a new ‘colonial’ foundation at the beginning of the 5th cent. bce. The quarters of the city are divided into insulae of city-dwellings separated by party-walls; and there is abundant evidence for pottery- and tile-making and the working of both bronze and iron. In the 4th cent. the area was invaded by Gauls, who left a cemetery.

Article

Janet DeLaine

Monte Testaccio, an artificial hill, 36 m. (118 ft.) high and covering roughly 22,000 sq. m. (26,300 sq. yds.), in the Emporium district of Rome south of the *Aventine near the *Tiber. It is composed entirely of broken *amphorae dating from the 1st to the mid-3rd century ce, mostly oil amphorae from *Baetica in Spain with a smaller amount from North Africa, analysis of which has contributed to debate on the Roman economy.

Article

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Morgantina (Lat. Murgentia?), a city of east-central *Sicily almost certainly to be identified with Serra Orlando, a steep-sided ridge 4 km. (21/2, mi.) east of Aidone. Its acropolis, still called ‘Citadella’, commands a wide expanse of the western part of the plain of Catania, and is the site of the earliest settlement, in the 10th cent. bce. The Italic affinities of the latter community appear to reflect Strabo's (6. 1. 6) story of Morgetes. Greek pottery, masonry styles, and architectural *terracottas suggest that Greek settlers, probably from *Catana or *Leontini, established themselves c.560, on good terms with the indigenous settlers. In the 5th cent. and later the city was within the Syracusan orbit, apart from the short period (459–450) when it was under the control of *Ducetius (Diod. Sic. 11. 78. 5), and after 424 when it was ceded to *Camarina (Thuc.

Article

Narce  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Narce, a *Faliscan town 5 km. (3 mi.) south of Falerii. The river Treia (a tributary of the *Tiber) has exposed an uninterrupted stratigraphical sequence from middle bronze to iron age below the acropolis, on which the remains of later walls and fortifications are visible. Further evidence comes from the cemeteries, where the latest material belongs to chamber-tombs of the mid-3rd cent. bce, just before the Roman conquest of the area.

Article

Nicholas Purcell

Oplontis (a name listed in Roman road-itineraries), between *Pompeii and *Herculaneum at Torre Annunziata, is famous for an extremely opulent and well-preserved *villa (which may have belonged to the family of *Poppaea Sabina) destroyed in the eruption of 79 ce. Approached through a formal garden (see gardens) with avenues of oleanders, it comprised a series of atria and peristyles on the hill-slopes overlooking the sea: to the east was a huge piscina flanked by colonnades, statues and mature plane trees.

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and John Patterson

Palatine, the chief of the *Seven hills of Rome, traditionally (Tac. Ann. 12. 24; Dion. Hal. 1. 87; Livy 1. 7, etc. ) the site of the oldest settlement there; in legend, the home of *Evander and *Romulus. Tradition assigns fortifications to the hill, and this seems to be confirmed by recent archaeological work. Early settlement is represented by archaic cisterns and the remains of Iron Age huts on both the N slope and SW corner of the hill; one example, identified as the ‘hut of Romulus’ was preserved in historic times. Temples on the hill included those dedicated to *Victoria (294 bce) and the Magna Mater (191; see cybele). Many aristocratic houses occupied the hill and the slopes which led down to the Forum, from the late 6th cent. bce onwards, as recent excavations have confirmed; famous owners included M. *Fulvius Flaccus, Q.

Article

Nicholas Purcell

Pausilypon, name of an extensive, highly-landscaped villa (παύσων λύπην, sans souci) belonging to *Augustus' luxurious equestrian friend (see equites) P. *Vedius Pollio, and developed by the emperors, on the ridge between *Puteoli and Naples (*Neapolis): now Posilippo. The area is notable for the 700 m. tunnel for the Naples–Puteoli road, probably the work of M.

Article

R. J. A. Wilson

Piazza Armerina, a hill-town of central southern *Sicily known to students of antiquity for the remains of the most sumptuously appointed Roman *villa so far discovered in the Roman empire; it lies in the Casale district, 5 km. (3 mi.) south-west of the modern town. The complex, covering 1.5 ha., consists of four parts: a triple-arched entrance with court beyond; the main heart of the residential villa grouped around a peristyled garden, with a large reception hall and the private living quarters opening off a 70-m.-long corridor; a banqueting suite to the south, set around another court; and an elaborate bath-suite. There are some 45 rooms in all; service quarters still await identification. The reception hall was paved in marble, the remaining rooms and corridors with *mosaic floors of varying quality, some geometric but the majority figured. All are likely to have been laid by mosaicists from North Africa, probably based in *Carthage.

Article

T. W. Potter

A cult centre of the Pentri Samnites (see samnium), in the Abruzzi mountains of Molise. It has been quite erroneously identified as *Bovianum Vetus, and lies close to the citadel site of Monte Saraceno, with defences of the 4th cent. bce. The sanctuary, which has commanding views, was established in the 3rd cent. bce, and was apparently destroyed by *Hannibal. A small Ionic temple was then built. An inscription in *Oscan mentions *Samnium, suggesting that it was a national shrine; another records a *meddix tuticus (chief magistrate of the Samnites), Cn. Staiis Stafidins. Between c.120 and 90 bce, a second much larger temple, of Latian form, and a Hellenistic-type theatre, were added to the sanctuary. It went out of use, however, at the end of the *Social War (3), although the site was frequented down into the 4th cent. ce.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

(Murlo), 24 km. (15 mi.) south of Siena, is the site of an anonymous early *Etruscan complex in the territory of *Clusium. Excavation (1966 onwards) has revealed an *orientalizing building, constructed between 675 and 650 bce, accidentally destroyed by fire c.610 and soon replaced by a similar Archaic complex which was dismantled and ritually obliterated c.530. Both phases are exceptionally rich in architectural terracottas; those of the earlier building combine with their counterparts at *Acquarossa to add a new (and fundamentally indigenous) dimension to previous knowledge of 7th-cent. Etruscan architecture. The excavators identify the orientalizing and Archaic complexes as ‘meeting halls’ of a religious and political (federal) nature. Others prefer to see the Archaic building as the private ‘palace’ of a local aristocrat; specific features of its plan have suggested direct derivation from Near Eastern models, and the decorative programme of its frieze-plaques includes the earliest representation in Italy of the characteristically Near Eastern reclining banquet.

Article

Pompeii  

Nicholas Purcell

Archaeologically the best-known Roman city, this port and regional centre in the Sarnus plain of south *Campania, destroyed by the eruption of ce 79, is central to the study of Roman art and domestic life, but surprisingly hard to fit in to general accounts of local politics, or economic and social history.

The oldest architecture (fragments from the Doric Temple and the Temple of *Apollo) belongs in the Greek milieu around the Campanian apoikiai of the 6th cent. bce (see apoikia): scattered finds suggest links with the *Etruscan cultures of the Archaic and Classical periods, and the wider Mediterranean world. Pompeii appears as a dependent port-settlement of *Nuceria in 310 bce (Livy 9. 38. 2–3), and at no earlier point—either in the Greek, Etruscan, or early Samnite (*Oscan-speaking; see samnium) milieux of 6th, 5th, and 4th cents.—does there seem to have been a substantial urban nucleus or an autonomous political community. Even now there has been little stratigraphic excavation, but the early Pompeii appears at present as a village on the lava hill above the sheltered mouth of the river Sarno, with a couple of prominent sanctuaries and a likely role as an anchorage for coasting vessels and a local market.

Article

Nicholas Purcell

Pontecagnano, important archaic settlement (perhaps the ancient Picentia) in south *Campania overlooking the Gulf of Salerno. Its extensive cemeteries show close connections with the cultures of the *Etruscans of north Campania and central Italy, and with the Latin communities (see latium), and important contacts with the wider Mediterranean world of the 8th cent. bce.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Populonia (Etr. Pupluna), in Italy, on the promontory overlooking Porto Baratti, was the port of the metal-rich zone of north-west Tuscany (see etruscans), and the smelting centre for the iron of Elba. There is evidence of early contact with nuraghic *Sardinia; and Populonia was the only Etruscan city established directly on the sea. Limited remains of sacred and habitation areas (c.600 bce onwards) below the acropolis are supplemented by the impressive walls, the metal-working facilities in the ‘industrial quarter’, and extensive cemeteries ranging in date from the *Villanovan to the Hellenistic period.

Article

Portus  

Nicholas Purcell

*Claudius undertook the construction, which *Caesar had planned, of an enclosed harbour two miles north of *Ostia, linked to the Tiber by a *canal: to remedy the very difficult conditions of transshipment at Ostia; to provide Rome with a worthy gateway for seaborne visitors; and to help mitigate floods at Rome by improving the flow of the *Tiber. A deep basin was excavated and protected from the sea by two moles (the arrangement is still not fully understood), with a *lighthouse rivalling that of *Alexandria (1) (excavation has proved that its foundation was indeed a scuttled merchant-ship filled with concrete, cf. Suetonius Claud. 20. 3).The new harbour was not safe, as its wide open expanse was prone to squalls; disaster struck in 62, and *Nero's plan for ship-canals between *Cumae and Ostia perhaps represents a falling back on the natural superiority of the ports of *Campania.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Praeneste (mod. Palestrina), with interesting polygonal walls, occupied a cool, lofty spur of the *Apennines 37 km. (23 mi.) east-south-east of Rome. Traditionally founded in the mythical period (Verg. Aen. 7. 678), the oldest finds belong to the recent bronze age. Immensely rich burials of *Etruscan type and 7th-cent. date show it to be the pre-eminent city in this region at that time. It first appears in history in the 5th cent. bce as a powerful Latin city (see latini) whose strategic site facing the Alban Hills was inevitably attacked by *Aequi. In the 4th cent. it frequently fought Rome and, after participating in the Latin War, was deprived of territory and became a civitas foederata which still possessed ius exilii 200 years later (Polyb. 6. 14) and apparently preferred its own to Roman citizenship (Livy 23. 19 f.; see citizenship, roman). After 90 bce Praeneste became a Roman municipium devoted to C.

Article

Pyrgi  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Pyrgi, modern Santa Severa, was the main port of *Caere, and famous as the site of a wealthy *Etruscan sanctuary sacked by *Dionysius (1) I in 384 bce (Diod. Sic. 15. 14). Excavation (1957 onwards) has concentrated on two distinct nuclei. In the northern part, Temple B (a Graeco-Tuscan compromise) was founded c.500 bce, while the foundation of the (typically Tuscan) Temple A c.470 bce suggests a perceived need on the part of Caere to reassert its mastery of the Tyrrhenian sea after the defeat off *Cumae in 474; its back pediment bears a magnificent relief scene (possibly inspired by *Stesichorus) that combines two episodes of the Theban story (see seven against thebes) into a powerful depiction of *hubris and its consequences. Both these temples were destroyed in the 3rd cent. bce. Between them, ‘Area C’ yielded three inscribed gold tablets: one is the only Phoenicio-Punic text known in the Italian peninsula; the other two are in Etruscan. All three concern the dedication of Temple B by the Etruscan ruler of Caere to the Phoenician goddess Astarte; they demonstrate the close ties that enabled *Carthage to influence the internal politics of the cities of Etruria c.