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Verginius Rufus, Lucius  

Brian Campbell

Lucius Verginius Rufus, from Mediolanum (Milan), consul 63 ce, became governor of Upper Germany (see germania) in 67. He apparently held discussions with the rebel C. *Iulius Vindex and may have been forced into battle at Vesontio by the precipitate action of his troops (Cass. Dio, 63. 24; Plut.Galb.6). Rejecting his army's attempts to declare him emperor, he was nevertheless slow to support *Galba, remitting the choice to the senate. Removed from office by the suspicious Galba, Verginius became *suffect consul for the second time under *Otho, and after his murder again refused the purple. Thereafter he lived quietly, becoming consul for the third time with *Nerva in 97. When he died soon after, his funeral oration was delivered by *Tacitus(1). He was *Pliny (2) the Younger's guardian.His epitaph reads (ambiguously): ‘Here lies Rufus, who, after Vindex had been defeated, liberated the imperial power, not for himself, but for his country’ (Plin. Ep.

Article

Vermina  

John Briscoe

Vermina was the son of *Syphax. After Syphax's capture in 203 bce, Vermina remained in control of most of Syphax's kingdom, and fought on the Carthaginian side at *Zama (see punic wars). After Rome's peace with Carthage, he asked the senate for recognition as king and as friend of Rome (200).

Article

Verres, Gaius  

Ernst Badian

Perhaps the son of one of *Sulla's new senators who, as an ex-divisor (see candidatus), had considerable influence. He may be the moneyer VER (RRC350, dated 86 bce), an issue usually (but implausibly) assigned to an ex-tribune. Quaestor in 84, he deserted Cn. *Papirius Carbo for Sulla, appropriating his *fiscus. As legate (eventually pro quaestore) of Cn. *Cornelius Dolabella(2) in Cilicia (see legati), he helped him plunder his province and Asia, but on their return helped to secure his conviction. As praetor urbanus (74), he is charged by *Cicero with having flagrantly sold justice. Assigned Sicily as proconsul (73–71), he exploited and oppressed the province (except for *Messana, in league with him) and even Roman citizens living or trading there by all means at his disposal. Unwisely offending some senators and ill-treating clients of *Pompey, he yet evaded the effect of a senate decree censuring him, passed on the motion of the consuls of 72, and was again prorogued.

Article

Verus, Lucius, Roman emperor, 161–169 CE  

Anthony R. Birley

Verus, Lucius Romanemperor 161–9 ce, was born in 130 and named L. Ceionius Commodus, son of L. *Aelius Caesar. On Aelius' death, *Hadrian required his second choice as heir, *Antoninus Pius, to adopt Lucius along with his own nephew Marcus *Aurelius; he now had the names Lucius (Aelius) Aurelius Commodus, but unlike Marcus did not become Caesar. He became consul in 154 and was consul again in 161 with Marcus, who, following the death of Antoninus, at once made him co-emperor. He dropped the name Commodus, taking his adoptive brother's name Verus instead. He was thus the first joint Augustus, equal in all respects except for the position of pontifex maximus. When the Parthians invaded the empire (see parthia), he took nominal command of the ensuing Parthian War (162–6), in fact waged by his generals. In 164 he went to Ephesus to marry Marcus' daughter *Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla, by whom he had several children.

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Vespasian, Roman emperor  

Guy Edward Farquhar Chilver and Barbara Levick

Titus Flavius Vespasianus, emperor 69–79 ce, was born on 9 November, 9 ce, at Sabine *Reate. His father, Flavius Sabinus (for his elder brother of the same name see flavius sabinus), was a tax-gatherer; his mother also was of equestrian family, but her brother entered the senate, reaching the praetorship. Vespasian was military tribune (see tribuni militum) in 27, serving in Thrace, quaestor in Crete in the mid-30s, aedile (at the second attempt) in 38, and praetor in 40. Claudius' freedman *Narcissus (2) now advanced his undistinguished career, and he became legate of legio II Augusta (see legion) at *Argentorate, commanding it in the invasion of *Britain in 43 and subduing the south-west as far as Exeter (43–7); for this he won triumphal ornaments (see ornamenta) and two priesthoods (see priests (greek and roman)).

Article

Vestini  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Vestini, a central Italian tribe living near the Gran Sasso, highest peak of the Apennines. They spoke an *Oscan-type dialect. Chief towns: Pinna, Aternum. They became allies of Rome before 300 bce but joined their close associates, the *Marsi, *Marrucini, and *Paeligni in the *Social War (3) rebellion against her.

Article

Vestricius Spurinna, Titus  

Brian Campbell

Titus Vestricius Spurinna, born c. 25 ce, operating under Annius Gallus, Othonian commander in northern Italy (69; see otho), secured *Placentia against the Vitellians (see vitellius, a.) and disciplined his turbulent troops. *Suffect consul under *Vespasian, he was voted a triumphal statue by the senate for establishing a king of the *Bructeri (Plin.Ep. 2. 7), presumably while governing Lower Germany (see germania); he perhaps held this post briefly in 97, although he was about 73 years old, rather than under *Domitian. Spurinna was consul for the second time in 98. A friend of *Pliny(2) the Younger and possibly an oral source for *Tacitus(1)'s Histories, he remained vigorous, liking country walks and ball games, and writing poems in Latin and Greek.

Article

veterans  

Brian Campbell

Legionaries in the late republic, though frequently serving for long periods, had no recognized right to discharge bounties. Such rewards, often plots of land since most soldiers came from a rural background, were organized through the initiative of individual commanders, and this fostered a close personal loyalty among their troops which could then be exploited in politics. *Augustus, wishing to be sole benefactor of his army, but needing to avoid the land confiscations and disruption which frequently accompanied veteran settlements, between 30 and 2 bce spent 1,260 million sesterces in buying land and providing cash payments for veterans. In ce 5 he finally established a discharge bounty of 20,000 sesterces for praetorian veterans and 12,000 for legionary veterans; auxiliaries were apparently excluded, at least in the early empire, but received benefits of citizenship. Augustus funded superannuation from his own pocket, but in ce 6 he at last made the state responsible by establishing the military treasury (*aerariummilitare) with a personal grant of 170 million sesterces, to be supported in perpetuity by taxes on inheritance and auctions.

Article

Vettius, Lucius  

Ernst Badian

Lucius Vettius, an eques (see equites, Origins and republic) from *Picenum, served under Cn. *Pompeius Strabo and *Sulla and became a friend of L. *Sergius Catilina. Involved in his conspiracy (63 bce), he turned informer and gave *Cicero useful help, but came to grief trying to denounce *Caesar.

Article

Vettius Bolanus, Marcus  

Guy Edward Farquhar Chilver and M. T. Griffin

Marcus Vettius Bolanus, commanded a legion under *Corbulo in Armenia (62 ce), was *suffect consul about 66, and was sent by A. *Vitellius as legate (see legati) of *Britain in 69. With his army depleted by the Civil Wars, he was of necessity relatively inactive (Tac.Agr. 16. 5); but before his recall in 71 he had probably conducted important operations in Brigantia (Tac.Hist. 3. 45; see brigantes). He was proconsul of Asia, and raised to the patriciate, perhaps by *Vespasian. *Statius addressed a poem (Silv. 5. 2) celebrating his achievements to his son Crispinus.

Article

Vettius Scato, Publius  

Ernst Badian

Marsic ‘praetor’ i.e. commander in the *Social War (3); see marsi. In summer 90 bce he won several victories, finally killing the consul P. Rutilius Lupus. Driven back by Lupus' legate C. *Marius(1), he marched south and, after defeating the other consul L. *Iulius Caesar(1), captured *Aesernia.

Article

Vibenna, Caelius  

Howard Hayes Scullard and Tim Cornell

Caelius (Caeles)Vibenna, an *Etruscan adventurer who, according to Roman tradition, came to help *Tarquinius Priscus (Tac.Ann. 4. 65; *Romulus according to *Varro, Ling. 5. 46; Paul.–Fest. 38 L) and settled with his followers on the hill which later bore his name (the *Caelius mons). He and his brother, Aulus, were also well-known figures in Etruscan tradition. They are represented on funerary urns from Chiusi (Brunn–Körte, Urne etrusche 2. 254 ff.) and a bronze mirror from Bolsena (BMC Bronzes, no. 633), but most famously in the François tomb-painting from *Vulci (late 4th cent. bce) which shows Caeles Vibenna being released by his friend *Mastarna, while Aulus Vibenna and other companions dispatch their adversaries, who include a Cn. Tarquinius from Rome. The name Aules V(i)pinas appears on a 5th-cent. Etruscan red-figure cup of unknown provenance (CVA France, no. 16), and may be evidence of a hero-cult; on the other hand, a votive bucchero vase from Veii inscribed Avile Vipiiennas (Villa Giulia inv.

Article

Vibius Crispus, Lucius Iunius Quintus  

Guy Edward Farquhar Chilver and Barbara Levick

Lucius Iunius Quintus Vibius Crispus, from *Vercellae (mod. Vercelli) in Transpadane Italy (see transpadana), was *suffect consul ? 61, 74, and early 83 ce. He was curator aquarum68–71 (see cura(tio), curator), probably proconsul (see pro consule) of Africa in 71/2, and legate (see legati) of *Tarraconensis in 73/4. He is a sinister figure in *Tacitus(1) (Hist. 2. 10, 4. 41–2), responsible for the fall of the Scribonii brothers; his protégés probably included L. *Verginius Rufus and the elder and younger *Pliny (1–2). His wit and pleasing oratory, praised by *Quintilian (see also Suet. Dom. 3; Dio Cass. 65. 2. 3), were probably one source of his influence with *Vespasian, who cherished him (Tac. Dial.8, 13); pliability (Juv. 4. 81 ff.) enabled him to survive until the age of 80 where others, like T.

Article

Vibius Marsus, Gaius  

Theodore John Cadoux and Barbara Levick

Gaius Vibius Marsus, suffect consul ce17, was a legate (see legati) of *Germanicus in the east and after his death in 19 conducted *Vipsania Agrippina (2) back to Rome; his daughter married into the Plautii. From 26/27 to 29/30 he was proconsul (see pro consule) of Africa. In 37, accused of treason and adultery, he was saved by the death of *Tiberius. *Claudius returned him to *Syria as governor (c.42–5). There he was hostile to M. *Iulius Agrippa(1) and checked the designs on *Armenia of Vardanes, king of *Parthia.

Article

Vibius Maximus, Gaius  

John Wight Duff, Geoffrey Bernard Abbott Fletcher, and Barbara Levick

Gaius Vibius Maximus, attested as prefect (see prafectus) of Egypt from August 103 ce to March 107, condemned for maladministration (May 109 onwards). The prefect is unlikely to be identical with the historian (P.?) Vibius Maximus, a friend of Statius, who had also held the equestrian post of praefectus alae in Syria. The prefect of Egypt is also to be distinguished from another C. Vibius Maximus, prefect of an auxiliary cohort in Dalmatia in 93 or 94.

Article

Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, Gaius, Roman general and politician  

Christopher Pelling

Roman general and politician who served with *Caesar in Gaul, defended his interests as tribune in 51 bce (see tribuni plebis), governed *Bithynia in 47–6 and Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul (cisalpine)) in 45, and was designated by Caesar consul for 43. In March 43 he led four legions of recruits to join A.

Article

Vibius Trebonianus Gallus, Gaius, Roman emperor Trebonianus Gallus  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus,the emperor Trebonianus Gallus, ruled 251–3 ce. A successful senatorial governor of *Moesia, he was acclaimed by the army immediately after *Decius' death. He made an unfavourable peace with the *Goths, then returned to Rome, where he adopted Decius' young son. Perhaps distracted by the effects of a severe plague, he appeared to ignore renewed *Sasanid aggression (including the capture of *Antioch(1)) and failed even to return to the Danube to avenge his predecessor (whose end he was suspected of having contrived). When the Danubian troops forced Aemilianus' usurpation in 253 (early summer), Gallus sent *Valerian to gather reinforcements, but was killed at *Interamna Nahars by his own men before these could arrive (late summer).

Article

Victorinus, Marcus Piavvonius  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Praetorian prefect (see praefectus praetorio) of the Gallic usurper, *Postumus, whom he succeeded in 269 AD after the ephemeral reign of Marius. Though he abandoned *Spain and lost eastern Narbonensis (see gaul (transalpine)) to *Claudius II Gothicus, he successfully resisted other efforts to undermine his regime and suppressed a major revolt at Autun (*Augustodunum).

Article

Villius (Annalis), Lucius  

T. Corey Brennan

Lucius Villius(Annalis), tribune of the plebs in 180 bce (see tribuni plebis), passed the first law to stipulate minimum ages for tenure of each (curule) magistracy (42 for the consulship); see magistracy, roman. It was possibly this law which required an interval of two years between curule magistracies. Villius' measure probably aimed to regulate the number of men campaigning for higher office in any one year: Livy implies that his law was built upon the lex Baebia of 181 (see baebius tamphilus, m.), which contained an anti-electoral bribery provision (see ambitus) as well as a (short-lived) requirement that four and six praetors respectively be elected in alternate years (thereby reducing competition for the consulship). The provisions of the lex Villia annalis remained largely unchanged until the Principate, when the minimum ages were lowered.

Article

Vindelici  

John Wilkes and John Frederick Drinkwater

Vindelici, a people of mainly Celtic origin (see celts) but including Illyrian (see illyrii) and other elements, inhabited the Swabian–Bavarian plateau and reached from the southern slopes of the *Alps up to the Danube. Conquered by *Tiberius and Nero *Claudius Drusus in 15 bce, they later occupied the eastern part of the province of *Raetia (Vindelicia).