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Clearchus (1), Spartan commander, c. 450–401 BCE  

Stephen Hodkinson

*Proxenos of *Byzantium, he held various commands, there and elsewhere, from 411 onwards. At Byzantium again in 403, he made himself tyrant, but was ejected by Spartan forces. He commanded *Cyrus (2) the Younger's *mercenaries in the attempt at the Persian throne. At *Cunaxa his reluctance to expose his right flank permitted the decisive Persian cavalry charge. He was subsequently arrested with his fellow officers by *Tissaphernes and executed by *Artaxerxes (2) II. Xenophon's ‘obituary’ of the war-loving Clearchus (An. 2.6.1–15) has been controversially interpreted as describing the earliest-known western historical case of post-traumatic stress disorder.


Cleisthenes (1), of Sicyon, tyrant  

Percy Neville Ure, P. J. Rhodes, and Rosalind Thomas

The greatest tyrant of the family of Orthagoras, which ruled for the record period of a century (probably c.665–565 bce). His reign (c.600–570) was allegedly marked by a movement against the Argive *Dorian ascendancy (see argos(1)): the three traditional Dorian tribes (*phylai) were given derogatory names while the non-Dorian was called Archelaoi (‘ruling people’); Argive *rhapsodes were suppressed, an Argive hero was replaced by a Theban (see thebes(1)), and a new festival of *Dionysus was established. His daughter Agariste (mother of the Athenian *Cleisthenes (2)) married the *Alcmaeonid*Megacles after a year-long house party for her suitors. In the First *Sacred War Cleisthenes was prominent on the winning side while neighbouring *Corinth was on the losing: he destroyed *Crisa, and won the chariot-race in the first *Pythian Games.


Cleisthenes (2), Athenian politician  

Theodore John Cadoux and P. J. Rhodes

Athenian politician, of the *Alcmaeonid family, son of *Megacles and Agariste, daughter of *Cleisthenes (1) of *Sicyon. He was archon under the tyrant *Hippias (1) in 525/4 bce, but later in Hippias’ reign the Alcmaeonids went into exile and put pressure on Sparta through the *Delphic oracle to intervene in Athens and overthrow the tyranny. In the power vacuum which followed, Cleisthenes and Isagoras were rivals for supremacy; Isagoras obtained the archonship (see archontes) for 508/7; but Cleisthenes appealed for popular support with a programme of reform. Isagoras appealed to King *Cleomenes (1) I of Sparta, who came to Athens with a small force, invoked the hereditary curse of the Alcmaeonids, and forced Cleisthenes and others to withdraw; but he met with strong popular resistance and was forced to withdraw in turn, taking Isagoras with him. Cleisthenes returned, and his reforms were enacted and put into effect.


Cleitus (1), 'the Black', Macedonian commander, d. 328 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Macedonian noble and brother of the wet-nurse of *Alexander (3) the Great, commanded the royal Squadron of Companions (see hetairoi) and saved Alexander's life at the *Granicus. In 330 he was raised to the command of the entire Macedonian cavalry alongside the royal favourite, *Hephaestion (1). Alienated by the absolutist trends at court, he lost control at a symposium (at *Marakanda (Samarkand) in summer 328), criticizing the king's divine aspirations and the fashionable denigration of *Philip (1) II, and was struck down by Alexander in a paroxysm of drunken fury. The murder became a standard example of royal immoderation in rhetoric and popular philosophy (see alcoholism).


Cleomenes (1) I  

Paul Cartledge

Cleomenes (1) I, *Agiad king of Sparta (reigned c.520–490 bce), son of Anaxandridas II by a second, bigamous union. His long, activist reign was one of the half-dozen most influential on record. He pursued an adventurous and at times unscrupulous foreign policy aimed at crushing *Argos (1) and extending Sparta's influence both inside and outside the Peloponnese. It was during his reign, but not entirely according to his design, that the *Peloponnesian League came formally into existence. He embroiled *Thebes (1) with Athens and frustrated Thebes’ plans for a united *Boeotian federation by referring Plataea to Athens for alliance (probably in 519: Thuc. 3. 68). He intervened twice successfully in Athenian affairs, overthrowing the Peisistratid tyranny of *Hippias (1) in 510 and expelling *Cleisthenes (2) in favour of Isagoras in 508. But his attempt to restore Isagoras by a concerted expedition of Sparta's Peloponnesian and central Greek allies in c.


Cleomenes (2) III  

Paul Cartledge

*Agiad king of Sparta (reigned c.235–222 bce). The son of Leonidas, he imbibed ideals of social revolution from his wife Agiatis, widow of his father's opponent *Agis IV. Before implementing those ideals at home (and they were not for export), he was active abroad. He first moved in 229, when he annexed *Tegea, *Mantinea, *Orchomenus (2), and Caphyae in Arcadia from the *Aetolian Confederacy. Then, having provoked the *Achaean Confederacy into war (228), he won victories at Mt. Lycaeum and Ladoceia (227). Now (winter 227/6) he seized quasi-despotic power at home and set up a ‘Lycurgan’ regime (see lycurgus(2)). Debts were cancelled, land was redivided, the citizen body was replenished from *perioikoi and foreigners. A refashioned educational cycle and mess-regimen were reinstated (see agōgē), the army re-equipped. The allegedly post-Lycurgan ephorate was abolished, the gerousia made subject to annual re-election, the dyarchy transformed into a de facto monarchy.


Cleopatra II, c. 185–116 BCE  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Cleopatra II (c. 185–116 BCE), daughter of *Cleopatra I and *Ptolemy (1) V and both sister and wife of first *Ptolemy (1) VI Philometor (from 175) and then (from 145) his successor (and brother) *Ptolemy (1) VIII Euergetes II. Her children (by Philometor) were Ptolemy Eupator, *Ptolemy (1) VII Neos Philopator, *Cleopatra III and Cleopatra Thea, and (by Euergetes) Ptolemy Memphites. Her long life was marked by dynastic strife in which she looked to the population of *Alexandria (1) for support. Supplanted in Euergetes’ affection by her daughter, Cleopatra III, in 132–130 she engaged in a civil war against her husband-brother and his new wife. Euergetes fled to Cyprus with Cleopatra III and although he was back in control from 130 mother and daughter only reached an uneasy reconciliation in 124. The reconciliation of Euergetes and his two wives, Cleopatra mother and daughter, was marked by an amnesty decree in 118 (PTeb.


Cleophon (1), Athenian politician  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

He was a son of Cleippides, general (see stratēgoi) in 429/8 bce; he is represented as a lyre-maker and his mother was alleged to be Thracian (see thrace). He was already a public figure at the time of the ostracism of *Hyperbolus, and was the most prominent *demagogue, in the manner of *Cleon, after the democratic restoration in 410. He introduced the diobelia, a payment of two obols a day, possibly to citizens not otherwise receiving public funds. He attacked both *Critias and *Alcibiades, and was opposed to peace with *Sparta both after Athens’ victory at *Cyzicus in 410 and after her defeat at *Aegospotami in 405 (see athens (History)). His elimination on a charge of treason paved the way for the peace settlement negotiated by *Theramenes. See also demagogues, demagogy.


Conon (1), Athenian general, late 5th–early 4th cent. BCE  

C. J. Tuplin

Athenian general. First attested at *Naupactus (414) (Thuc. 7. 31) and *Corcyra (411/410), he was re-elected stratēgos on *Alcibiades' restoration (407/406) and after Notium reorganized the fleet. Blockaded in *Mytilene, he survived the witch-hunt after the resultant battle of *Arginusae (406). When *Lysander pounced at Aegospotami (405) he escaped, re-emerging from self-imposed exile with *Evagoras of Cyprus as a Persian fleet-commander (397). Despite financial problems (he protested personally to *Artaxerxes (2) II) operations flourished, culminating in Sparta's defeat at *Cnidus (394), and he returned home (393), bringing money for fortifications and mercenaries (cf. RO 8, 9 = Harding 12D, 17). Suspected of promoting Athenian imperial ambitions at Persia's expense, he was arrested by Tiribazus but escaped to Cyprus; see Tod 128, comm. He died shortly afterwards, leaving his son *Timotheus (2) a wealthy man.


Corinthian War  

Simon Hornblower

Corinthian War, 395 to 386 bce, fought against Sparta by a combination of Athens, *Thebes (1), *Corinth, Persia, and others. The surface cause was trouble between *Locris and *Phocis in which Thebes and Sparta intervened, the deeper cause was general fear of Spartan expansionism in Asia Minor, central and northern Greece (*Thessaly and perhaps *Macedonia), and even the west (cf. Isoc. 8. 99) where Spartan activity surely annoyed Corinth, *Syracuse's *metropolis. The war was fought at sea (where the battle of Cnidus, August 394, was a decisive blow to Sparta) and on land round Corinth, hence the name; but it is also relevant that the war was conducted by a ‘council at Corinth’, Diod. Sic. 14. 82. It was ended by the *King's Peace.