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Anthony R. Birley

Aelius Antipater sophist, of Phrygian Hierapolis, ab epistulis Graecis (‘secretary for Greek correspondence’) of *Severus, teacher of the emperor's sons, was made a senator with consular rank and governed Bithynia. He wrote a history of Severus. Took his own life after the murder of *Geta.

Article

Anthony R. Birley

Aelius Caesar, Lucius, *Hadrian's first choice as successor, formerly L. Ceionius (RE 7) Commodus, son and grandson of the homonymous consuls of ce 78 and 106, was himself consul in 136, probably aged 32; in the same year he was adopted by Hadrian, given the tribunicia potestas, and sent to govern the two Pannonias with proconsular imperium, becoming consul for the second time in 137. After his sudden death on 1 January 138, his son (later called L. *Verus) and prospective son-in-law (the future *Marcus Aurelius) were adopted by Hadrian's second choice as heir, *Antoninus Pius.

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Against imperial policy, while governor of Moesia he dealt harshly with the *Goths, and was proclaimed emperor by his army. He marched on Italy, overthrew *Trebonianus Gallus, but was soon killed by his own troops, panicked by the approach of *Valerian. The civil strife of 253 exposed Greece to Gothic invasion.

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Wrote (lost) commentaries on *Terence, *Sallust, and *Virgil, perhaps with a separate discussion of Virgilian grammar. The fragments (ed. Wessner, 1905) suggest a learned and sensible critic; Aelius *Donatus (1) borrowed freely from him. *Priscian cited him as an authority de verbo, but the extant artes (see ars) attributed to an ‘Asper’ (Keil, Gramm.

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Theodore John Cadoux and Robin Seager

Aemilius Lepidus, Manius, probably a grandson of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (3), the triumvir, and of Faustus *Cornelius Sulla and Pompeia, daughter of *Pompey, was consul ce 11, defended his sister Lepida in 20 and was appointed proconsul of Asia (21–2) despite objections on the score of his poverty and inactive disposition. His daughter Lepida married *Galba, the future emperor.

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Aemilius, Marcus, was a member of the embassy sent to the east in 201–200 bce, during the course of which he delivered the Roman ultimatum to *Philip (3) V at Abydos; the story (Val. Max. 6. 6. 1; Just. 30. 3. 4) that he was sent to Egypt as tutor (guardian) to the young Ptolemy (1) V should be rejected, though it is true that Lepidus later developed close ties with Egypt. He was curule aedile in 193, praetor in Sicily in 191, and reached the consulship in 187, having been defeated in the two previous years, due, he believed, to the influence of his bitter opponent M. *Fulvius Nobilior. As consul he attacked Fulvius' conduct at Ambracia and attempted to block his triumph. He fought successfully in Liguria, and built the *via Aemilia from *Placentia (Piacenza) to *Ariminum (Rimini)—the modern region of Emilia Romagna through which it runs preserves his name. He returned to the area in 183 as a commissioner to found the colonies of *Mutina (Modena) and *Parma.

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Aemilius, Marcus, descendant of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (1), whose Gallic connections he inherited. After serving under Cn. *Pompeius Strabo, he was probably aedile in *Sulla's absence, joined Sulla (divorcing a wife related to L. *Appuleius Saturninus), and enriched himself in the *proscriptions. Elected consul 78 bce, with *Pompey's support and against Sulla's wishes, with Q. *Lutatius Catulus (2) as colleague, he agitated against Sulla's settlement and after Sulla's death prepared to attack it. As proconsul he held Cisalpina through M. *Iunius Brutus (1), collected forces in Transalpina, and made contact with *Sertorius in Spain. A catapult projectile found at Calahorra confirms his contact with Sertorius (see APh 79, 2005, no. 9202). Marching on Rome, he was defeated by Catulus and fled to Sardinia, where he was defeated by the legate Triarius and died. His followers, under M.

Article

Geoffrey Walter Richardson, Theodore John Cadoux, and Ernst Badian

(the triumvir), younger son of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (2). As praetor 49 bce, he supported *Caesar, naming him to his first dictatorship, then governed Hither Spain (48–7), intervening in the dissensions in Further Spain (see cassius longinus, q.) and returning to triumph. He was consul (46) and Caesar's *magister equitum (46–44). On Caesar's death he gave armed support to M. *Antonius (2) (Mark Antony), who in return contrived his appointment as *pontifex maximus in Caesar's place. He then left to govern the provinces assigned him by Caesar, Gallia Narbonensis and Hither Spain, the colony Colonia Victrix Iulia Lepida (Celsa) was allowed to preserve the memory of his administration. When, after the war of *Mutina, Antony retreated into Gaul, Lepidus assured Cicero of his loyalty to the republic but on 29 May 43 joined forces with Antony and was declared a public enemy by the senate. At *Bononia (1) in October he planned the Triumvirate with Antony and *Octavian, accepting Further Spain with his existing provinces as his share of the empire; and demanding (or conceding) the proscription of his brother L.

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Aemilius, Marcus, son of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (3) the triumvir, plotted in 30 bce to assassinate *Octavian on his return to Rome, but was detected by *Maecenas (Vell. Pat. 2. 88 and App. BC 4. 50 216 ff). His wife Servilia, perhaps the Servilia once betrothed to Octavian, committed suicide. Either he or another son of Lepidus the triumvir had earlier been promised to *Antonia (1).

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Theodore John Cadoux and Ernst Badian

Aemilius, Marcus, probably elder son of Paullus *Aemilius Lepidus and Cornelia, daughter of *Scribonia and a Scipio. He was consul ce 6, then served under *Tiberius in the Pannonian rebellion (receiving *ornamentatriumphalia in 9), and probably Dalmatia afterwards for a number of years. In 14 he was governor of *Tarraconensis (we do not know for how long) and in 21 he prudently declined the proconsulship and army of Africa, which went to Q. *Iunius Blaesus. He later accepted the proconsulship of Asia, which had no army (probably 26–8). In 22 he resumed the family's restoration of the Basilica Aemilia. He died in 33. *Augustus, on his death-bed, is said to have judged him ‘capable (of becoming emperor), but disdaining it’ (Tac. Ann. 1. 13. 2). Tacitus stresses his prudence and moderation. His children included Aemilia Lepida, wife of Drusus *Iulius Caesar (2)—who in 30 helped to bring about Drusus' fall and committed suicide when accused of adultery with a slave in 36 (Tac.

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Aemilius, Marcus, son of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (5), last of the family, married *Iulia Drusilla, was promised the succession by *Gaius (1) (‘Caligula’) and was executed when charged with participation in the conspiracy of Cn. *Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus.

Article

Theodore John Cadoux and Ernst Badian

Aemilius Lepidus, Paullus, son of L. *Aemilius Paullus (3), was proscribed in 43 bce (see proscription) and may be the ‘Lepidus’ who won Crete for *Brutus in 42. He later joined *Octavian whom he accompanied in the war against *Sextus Pompeius in 38. He was made suffect consul in 34, then governed either Syria or Macedonia as proconsul, and was made censor 22 with L. *Munatius Plancus, with whom he quarrelled until both resigned. He completed the restoration of the Basilica Aemilia begun by his father. His first wife was Cornelia, daughter of *Scribonia and a Scipio; her premature death is the subject of a consolatory elegy by Propertius (4. 11), which also mentions their two sons, L. *Aemilius Paullus (4) and M. *Aemilius Lepidus (5). He later married the younger Marcella, daughter of C. *Claudius Marcellus (1). He was an augur and perhaps a frater arvalis (see augures; fratres arvales).

Article

Tony Honoré

Aemilius (RE 105) Papinianus, a leading lawyer of the Severan age and a close associate of the emperor *Septimius Severus, probably came, like him, from Africa and had some exposure to Hellenistic culture. He was assessor to a praetorian prefect, then from ce 194 to 202, to judge from their style, composed rescripts (replies to petitions), often of a highly technical character, for Septimius, latterly at least as a libellis (secretary for petitions). On the fall of C. *Fulvius Plautianus in ce 205 he became praetorian prefect along with Q. Maecius Laetus, but on the death of Septimius in February 211 was dismissed by Caracalla (see m. aurelius antoninus (1)). After the murder of Caracalla's brother and joint emperor P. *Septimius Geta (2) in 212 he was prosecuted by the praetorians and, without protest from Caracalla, put to death, an event which entered into legend as the martyrdom of a just man.

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Aemilius Regillus, Lucius praetor in 190 BCE, defeated *Antiochus (3) III's fleet at Myonnesus; he celebrated a naval triumph in 189. During the battle he vowed a temple to the Lares permarini, which M. *Aemilius Lepidus (1) dedicated in 179; the text of the dedicatory tablet, badly corrupted, is preserved by Livy (40. 52).

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John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Robin Seager

Aemilius Scaurus, Mamercus, the last male member of the distinguished family of Aemilii Scauri, was a man of unsavoury character, but a distinguished orator and advocate (Sen. Controv. 10 pref. 2–3; Tac. Ann. 6. 29). Though disliked by *Tiberius, he was a suffect consul in ce 21, but did not govern a province. Twice prosecuted for *maiestas, in 32 and 34, on the second occasion he committed suicide.

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Aemilius Laetus, Quintus praetorian prefect CE 190–3, from Thaenae in Africa. Appointed after the downfall of M. *Aurelius Cleander, Laetus was responsible for L. *Septimius Severus becoming governor of Upper Pannonia in 191. Obliged to attend *Commodus' gladiatorial performances, which aroused increasing alarm, Laetus organized, with Commodus' concubine *Marcia and chamberlain Eclectus, Commodus' murder and replacement by *Pertinax (31 December 192).

Article

Edward Courtney

Aemilius Macer, a poet from Verona who died in 16 bce. Some fragments remain of his Ornithogonia and Theriaca; these drew on (but did not translate) works by *Boio and *Nicander (whose Alexipharmaca is also imitated in some fragments quoted without title). Ovid in his youth heard him reciting at an advanced age (Tr.

Article

Aemilius, Lucius, was consul in 219 bce with M. *Livius Salinator, when they defeated *Demetrius (7) of Pharos in the Second Illyrian War; both triumphed, but when Livius was convicted of peculatus (embezzlement) Paullus came close to sharing his fate. Consul again in 216, he was killed in the disaster at *Cannae. The decision to engage *Hannibal in another pitched battle was taken by the senate and fully supported by Paullus. If there was disagreement between Paullus and his colleague C. *Terentius Varro, it was purely tactical; but Polybius was probably misled by the Scipionic family (Paullus' daughter married *Scipio Africanus) into believing that the decision to engage was taken by Varro against the advice of Paullus.

Article

Aemilius, Lucius, became an augur in 192 bce and governed Further Spain as praetor in 191, with command prorogued for 190 and 189. A defeat in 190 was retrieved by a victory in the following year. Later in 189 he went to Asia as one of the ten commissioners who administered the settlement after the defeat of *Antiochus (3) III. On his return in 187 he, with a majority of the commission, unsuccessfully opposed the granting of a triumph to Cn. *Manlius Vulso. Despite several attempts he did not reach the consulship until 182, when he operated in *Liguria; his command was prorogued for 181 when, despite having been besieged in his camp, he eventually forced the Ligurian Ingauni to surrender. In 171 he was one of the patrons chosen by the peoples of Spain to represent their complaints against Roman governors. He was elected to a second consulship for 168, and ended the Third Macedonian War by his victory at *Pydna.

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Arnaldo Momigliano, Theodore John Cadoux, and Ernst Badian

Aemilius, Lucius, elder son of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (2) and brother of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (3), the triumvir, accused *Catilinede vi (of violence) in 63 bce. While quaestor in Macedonia in 59 he was absurdly accused by the informer L. *Vettius of conspiring to murder *Pompey. In 56, as curule aedile, he began to rebuild the Basilica Aemilia. He was praetor 53 and consul 50. Previously a consistent *optimate, he was now bought by *Caesar for 1,500 talents which he needed for the basilica, gave him at least passive support in 50, and remained neutral during the ensuing Civil War. During the war of *Mutina he negotiated for the senate with *Sextus Pompeius and later joined in declaring his brother a public enemy; he was named first in the *proscriptions, but allowed to escape. He went to *Brutus in Asia, and continued to live at *Miletus, though pardoned at *Philippi.