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Article

athletics, late antiquity  

Sofie Remijsen

Whereas chariot races gained popularity in late antiquity, athletics declined. Traditional agones, such as the Olympics, disappeared in the course of the 4th and 5th centuries ce. The traditional explanation, that they were abolished by Theodosius I, is no longer widely accepted, as the imperial policy clearly remained positive towards games. Changes to the administration of the cities, which administered the funds of these games, must have had a stronger effect, as did the rise of new, and in particular Christian, values. The drive to compete in the individual competitions typical of Greek athletics can be linked to the ambition to excel that was typical of the earlier political culture, but which was increasingly perceived as a vain pursuit and replaced by an ideal of humility. Not all forms of athletics disappeared, however, as the spread of circus games created new opportunities for the demonstration of spectacular feats by athletes.

Article

Attalus I, 269–197 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Attalus I (269–197 bce), ruler of *Pergamum (241–197), the first Pergamene to use the royal title. Cousin and adopted son of *Eumenes (1) I, Attalus expanded and consolidated his kingdom through active self-defence policies, successfully fighting against some of the *Galatians before c.230 (to whom he had first refused customary payments) and against *Antiochus (8) Hierax before 227, a success which temporarily brought all Seleucid Asia Minor north of the Taurus into his sphere of influence. Most of this he lost again to *Seleucus (3) III and *Achaeus (3) from 223–212, though an agreement with *Antiochus (3) III against Achaeus (216) seems to have recognized Attalus' rights to Mysia and Aeolis, where Pergamene rule was re-established or consolidated. Friendly contacts with cities in Ionia and Hellespontine Phrygia were established, though hostility to the Bithynian kingdom was permanent. In Pergamum itself victories were celebrated by Attalus' taking the title ‘*Soter’ (‘Saviour’) and with monuments of spectacular expense and artistic quality (e.

Article

Attalus II, 220–138 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Attalus II (220–138 bce), king of *Pergamum (158–138), second son of *Attalus I, called ‘Philadelphus’ (‘Brother-loving’). Attalus served under his brother *Eumenes (2) II as loyal general against *Antiochus (3) III, the *Galatians, *Prusias (1) I, and Pharnaces I, and as diplomat, especially in Rome, where after 167 some senators favoured him against Eumenes. As king—he bore the title already in Eumenes' lifetime—he married Eumenes' widow Stratonice and adopted her son Attalus. He recognized Roman paramountcy and acted accordingly: he restored *Ariarathes V to Cappadocia, supported *Alexander (10) Balas against *Demetrius (10) I in Syria (153–150), *Nicomedes II of Bithynia against *Prusias (2) II (149), whom with Roman help he had recently defeated, and sent troops against *Andriscus (148) and to *Corinth (146). He founded *Philadelphia (2) in Lydia and *Attaleia (Antalya) in Pamphylia, continued Eumenes' building programme at Pergamum and the tradition of magnificent gifts to Greek cities and shrines (e.

Article

Attalus III, c. 170–133 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Attalus III (c. 170–133 bce), son of *Eumenes (2) II, last king of Pergamum (138–133), who bequeathed his kingdom to Rome. Called ‘Philometor’ (‘Mother-lover’) because of his close relationship to Stratonice, he was allegedly unpopular and had a reputation for being brutal and uninterested in public affairs, though given early experience by *Attalus II, devoting himself rather to scientific study, especially botany and pharmacology.

Article

Atthis  

Phillip Harding

Atthis was the title given in post-*Alexandrian scholarship to the genre of Greek *historiography that narrated the local history of *Attica. The title, derived from the name of the daughter of the mythical king Cranaus (Strabo 9. 1. 8), was probably invented by *Callimachus (3) for cataloguing purposes. The authors themselves used a variety of titles (Protogonia, Attika, Attikē Syngraphē) or none. The genre was probably created by *Hellanicus (1) in the late 5th cent., though *Pausanias (3) (10. 15. 5) credits *Cleidemus. It was most popular in the 4th cent. when Atthides were written by Cleidemus, *Androtion, *Phanodemus, and perhaps *Melanthius (3). *Demon and *Philochorus, the last and most respected atthidographer, wrote in the 3rd. Later *Ister compiled an epitome of these Atthides.In structure the Atthis was a chronicle, based upon a hypothetical list of kings (for the mythical period) and, after 683/2 bce, on the eponymous archons.

Article

Bacchiadae  

John Salmon

Bacchiadae, aristocrats of *Corinth, claimed Heraclid (see heraclidae) descent from King Bacchis. After suppressing the kingship c.750 bce they ruled, 200 in number, until *Cypselus overthrew them c.657. Corinth's western interests were established under them; they founded *Syracuse and *Corcyra, and were allies of *Chalcis in the Lelantine War (see greece, Archaic period).

Article

barbarian  

Emma Dench

The English term “barbarian” is derived from the Greek barbaros, Latinized as barbarus. Barbarians are most familiar as the antithesis of Hellenes, but the terms do different work in different cultural contexts throughout and beyond classical antiquity. In some contexts, a single “barbarian race” is envisaged in distinction from “us,” while in others plural “barbarian” groups are differentiated. In the latter case, the societal structures, customs, and behaviour of these “barbarian” groups are often patterned both geographically and temporally, with “us” typically in the middle, peoples to the north and west imagined to be more primitive, and those to the east and south imagined to be more ancient and/or further along than us in their hyper-civilization. Barbarian groups are frequently “tagged” with epithets, ascribing for example typical appearance or behaviour, or typical products, or may be subject to more comprehensive ethnographical scrutiny. In still other contexts, groups and individuals may invoke barbarian identity in their self-fashioning. To call other people barbarians”is inevitably ethnocentric, even when positive characteristics are assigned to barbarians. However, in individual ancient contexts, power dynamics may be quite different, resulting in a more or less charged exploration and characterization of the relative placement of “us” and other peoples. The term was a social designation rather than a legal status, but could inform institutions and actions and, within certain contexts, the differential treatment of groups, in which case it can be appropriately described as racial thinking.

Article

Bardylis I  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Founded a powerful kingdom early in the 4th cent. bce which threatened to destroy the Molossian and Macedonian kingdoms. The former was saved by Sparta and the latter by *Philip (1) II of Macedon. The centre of Bardylis' kingdom lay north of Lake Lychnitis, and his immediate subjects were probably Dardanians; but he controlled many Illyrian tribes and disposed of large and warlike forces (see dardani; illyrii).

Article

Bastarnae  

Max Cary and John Wilkes

A roving tribe which first appeared on the lower Danube c.200 bce. They were enlisted by *Philip (3) V and *Perseus (2) of Macedon against their enemies in the northern Balkans, and by Mithradates VI against the Romans. They defeated C. *Antonius ‘Hybrida’ (c.62 bce), but were subdued by M. Licinius Crassus (2) (29–28 bce; cf. Cass. Dio 51. 23. 2–27. 3), and henceforth they generally appear as subject allies of Rome, on one occasion under *Nero having hostages recovered and returned to them by the Roman governor of *Moesia (CIL 14. 3608). One hundred thousand were transferred across the Danube into *Thrace (SHA Probus 18. 1), and *Diocletian settled others in Pannonia. Their German *ethnicity may be deduced from Strabo (7. 3. 17), Pliny (the Elder) (HN 4. 100), and Tacitus (Germ. 46. 1). They appear to have been the first of the race to travel the migration route from the Baltic to the Black Sea, and their movement is recalled on the *Peutinger Table, where the Carpathians are called ‘Alpes Bastarnicae’.

Article

Berenice, lemma for several Ptolemaic cities  

Joyce Reynolds and Dorothy J. Thompson

The name of several Ptolemaic dynastic foundations. Among the best known are:(a) Berenice (mod. Benghazi), the westernmost Cyrenaican city, founded in the mid-3rd cent. bce (exact date and circumstances disputed) after the abandonment of Euhesperides (whose harbour had silted up) and named for *Berenice (3) II who gave a city-wall. It was the starting-point of M. *Porcius Cato (2)'s march across the Syrtica to Thapsa and birthplace of Andronicus, opponent of *Synesius. Inscriptions highlight pirate raids in the 1st cent. bce and its self-governing Jewish community; excavations reveal the development of a suburb in considerable detail. See pentapolis.Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft 3 (1899), 282, no. 8.J. A. Lloyd (ed.), Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi 1 (1977).J. A. Lloyd (ed.), Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi 2 (1979).J. A. Lloyd (ed.), Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi 3 (1985).A. Laronde, Cyrène et la Libye hellénistique (1987), 382 f.

Article

Berenice (1) I, wife of Ptolemy (1) I Soter  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Berenice (1) I, first mistress and then wife of *Ptolemy (1) I Soter, came to Egypt with her aunt Eurydice whom she supplanted as queen. By her first marriage (to Philippus, a Macedonian), she was mother to Magas, king of Cyrene and Antigone, wife of *Pyrrhus of Epirus. Her later children were *Arsinoë II, *Ptolemy (1) II, and Philotera.

Article

Berenice(2), 'the Syrian', daughter of Ptolemy (1), wife of Antiochus (2), d. 246 BCE  

Friedrich M. Heichelheim and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Berenice (2), ‘the Syrian’, daughter of *Ptolemy (1) II and *Arsinoë I (b. c.280 bce), was Ptolemy III's sister. *Antiochus (2) II married her after the ‘Second Syrian War’ (252). At Antiochus' death (246), *Laodice (2), his divorced first wife, murdered Berenice and her son by Antiochus before Ptolemy III could intervene.

Article

Berenice (3) II, wife of Ptolemy (1) III Euergetes  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Berenice (3) II, daughter of Magas of Cyrene and Apama II, was born c.273 bce. Following the murder that she initiated of her mother's candidate Demetrius, her marriage in 246 to *Ptolemy (1) III Euergetes returned *Cyrene to Ptolemaic control. She survived into the reign of her son *Ptolemy (1) IV, falling a victim to palace intrigues in 221.

Article

biography, Greek  

Christopher Pelling

1. Biography in antiquity was not a rigidly defined genre. Bios, ‘life’, or bioi, ‘lives’, could span a range of types of writing, from *Plutarch's cradle-to-grave accounts of statesmen to *Chamaeleon's extravagant stories about literary figures, and even to *Dicaearchus' ambitious Life of Greece. Consequently the boundaries with neighbouring genres—the encomium, the biographical novel on the model of *Xenophon (1)'s Cyropaedia, the historical monograph on the deeds of a great man like *Alexander (3) the Great—are blurred and sometimes artificial. One should not think of a single ‘biographical genre’ with acknowledged conventions, but rather of a complicated picture of overlapping traditions, embracing works of varying form, style, length, and truthfulness.2. The impulse to celebrate the individual finds early expression in the *dirge and the funeral oration (see epitaphios); organization of a literary work around an individual's experiences is as old as the Odyssey (see homer), and various Heracleids and Theseids seem to have treated their subjects' deeds more comprehensively.

Article

Boeotia and Boeotian Confederacy  

John Buckler and Antony Spawforth

Boeotia was a region in central Greece, bounded in the north by *Phocis and Opuntian *Locris. The east faces the Euboean Gulf, and Mts. Parnes and Cithaeron form the southern boundary with Attica. On the west Mt. *Helicon and some lower heights separate a narrow coastline from the interior. Lake *Copais divided the region into a smaller northern part, the major city of which was *Orchomenus (1), and a larger southern part dominated by *Thebes (1). Geography and the fertility of the soil encouraged the growth of many prosperous and populous cities and villages. Although now there is indication of palaeolithic and mesolithic habitation, numerous findings prove a dense neolithic population. Thucydides (1. 12) states that the region was originally named Cadmeis, but that the Boiotoi gave it its present name 60 years after the Trojan War. Yet the Catalogue of Ships (*Homer, Il.

Article

Boeotius, treaty of  

Simon Hornblower

Modern name for an important moment in Spartan–Persian diplomacy in the late 5th cent. bce (Xenophon Hellenica 1. 4), by which Sparta in 408 bce may have secured the *autonomy of the Asia Minor Greeks provided they paid tribute to Persia. The treaty is only a hypothesis, but would explain why the definite revival of the autonomy issue caused so little surprise in the 390s. (Xen. Hell.

Article

Book of Daniel  

Anathea E. Portier-Young

Extant in three main ancient editions, the book of Daniel is a Jewish text composed c. 165 bce. Major themes are divine and human sovereignty, allegiance, identity, knowledge, and eschatology. The bilingual Hebrew and Aramaic version preserved in the Masoretic Text (MT) comprises twelve chapters and is one of the earliest examples of the apocalypse literary genre. Chapters 1–6 contain court legends about four Judean captives in Babylon—Daniel, Hananiah, Azariah, and Mishael (renamed Belteshazzzar, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego)—during the reigns of four kings: Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, Darius, and Cyrus. Daniel excels as an interpreter of dreams and visions, yet as the four Judeans rise to positions of power, they must choose between loyalty to king and loyalty to God. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego are sentenced to death in a fiery furnace for refusing to worship an idol, and Daniel is thrown into a pit of lions for praying to his deity. Yet each of the four experiences divine deliverance. In chapters 7–12, Daniel recounts a series of apocalyptic visions and discourses foretelling a sequence of empires and the concomitant subjugation, suffering, resistance, and deliverance of the Judean people. The ancient Greek versions of the text, Old Greek and Proto-Theodotion, differ in various respects from MT Daniel, most notably in their inclusion of the tales of Susanna and Bel and the Dragon, the Prayer of Azariah, and the Song of the Three Youths. The book of Daniel influenced the development of Jewish and Christian eschatology, including beliefs about resurrection and judgment after death. Early Christian art and liturgy drew on the tales in Daniel to express hope of salvation. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus identifies himself with the “one like a human being” (commonly translated “son of man”; Dan. 7), implicitly identifying the kingdom he inaugurates with the kingdom of the holy ones that succeeds the four empires in Daniel’s vision.

Article

Brasidas, Spartan commander, d. 422 BCE  

Stephen Hodkinson

He gained prominence through defending *Methone (2) from the Athenians in 431, held the ephorate (see ephors) in 431/0 and naval advisory positions in 429 and 427. Following distinguished action as a trierarch at *Pylos in 425, he was sent to northern Greece in 424 with a small force of helots and mercenaries. After saving *Megaraen route, he rapidly gained several important cities, including *Amphipolis and *Torone, ignoring the armistice of 423 by supporting the revolts of *Scione and *Mende. Although unable to protect all his successes adequately, he permanently injured Athens' interests in the region. In 422, while defeating Athenian forces under Cleon, he was mortally wounded at Amphipolis, where he was given burial and hero cult. Brasidas served as a prototype for Sparta's subsequent conduct of foreign campaigns through semi-independent Spartiate *harmosts commanding non-Spartiate troops. His successful employment of helot hoplites encouraged Sparta's future use of neodamōdeis, *helots freed for military service.

Article

Brennus (2), leader of the Galatian invasion  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Brennus (2), leader of the *Galatian invasion in 279 bce. Following on the heels of another body of Gauls under Bolgius, Brennus overran Macedonia and invaded Greece in autumn. Checked by a Greek coalition at *Thermopylae, he sent a detachment to *Aetolia whereupon the Aetolian force withdrew from Thermopylae; he then turned the Greek position at Thermopylae, as the Persians had done in 480 bce (see persian wars); and when the Greek forces scattered, he attacked *Delphi.

Article

Bucephalas  

R. M. Errington

Bucephalas, *Alexander (3) the Great's favourite Thessalian horse, bought for thirteen talents and broken in by Alexander himself; named after his ox-head brandmark. Alexander gave the name Bucephala to a city founded on the *Hydaspes (Jhelum) where Bucephalas died (326 bce). See horses.