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Article

Gnathia  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Gnathia (mod. Fasano), a Messapian port, 58 km. (36 mi.) south of *Barium, which dominated land and sea communications, handling trade with Greece. It prospered in the Hellenistic period, a phase characterized by proliferation of rich burials and Greek-influenced monumental architecture, and flourished until late antiquity. See pottery, greek (end) for ‘Gnathian Ware’.

Article

Victor Ehrenberg, Lucia F. Nixon, and Simon Price

Gortyn was a city in central *Crete. From the 7th cent. bce are known a temple to *Athena on the acropolis, and one to *Apollo Pythios on the plain; an agora lies at the foot of the acropolis. By the 3rd cent. bce Gortyn was one of the most important cities on the island. It had conquered Phaestus, gaining an extensive territory and a good harbour at Matala in addition to the one at Lebena, and had entered into long-term hostilities with *Cnossus. After Cnossus had been captured by Q. *Caecilius Metellus (Creticus), Gortyn, which had sided with the Romans, was made the capital of the new province of Crete-*Cyrene. The well-preserved Roman-period city was extremely extensive (c. 150 ha.: 370 acres), and includes a large governor's residence (praetorium), baths, a circus, a theatre and amphitheatre, and seven Christian basilicas including one to Agios Titos (late 6th/early 7th cent. ce).

Article

Richard Allan Tomlinson

In Greek cities, the gymnasium originated as a place of exercise for the citizens specifically to fit the *epheboi for the rigours of service as *hoplites. At first no more than an open space, with a water supply, often sited in conjunction with a sanctuary or shrine, as late as the 5th cent. bce gymnasia seem not to have needed architectural development, shade and shelter being provided rather by groves of trees. Descriptions of the Athenian gymnasia, the Lyceum, Cynosarges, and above all the Academy conform with this (see athens, topography).Frequented also by older citizens, and particularly from the connection with the 4th-cent. philosophers, they became more intellectual centres. Though the element of exercise was never lost, the concept of education became more important. Some—those at Athens in particular—through the interests of the philosophical schools became in effect universities. More usually in the cities of the Hellenistic age they functioned as secondary schools. More specialized architecture was required, and the gymnasia became enclosed areas, their buildings arranged largely on the courtyard principle. The *Academy at Athens acquired such a courtyard, with shrine-building and fountain-house, but is badly preserved and not fully understood.

Article

Frederick Adam Wright, Robert Leslie Howland, and Stephen Instone

Haltēres were pieces of iron or stone used by Greek long jumpers. Shaped and gripped like modern dumb-bells, they normally weighed between 1.4 and 2.3 kilos (3–5 lb.). The long jump was a standing jump without a run-up: while holding the haltēres, the athlete would probably throw his arms forwards and upwards on take-off, and then downwards and backwards when in mid-air, hoping thereby to increase the distance of the jump (cf. Arist.

Article

Philip de Souza

The earliest man-made harbour facilities in the Mediterranean region were the riverside quays of Mesopotamia and Egypt, for which records go back to at least the second millennium bce. Maritime installations probably began to appear around the Levantine coast in the early iron age, but the earliest securely datable harbour-works are the late 6th-cent. breakwater and ship-sheds of *Polycrates (1), tyrant of *Samos (Hdt. 3. 60). The development of specialized naval and merchant vessels, and a gradual increase in overseas trade, meant that quays and docks of increasing size and complexity were required in the Classical and Hellenistic periods.Early construction techniques made the most of natural features such as sheltered bays and headlands, as at *Cnidus. Exposed shores were protected with breakwaters and moles, like that at Samos. The development in Roman times of concrete which could set underwater enabled ambitious offshore constructions to be attempted, notably *Caesarea (2) in Palestine.

Article

Antony Spawforth

Heraclea (2) by Latmus, a city of *Caria allegedly founded by *Endymion, on the slope of Mt. Latmus, c. 25 km. (15½ mi.) east of Miletus; in antiquity it stood at the head of an Aegean gulf gradually silted up by the Maeander to become (not before Roman times) a lake. The present city, laid out on a grid, is a refoundation, superseding Classical Latmus, the site of the last lying outside and east of the superb Hellenistic circuit-wall, which (on grounds of style) is unlikely to be pre-*Alexander (3) the Great. A recently discovered inscription dated between 323 and 313 bce (SEG 47. 156, treaty between Latmus and Karian Pidasa) shows that the city was still called Latmus at that time; it was probably refounded as a Heraclea by *Antigonus(1) Monophthalmos. The inscription is of great interest for its provisions about intermarriage. A Delphic inscription of c.

Article

Heraion  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Sanctuary of *Hera. The most important are the Heraion of *Argos(1), and the Heraion of *Samos. Both are situated at some distance from the cities which controlled or dominated them. The Argive Heraion is at an important but abandoned late bronze age site, which may have influenced its selection; the Samian Heraion also may have had earlier significance. Both developed early, having peripteral temples by at latest the first half of the 7th cent. bce. These had stone footings, with wooden columns. Both sanctuaries include structures designed for the crowds of worshippers, particularly stoas from which to view the religious activities, and processional ways linking them physically and symbolically with the polis-centre. See sanctuaries.

Article

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Hermogenes (1), a Greek architect from *Alabanda in Caria (Vitr. De arch. 3. 2. 6). His date is a matter of debate, though a floruit c.170 bce seems probable. His chief works are the temple of *Dionysus at *Teos and the temple of *Artemis Leucophryene at *Magnesia(1) ad *Maeandrum, both in the Ionic order. From these, and from his books about them, *Vitruvius derived some of the principles of proportion included in his own book, even though the remains of the two temples do not exactly agree with the precepts he attributes to Hermogenes; nor was the octastyle pseudodipteral type of temple invented by Hermogenes as he states, though he revived its use. He also includes Hermogenes among those architects who objected to the use of the Doric order in sacred buildings because of the complications arising from the spacing of the triglyphs. This may result from the reconstruction of the Doric temple of *Asclepius at *Pergamum as an Ionic building after its destruction by *Prusias II in 156 bce.

Article

hippeis  

John F. Lazenby and P. J. Rhodes

In a number of Greek states the aristocracy was known as the ‘hippeis’ (e.g. *Eretria and Boeotian *Orchomenus(1); and cf. the ‘hippobotai’, of *Chalcis and, below, the Spartan élite (§ 3) and Athenian property class (§ 4)). Aristotle (Pol. 1297b17 ff., cf. 1289b36 ff. and 1321a8 ff.), while drawing attention to the fact that only the wealthy possessed *horses, seems to have thought that this was the basis of their political power, since their states depended upon cavalry in war. But although there is some evidence for cavalry in early wars, for example the 8th-cent. bce Lelantine War, it is doubtful whether many Greek states south of Boeotia really had powerful forces of cavalry in early times. No cavalry is mentioned in *Tyrtaeus, for example, and the Athenians notoriously had no cavalry at the battle of *Marathon, despite the existence of a class of hippeis.

Article

Richard Allan Tomlinson and Antony Spawforth

Hippodamus of *Miletus, was the most famous Greek town-planner. He was born probably about 500 bce. Ancient authorities speak of his nemēsis or allocation of sites. Towards the middle of the 5th cent. he planned *Piraeus for the Athenians, and boundary stones found there are probably evidence of his work (cf. R. Garland, The Piraeus (1987)). The agora there was known as the Hippodamian. In 443 he went with the colony to *Thurii and he may well have been responsible for its rectangular plan. *Strabo (14. 2. 9) records a tradition that the ‘architect of Piraeus’ planned Rhodes which was founded in 408 bce. Most modern authorities reject this on the ground that the date is too late for Hippodamus. Aristotle (Pol. 2. 5) speaks of Hippodamus' foppish appearance, and his political theories, and notes that he thought that the ideal size for a city was 10,000 (i.e. probably citizens).

Article

honey  

Robert Sallares

Honey (μέλι; mel), the chief sweetener known to the ancients, who understood apiculture (Arist.Hist. an. 623b5–627b22; Verg. G. bk. 4) and appreciated the different honey-producing qualities of flowers and localities. Thyme honey from *Hymettus in Attica was very famous, both for its pale colour and sweet flavour; Corsican, harsh and bitter; Pontic, poisonous and inducing madness (Dioscorides, Materia medica 2. 101–3). Honey was used in cooking, confectionery, and as a preservative. It was used in medicines, e.g. for coughs, ulcers, and intestinal parasites (Theophr. Hist. pl. 9. 11. 3, 18. 8). It had a very important role in religion, cult, and mythology. Its religious associations derive from the idea that it was a ros caelestis (‘heavenly dew’), which fell on to flowers from the upper air for bees to gather (Arist.Hist. an. 553b29–30). According to poets it dripped from trees in the *golden age (Ov.

Article

John Kinloch Anderson

In the funeral games for *Patroclus the chariot-race is the premier event (Hom.Il. 23. 262–538). The heroes drive two-horse chariots normally used in battle over an improvised cross-country course, round a distant mark and home again. Similar funeral games for other heroes are recorded; and heroes as well as gods were remembered at the Panhellenic festivals. Malicious ghosts (Taraxippoi, ‘horse-frighteners’) sometimes panicked the horses. But, despite the story of the race by which *Pelops won his bride and kingdom (see hippodamia), equestrian events were not the oldest in the historic Olympia festival (see olympian games). *Pausanias (5. 8. 7–8) records the introduction of four-horse chariots in the 25th Olympiad (680 bce); of ridden horses in the 33rd; and of other equestrian events at irregular intervals thereafter. Regular hippodromes were now used. No material remains survive; but literary evidence (e.g. Soph.

Article

Michael H. Jameson

Private houses of the Classical and Hellenistic periods were basically the same throughout the Greek world. Most rooms opened onto one or more sides of a small, rectangular courtyard, as did a doorway to the street, often preceded by a short passage. Windows were few and small and living areas were not visible from the street. An upper storey, reached by a ladder or, more rarely, a built stairway, was common but is often hard to detect. Construction was in mud-brick or rubble on stone socles. Interior walls were plastered and often painted simply, mostly in red and white. Floors were of beaten earth. In most houses, on the ground floor, one or two rooms with heavier floors and provisions for bathing, heating water, and cooking can be identified, but cooking could take place on simple hearths or portable braziers in any room or in the courtyard. The concept of the hearth and its goddess, *Hestia, symbolized the identity and cohesion of the *household (oikos) but formal, fixed hearths were not common, nor were *altars for domestic ritual.

Article

hunting  

John Kinloch Anderson

Epic heroes (see homer) hunt to fill their bellies or to rid the land of dangerous beasts (Hom. Od. 9. 154–48, 10. 157–63; Il. 9. 533–49). The boar is the most formidable antagonist; venison is highly valued; mentions of lions are problematic. Hunters go on foot, armed with spear or bow. In Greek Classical literature the educational value of hunting is emphasized (Pl. Leg. 822d; Xen.Cyn. 1), but hunting is still for the pot and the methods described in *Xenophon (1)'s Cynegeticus (Hunting Man) are often unsporting. These include the use of snares and foot-clogs and the beating of fawns so that their cries will draw their mothers within range. Hare-hunting receives special attention; the hunters, on foot, drive the hares into nets with the help of hounds. Hounds and nets are also used for boar-hunting; but the beast must ultimately be faced by men on foot armed with boar-spears. Opportunities for hunting on horseback are rare and generally to be found in the east (compare Xen. An.

Article

Ictinus  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Ictinus was one of a number of fine *architects who worked at Athens in the time of *Pericles(1). In conjunction with *Callicrates(1) he designed the *Parthenon and with a certain Carpion, otherwise unknown, as co-author, wrote an account of it (Vitr. De arch. pref. 7). He was also one of a series of architects—Coroebus, Ictinus, Metagenes—who worked at *Eleusis on the Telesterion, the great hall in which the performance of the *mysteries took place; the plan of the hall, with its rows of columns supporting the roof, was repeatedly modified.From the design of the *Parthenon it is clear that Ictinus was very interested in the ideal mathematical relationships between the different elements of temple architecture; his imposition of the ratio 22: 32 demonstrates an ability to go beyond the traditional evolutionary approach to proportions. No doubt his book explained his theorizing, though nothing of this survives. This may be responsible for the attribution to him (by Paus. 8. 41. 7–9) of the temple at *Bassae, which, however, hardly measures up to the Parthenon in its detail.

Article

Idalium  

Hector Catling

Idalium (mod. Dhali), a small inland city of *Cyprus, in a long-populated area (perhaps the ‘Edi'al’ of the Esarhaddon prism), was 16 km. (10 mi.) SSE of Nicosia, on the south side of the Yalias valley, where in the 12th cent. bce it replaced a complex of bronze age sites further east at Ayios Sozomenos. It stood on the twin acropolis hills of Ambelleri and Moutti tou Arvili, with the lower town between; it had sanctuaries of Athena, Aphrodite, and Apollo-Reshef. The longest known syllabic inscription (the de Luynes tablet), and the bilingual lapidary inscription which allowed the syllabary's decipherment, were found here. Its kings (who may have shared power with a ‘*dēmos’) struck coins from c.500 bce; c.470 it was overwhelmed and permanently absorbed by Citium, its Phoenician neighbour to the south.

Article

imagery  

Robin Osborne

The identification of scenes in sculpture, painting, and the minor arts has long been a major activity of classical *archaeology, although it has traditionally been accorded less emphasis than the identification of artists' hands. In all the figurative arts conventional schemes were developed, sometimes under the influence of near-eastern iconography, for portraying particular mythological figures and episodes, and the use and development of these schemes can now conveniently be studied through the Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae ( = LIMC, 1981– ). Individual artists exploited conventional imagery not simply by replicating it, but by playing variations on a theme or by echoing the conventional scheme for one episode when portraying a different one. An extreme form of this is iconographic parody.The origins of particular iconographic schemes, and the reasons why the popularity of scenes changes over time, are rarely clear. Ceramic vessels may owe some of their imagery to lost gold or silver *plate, and some vases can reasonably be held to take over the imagery of lost wall-paintings or of famous sculptures, such as the Tyrannicides group (see aristogiton), although it is also possible in some cases that vase-painting influenced subsequent sculptural imagery.

Article

incense  

Daniel Potts

Is the general name given to a variety of aromatic gum-resins which, when heated, produce a fragrant odour. Often used interchangeably with frankincense (Gk. λίβανος (probably a direct loan from South Arabian libān, from the Semitic root lbn, meaning ‘white, milky’; cf. Plin. HN 12. 60, who says that the best frankincense was the white variety harvested in the autumn), Lat. tus/thus), it is the oleo-gum-resin extracted chiefly from the species Boswellia sacra Flückiger and Boswellia carterii Birdwood, of the family Burseracea. Incense was widely burnt as a religious offering in the ancient world, as an accompaniment to acts of divination, on the occasion of a burial, and as a gesture of homage (e.g. on the occasion of *Alexander(3) the Great's entry into Babylon, Curt. 5. 1. 20). See below, incense in religion. The natural distribution of frankincense-producing Boswellia is restricted to Dhofar and eastern Hadhramaut, in southern *Arabia; the island of Socotra (Dioscurides); the Coromandel coast of *India; and northern Somalia.

Article

Isthmia  

Catherine A. Morgan

Isthmia (sanctuary of *Poseidon), a Corinthian *Panhellenic shrine 16 km. (10 mi.) east of *Corinth, beside the modern Athens–Corinth road. A hippodrome and hero shrine (West Foundation) lie 2 km. (1¼ mi.) south-west, with additional cults in the Sacred Glen.The sanctuary was established c.1050 bce in an area of Mycenaean settlement. The first temple (a peripteral i.e. colonnaded building with wall-paintings), c.690–650, had a 30-metre (100-foot) altar and *temenos wall. It was rebuilt after fires in c.470–460 and 390. The first stadium (early 6th cent. bce) accords with C. *Iulius Solinus' (7. 14) foundation date for the *Isthmian Games; a larger stadium (further south-east) was built c.300 bce. A bath (originating c.4th cent.) survives in Roman form. A theatre (established by 390) probably held musical rather than dramatic contests. Isthmia was a major assembly place; it was at the games in 196 bce that T.

Article

Robert Leslie Howland and Stephen Instone

The javelin (ἄκων) was a spear about 2.5 m. (8 ft.) long, probably with a metal point. Round the middle was bound a thong with a loop through which the athlete placed his first finger, or first and middle fingers, when throwing. As he let go of the javelin he held onto the loop of the thong which, as it unwound, gave a spinning motion to the javelin thereby increasing distance and accuracy (cf. the motion of a modern rifle bullet). In the *Panathenaea competitors threw their javelins while riding on horseback past a target.