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Article

Ratae  

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Ratae (mod. Leicester), a town of Roman *Britain and civitas-capital of the *Corieltauvi. An iron age *oppidum preceded the Roman settlement but its development under Rome remains uncertain. The only military evidence seems to date to the later 1st cent. Pre-Flavian building is attested but the street grid dates to c. ce 90–100. It grew to 42 ha. within its 3rd-cent. walls, although recent excavations show that it was never densely occupied. It possessed distinguished public buildings and was possibly raised to municipal rank in the later 2nd cent. The forum is late Hadrianic; the public baths with exercise-hall (of which the surviving Jewry Wall is part) were built under *Antoninus Pius; and in the early 3rd cent. an additional market square with basilica was provided. Large-scale excavation has recently explored much of the northern corner of the city.

Article

roads  

Nicholas Purcell

Ancient road-theory divides into two categories: the art of enhancing communications through built or dug works; and the planning and maintaining of large-scale communications networks based on such works.

Ramps, cuttings, stone pavements, zig-zags, and pull-offs are found on local roads from Archaic Greek times, and were clearly designed to facilitate wheeled traction: there are Mycenaean precursors, and parallels in many parts of the Mediterranean, such as Etruria. Improved routes for specialized purposes such as the haulage-route to Athens from the *marble*quarries of Mt. *Pentelicon, or the *diolkos across the isthmus of Corinth, are found, and fine paved processional ways like the Athenian Sacred Way or the approaches to great *sanctuaries like *Delphi. The technological repertoire was greatly increased by the deployment of arched construction on a large scale (see arches), which made *bridges and viaducts feasible; and where labour was cheap, and petrology favourable, major cuttings and tunnels could be contemplated. Such things, like the deployment of the older road technologies on any very large scale required large-scale organization, intercommunity co-operation, voluntary or enforced, and very large resources, all of which escaped the Greek world of the Archaic and Classical periods.

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond, Ferdinando Castagnoli, and John Patterson

The Tiber valley at Rome is a deep trough, from 1 to 3 km wide, cut into the soft tufa floor of the river's lower basin. The edges of the trough are formed by steep weathered cliffs, seamed and even isolated by tributary streams. In this way the famous hills of Rome were formed: the Caelian (see caelius mons), Oppian, *Esquiline, *Viminal, and *Quirinal were flat-topped spurs, while the *Capitol, *Palatine and *Aventine were cut off from the main hinterland. (For the Oppian see esquiline; it was not counted as one of the *Seven hills of Rome.) On the valley floor itself the river meanders in an S-shaped curve, the northern twist containing the Campus Martius and skirting the Vatican plain, the southern curve skirting the Capitol, *forum Boarium, and Aventine, and enclosing Transtiberim, a smaller plain at the foot of the Janiculan ridge. Just below the middle of the S-curve the river runs shallow and divides at Tiber island. The ford here was the only feasible crossing-point between Rome and the sea, or for many miles upstream; so hills and spurs provided the natural strongholds suitable for defended settlement, and traffic across the heavily populated Latian plain concentrated at the Tiber ford, which was to be the key to Rome's predominance.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Rusellae (mod. Roselle), an *Etruscan city, stood on a two-crowned hill to the east of the bay that is now the Grosseto plain. Its walls, of polygonal limestone blocks overlaying a 7th cent. defence wall of sun-dried bricks, are dated to the early 6th cent. and are thus the oldest-known Etruscan stone fortifications. The area within them was inhabited from late Villanovan to late imperial times, with particularly flourishing periods between the 6th and 4th centuries, characterized by imported Attic pottery, and in Hellenistic times, when the city attained its maximum expansion. On the south-east hill, a portion of the Etruscan city of Hellenistic date has been revealed, superimposed on remains of the 5th–4th centuries: this area has produced a well-stratified sequence of bucchero and of local Campana A and B wares. Rusellae was captured by Rome in 294 bce.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Saalburg, near Bad Homburg, a strong point on the Upper German *limes, controlling traffic across the Taunus. Roman troops first occupied the position during the Chattian campaigns of ce 83–5 (see domitian; chatti); they built a fortlet here, just behind the limes proper, c.90. A timber fort for an auxiliary cohort was built between 125 and 128 and given a composite wall of dry stone and timber before 139. This was later reconstructed entirely in stone, probably 200–13. There was further work in the 230s, but the fort was evacuated following invasion and civil war c.260. The forts and extensive *vicus have been excavated, and the walls and principal buildings of the cohort fort were reconstructed 1898–1907 to create an unusual and important museum.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

San Giovenale takes its name from the medieval castle on the plateau overlooking the river Vesca north of the Tolfa Hills, 25 km. east of *Tarquinii. The plateau was inhabited from the bronze age, represented by *Apennine-culture pottery associated with houses and a fortification wall of large blocks. An extensive iron-age village of oval huts dates mainly from the 8th to the late 7th cents., and an Etruscan settlement lasted until the beginning of the 5th. Tomb-types in the area range from pozzi to *Etruscan chamber tombs; a late (3rd-cent. bce) tomb was reused in Hadrianic times. Occupation at Luni, 6 km. west of San Giovenale, also extends from the bronze age to the middle ages: the Apennine levels produced five Mycenaean sherds. The (incomplete) definitive report on the San Giovenale excavations by the Swedish Institute, Rome, appears in the fascicules of its Skrifter/Acta, 4th series, 26 (1967 onwards).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Satricum (1), mod. Conca in *Latium. A Volscian centre (see volsci), originating in the 10th cent. bce. From the late 7th cent. it became an important cult and commercial centre, in which Rome took a close interest. Successive temples (of c.550 and 480 bce) of Mater *Matuta have been excavated.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon

Minor *Etruscan hill town in the Albegna valley. It received a Roman colonia in 183 bce but is otherwise unrecorded in antiquity. Its surviving polygonal walls and interesting necropolis, however, attest its early importance.

Article

T. W. Potter

Settefinestre, a Roman *villa near *Cosa in Tuscany. Built in the later 1st cent. bce, it may exemplify the rural residence and working farm of a senatorial aristocrat (possibly the family of the Sestii), laid out on lines recommended by Varro and Columella. Fronted by a miniature ‘town wall’ with turrets, there was elegant accommodation, as well as three wine presses, one oil press, a granary, a walled orchard, quarters for slaves and three gardens. A piggery, new baths, and extended slave quarters were added in the early 2nd cent. ce, but the villa was abandoned in the Antonine period.

Article

Spina  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Spina, in N. Italy, situated on what was the mouth of the southern branch of the Po (*Padus), seems to have been established c.520–510 bce by *Etruscans; *Strabo's definition (5.1.7) of it as a hellēnis polis probably means that it was a city where Greek was spoken. Like *Atria, Spina supplied *Felsina and Etruria Padana (the Etruscans in the Po region)—and ultimately Europe north of the Alps—with fine Etruscan bronzes and with the products of the rich 5th-cent. Greek commerce. A great quantity of Attic red-figure and other Greek pottery has been recovered from the Valle Trebba and Valle Pega cemeteries; it is now in the museum at Ferrara. Spina exercised considerable naval influence in the Adriatic and maintained a ‘treasury’ (see sanctuaries) at *Delphi.

Article

Stabiae  

Nicholas Purcell

Stabiae, with *Pompeii and *Nuceria an important pre-Roman settlement of the Sarno plain in south *Campania, destroyed by Sulla in the *Social War (3). The fashionable resort which succeeded was buried in the eruption of ce 79 (in which the elder *Pliny (1) died here): excavations since the 18th cent. have revealed a series of very lavish luxury estates, scenically located at Varano above Castellammare, of which the S. Marco and Arianna sites are most important archaeologically.

Article

R. J. A. Wilson

Sufetula (mod. Sbeitla), a town of the High Plateaux in central Tunisia, stands at a major cross-roads, especially of the *Theveste–Thenae and Thelepte–*Hadrumetum highways. A Flavian *municipium founded on a virgin site probably c.ce 75, Sufetula has a very regular urban layout (445 m. by 425 m.) covering 19 hectares, which invites comparison with *Thamugadi. The 2nd-cent. forum at its heart, with entrance gateway (ce 139) and three imposing temples side by side, is one of the best-preserved examples of its type. Later, as at Thamugadi, Sufetula expanded beyond the regular nucleus, with a theatre, 3rd-cent. baths, and a Severan arch (ce 209/11 ) to the east and south-east, and an amphitheatre to the north-west. Promoted to the rank of colonia' (see colonization, roman) sometime before ce 235, Sufetula in the 4th cent. covered c.50 hectares, its prosperity derived from cereals and above all intensive olive cultivation in its surrounding territory.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Tarquinii (Etr. Tarχ(u)na-; mod. Tarquiniaformerly Corneto), the chief of the twelve cities of Etruria, stood on a high plateau about 90 km. (56 mi.) from Rome and 6 km. (3½ mi.) inland; it was the reputed refuge after 657 of the Corinthian merchant *Demaratus(1). The greatest glory of Tarquinii is the series, much augmented by modern Tarquinii, of painted chamber-tombs dating from the mid-6th cent. onwards. The wealth of material found in Tarquinia's vast cemeteries has made them basic to the study of *Villanovan chronology and Etruscan arts and crafts; traces of an extensive Villanovan settlement have been revealed beneath the Etruscan tumuli in the Monterozzi cemetery. The chief surviving monument of the later city is a 4th-cent. temple, the so-called Ara della Regina on the Pian di Civita; there too, excavation (1982 onwards) has unexpectedly revealed an isolated 9th-cent. child burial that was clearly the object of prolonged subsequent veneration (CAH 42 (1988), plate 295: *Tages?).

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Teanum Sidicinum (mod. Teano), in Italy, the second city of *Campania after *Neapolis (Naples), located on the *via Latina south-east of Roccamonfina. Inhabited from the 7th century bce, it grew rapidly in the 4th. Archaeological evidence includes an Archaic sanctuary, Hellenistic and Roman cemeteries, baths, an amphitheatre, and a sanctuary and theatre similar to *Pietrabbondante.

Article

Janet DeLaine

Templum Pacis, later called forum Pacis or Vespasiani, was the precinct of the temple of Peace at Rome, dedicated by *Vespasian in 75 ce. The area (145×100 m.) was surrounded by marble porticoes within an enclosure wall of peperino and laid out as a garden. The temple, a rectangular hall in the centre of the east side set flush with the portico, housed the spoils from *Jerusalem. It was flanked by a library, the bibliotheca Pacis, and various other halls. One of these carried the *Forma urbis and may have housed the office of the urban prefect. After the fire of *Commodus the complex was restored by *Septimius Severus.

Article

tourism  

Antony Spawforth

Well-known Greek tourists include *Solon, said (Hdt. 1. 30) to have visited Egypt and Lydia ‘for the sake of seeing’ (theōria), and *Herodotus (1) himself. Sea-borne *trade and sightseeing were surely companions from an early date, as they still were in the 4th cent. (Isoc. Trapeziticus 17. 4). A genre of Greek periegetic (‘travel’) literature arose by the 3rd cent., from which date fragments survive of a descriptive work, On the Cities in Greece, by Heraclides Criticus (ed. F. Pfister (1951); for partial trans. see Austin83); the only fully preserved work of this type is *Pausanias (3) (see polemon(3)), illustrating the thin line between sightseers and pilgrims. Under Rome ancient sightseeing came into its own. A papyrus (PTeb. 1. 33 = Bagnall and Derow 58) of 112 bce gives instructions to prepare for a Roman senator's visit to the *Fayūm, including titbits for the crocodiles; the colossi of *Memnon and other pharaonic monuments are encrusted with Greek and Latin graffiti.

Article

Utica  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Utica, by tradition the oldest Phoenician settlement on the north African coast, in Tunisia, 33 km. (21 mi.) north-east of *Tunis. The traditional foundation date of 1101 bce (Plin.HN 16. 216; Vell. Pat. 1. 2. 4; Sil. 3. 241) is not borne out by the archaeological evidence: Utica's earliest traces are burials of the later 8th cent. bce. Although it now lies 11 km. (7 mi.) inland because of coastline changes as a result of silting, Utica was in antiquity an important port at the mouth of the river Bagradas. Within the empire of *Carthage it always retained a position of importance (Polyb. 3. 24. 2; 7. 9. 5). Utica was conquered by *Agathocles (1) of Syracuse in 308 (Diod. Sic. 20. 54) and besieged by P. *Cornelius Scipio Africanus in 204 (Livy 30. 10. 3). A supporter of *Masinissa against Carthage in 149, Utica was rewarded by Rome with lands of the defeated city, and was made a civitas libera (see free cities) and the capital of the new Roman province of *Africa in 146.

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Velabrum, according to *Varro (Ling. 5. 43), the landing-place of an ancient ferry connecting the Aventine with the Palatine in Rome; more generally, an area of low ground between the Capitol and Palatine. Originally open to seasonal floods of the Tiber, it was drained by the *Cloaca Maxima, and eventually became one of the busiest commercial centres of the city; the vicus Tuscus and vicus Iugarius, which carried traffic between the *forum Romanum and the Tiber, passed through.

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Vetulonia (Etr. Vetluna), in the hills to the west of the bay that is now the Grosseto plain, was one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans). Excavation has been mainly confined to the extensive cemeteries. The earliest material is Protovillanovan (see villanovan culture); the most notable comes from a series of wealthy orientalizing ‘circle tombs’, consisting of trenches surrounded by stones and covered by a tumulus. The Circolo dei Lebeti contained bronze cauldrons with siren heads and griffin protomes that have Greek and oriental parallels respectively. The Pietrera tumulus contained a single chamber in which a central pillar supports a corbelled dome: here as elsewhere in northern Etruria, the suggestion of affinities with Sardinian building techniques gains credit from the presence of nuragic imports in a number of other graves (see sardinia). According to *Silius Italicus (8. 484–8) the Romans assumed the Etruscan royal insignia of fasces, sella curulis, etc.

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Via Sacra, the ‘sacred way’, street connecting the *forum Romanum with the *Velia, affording access to the *Palatine. According to *Varro and *Pompeius Festus, the stretch of road popularly known as via Sacra lay between the *Regia and the house of the rex sacrorum, which was at a location known as Summa Sacra Via; as properly defined, however, the road led from the Sacellum Streniae (cf. strenae) on the Carinae to the Arx (Varro, Ling. 5. 47; Festus, 372 Lindsay). The position of Summa Sacra Via is, however, disputed by modern scholars, who variously locate it close to the Basilica of *Maxentius or near the arch of *Titus. Following the fire of ce 64, the street became a noble avenue, leading from the forum to the entrance to the *Domus Aurea, which was flanked by shops for jewellers, and other luxury-traders.