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armies, Roman, monarchy to 3rd cent. CE  

Brian Campbell

Traditionally, King Servius *Tullius (c.580–530 bce), made the first attempt to channel the resources of the Roman state into military organization by dividing the citizens into wealth groups, so that the weapons they could afford determined their military role, with the richest serving as cavalry. Below these groups were the capite censi (‘assessed by a head-count’),—men with no property, who were excluded from the army. Military service, therefore, although integral to the duties of citizenship, was also a privilege. This organization of the citizens probably emerged gradually and not through the act of an individual, but there is little clear evidence for the early army until *Polybius (1) in the 2nd cent. bce. By c.400 bce a small allowance had been introduced for each soldier to help pay his expenses on active service. The body of infantry was called the legio (‘levying’, *legion) and by 311 had been divided into four legions; these were supported by contingents of Rome's Italian allies (*socii) and subjects, grouped in formations comparable in size to the legions and commanded by Roman officers.


Arminius, b. c. 19 BCE  

Arnaldo Momigliano, Theodore John Cadoux, and Barbara Levick

Arminius, born c. 19 bce, war-chief of the *Cherusci, son of Sigimer. He had Roman citizenship, and served long in the auxiliary forces, attaining equestrian rank. In ce 9 he lured P. *Quinctilius Varus with three legions into difficult country near the saltus *Teutoburgiensis between Ems and Weser (Tac. Ann. 1. 60. 3; the site of the battle has been established by archaeological finds in the neighbourhood of Kalkriese near Osnabrück) and destroyed them. In 15 he fought Segestes, leader of the pro-Roman faction, whose daughter Thusnelda he had married. Segestes was helped by *Germanicus and Thusnelda fell into Roman hands. In 16, though beaten by Germanicus and wounded, Arminius again thwarted Roman expansion. In 17, helped by the Semnones and Langobardi, he weakened the neutral king *Maroboduus but was deserted by his uncle Inguiomerus; when he aspired to kingship, he faced rebellion. *Tiberius rejected the offer of a Chattan (see chatti) chief to poison him in 19, but he was soon killed by his own kinsfolk.


Arria (1), 'the Elder', wife of A. Caecina Paetus, d. 42 CE  

Arnaldo Momigliano and M. T. Griffin

Arria the Elder, the wife of A. Caecina Paetus, celebrated for her courage and self-control. Thus when her husband was condemned by *Claudius for his part in the conspiracy of L. *Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus (42 ce), she stabbed herself and, handing him the dagger, said, ‘It doesn't hurt, Paetus’ (Plin. Ep.


Arria (2), 'the Younger', wife of P. Clodius Thrasea Paetus, 1st cent. CE  

Arnaldo Momigliano and M. T. Griffin

Arria the Younger, daughter of *Arria (1), was wife of P. *Clodius Thrasea Paetus, mother of Fannia (who became the wife of *Helvidius Priscus), and relative of *Persius. She wished to die beside her condemned husband in ce 66 but he dissuaded her. Banished by *Domitian, she returned to Rome under *Nerva, and died in the reign of *Trajan, mourned by her friend *Pliny (2) the Younger in Ep.


Arrius Antoninus  

Guy Edward Farquhar Chilver

Arrius Antoninus, maternal grandfather of the emperor *Antoninus Pius, was suffect consul in 69 ce, proconsul of Asia under *Vespasian, and consul again in 97 under his friend, the emperor *Nerva. He is addressed in three letters by the younger *Pliny, who says that his Greek verses recalled *Callimachus (3) and *Herodas.


Arrius Varus  

Ronald Syme

Arrius Varus, a Roman knight, served with distinction as praefectus cohortis under *Corbulo, but later is said to have defamed his old commander to Nero. In ce 69, when a *primipilus in one of the Danubian legions, he lent vigorous help to M. *Antonius Primus on the Flavian side in the invasion of Italy, being rewarded after the final victory with the office of *praefectus praetorio.


Arruntius, Lucius (1), Roman consul, 22 BCE  

Geoffrey Walter Richardson and Barbara Levick

Lucius Arruntius, of non-senatorial family from Atina, was proscribed in 43 bce (see proscription), but escaped to Sextus *Pompeius. He returned to Italy in 39 after the treaty of *Misenum and commanded a division of *Octavian's fleet at *Actium. An able orator, Arruntius also wrote a history of the (First?) *Punic War in Sallustian style (see sallust). He made a resplendent marriage, was consul in 22 bce, and as *quindecimvir sacris faciundis took part in the Ludi Saeculares (see secular games) in 17. In spite of his wealth Arruntius was noted for his simple, severe life.


Arruntius, Lucius (2), Roman consul, 6 CE  

Theodore John Cadoux and Barbara Levick

Lucius Arruntius,consul 6 ce and son of *Arruntius (1), also an orator. Wealth, connections, energy, accomplishments, and integrity made him one of the most influential senators of his time, but the story that *Augustus, on his deathbed, said that he was both worthy of the supreme power and capable, if the chance came, of seizing it, is a later fiction. Arruntius aroused the enmity of *Tiberius' ministers, but enjoyed the trust of Tiberius himself. Appointed governor of Nearer Spain, he was allowed to remain in Rome and administer his province by legates (see legati) for ten or more years (from 23?). In 31 a charge brought against him by creatures of *Sejanus was quashed; in 37, accused of *maiestas and adultery through the contrivance of *Macro and without the knowledge of Tiberius, he committed suicide. L. *Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus was his son by adoption.


Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, Lucius  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Barbara Levick

Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, consul 32 ce. Adopted son of L. *Arruntius (2), and descended from *Sulla and *Pompey, he was legate of *Dalmatia under *Gaius (1) and *Claudius. In 42, instigated by *Annius Vinicianus and many senators and knights, he persuaded his legions, VII and XI, to revolt. After four days they abandoned him and his watchwords ‘liberty and the republic’. He was murdered; accomplices were tried in the senate and executed; the legions received the titles ‘Claudia Pia Fidelis’.


Arruntius Scribonianus, Lucius (Furius)  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Barbara Levick

Arruntius, son of L. *Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus but spared by *Claudius, claimed descent from Pompeius Magnus, i.e. *Pompey (ILS976), and was banished in 52 ce for consulting astrologers on Claudius' fate. He died soon after.



Jonathan Coulston

Evidence for Greek and Roman artillery comes from the surviving technical treatises, incidental historical and subliterary references, and, most importantly, finds of both machine-fittings and projectiles. The latter at present date from the 2nd cent. bce to the 4th cent. ce.In 399 bce artificers of *Dionysius (1) I apparently invented the first artillery piece (Diod. Sic. 14. 42. 1). The gastraphetēs shot arrows only, and somewhat resembled an early medieval crossbow. Propulsion force was supplied by a composite bow, which, being too powerful for a man to draw by hand, was bent by means of a slide and stock. Later gastraphetai, some of which were stone-throwers, used a winch and had a stand. Torsion catapults appeared around 340 bce, possibly invented by *Philip (1) II's engineers. Stock, winch, and base remained much the same, but two springs, bundles of rope made from animal sinew and held at high tension in a metal-plated wooden frame, now provided propulsive power. Torsion machines improved continuously in efficiency through the Roman period. From c.



John Frederick Drinkwater

Arverni, an advanced iron age people, occupying modern Auvergne, who contested the primacy of Gaul with the *Aedui (Caes. BGall. 1. 31. 3). In 207 bce they treated with *Hasdrubal (2) (Livy 27. 39. 6), and in the next century, under Luernius and his son Bituitus, they commanded an extensive empire (Strabo 4. 2. 3). Bituitus was, however, defeated by Cn. *Domitius Ahenobarbus (2) and Q. *Fabius Maximus (Allobrogicus) (121), and the Arvernian empire was reduced to suzerainty over some neighbouring tribes. In 52*Vercingetorix, son of a former Arvernian king, led the Gallic revolt against *Caesar, and defeated an attempt upon the hill-fort capital, *Gergovia. After the fall of Vercingetorix, the Arverni lost their powers of suzerainty, but obtained the position of civitas libera (see free cities), and became prosperous and Romanized. Under Augustus their capital was moved to Augustonemetum (Clermont-Ferrand). Their territory accommodated a major centre of pottery production at Lezoux, and their principal temple, on the Puy-de-Dôme, was famous for a statue costing forty million sesterces (Plin. HN 34.


Asia, Roman province  

William Moir Calder, Eric William Gray, and Stephen Mitchell

*Attalus III of Pergamum bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans. After his death in 133 bce it was constituted as provincia Asia by M. *Aquillius (1). Originally it consisted of Mysia, the Troad (*Troas), *Aeolis, *Lydia, Ionia (see ionians), the islands along the coast, much of *Caria, and at least a land corridor through *Pisidia to *Pamphylia. Part of *Phrygia was given to Mithradates V Euergetes and was not made part of the province until 116 bce. *Lycaonia was added before 100 and the area around Cibyra in 82 bce. After 80 bce, the SE portion was removed and joined to the new province of Cilicia, as were the Phrygian assize-districts of Laodicea, Apamea, and Synnada between 56 and 50 bce. Under the empire Asia included all the territory from Amorium and Philomelium in the east to the sea; it was bounded in the north by Bithynia, in the south by Lycia, and on the east by Galatia.


Asinius Gallus, Gaius  

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Asinius Gallus, Gaius, son of C. *Asinius Pollio, born in 41 bce, was consul 8 bce and proconsul of Asia 6–5 bce. He had married *Vipsania Agrippina (1) when *Tiberius had to divorce her in 12 bce, and the marriage produced five sons. A friend of *Augustus, who (in a fictitious anecdote) judged him ambitious enough to aim at the Principate, though not equal to it (Tac. Ann. 1. 13), he angered Tiberius with proposals in the senate designed to enhance the emperor's power. He was arrested in 30 ce and died of starvation after three years in custody; Tiberius alleged a sexual intrigue with *Vipsania Agrippina (2), and his name was erased from public monuments. A fine orator, he also wrote epigrams, and A Comparison of Cicero and my Father, criticizing *Cicero's style.


Asinius Pollio, Gaius, 76 BCE–4 CE  

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Antony Spawforth

Gaius Asinius Pollio (76 bce– 4 ce), supported *Caesar, as praetor in 45, commanding in Spain in 44, and then joined Antony (M. *Antonius (2)); in Cisalpine Gaul in 41 he saved *Virgil's property from confiscation. Consul in 40, he celebrated a triumph over the Parthini of Illyria in 39; from the booty he built the first public *library in Rome. Then, with full honours, he retired from politics to devote himself to literature, organizing the first public recitations.In youth an associate of *Catullus, he later enjoyed the friendship of Horace (Carm. 2. 1) and Virgil (Ecl.4). His own work included poetry, tragedy, and oratory in Atticist style (see asianism and atticism), but he was above all an historian. The Historiae treated the period from 60 bce to the battle of Philippi in 42; analytical, critical, and serious, they were used by Plutarch and Appian. A sharp critic, he corrected Cicero and Caesar, Sallust for *archaism, and Livy for provincialism (Patavinitas); and he maintained his republican independence even against Augustus.


Asinius Quadratus, Gaius  

Howard Hayes Scullard and Antony Spawforth

Asinius Quadratus, Gaius, author of the Thousand Years (Χιλιετηρίς), a fifteen-book history of Rome from the beginnings to Severus Alexander with a Greek slant (it was written in Ionic Greek and equated Rome's foundation with the first Olympiad in 776 bce), and a Parthian history in at least nine books. Probably the same as C. Asinius Protimus Quadratus (PIR2 A 1244; P.



Simon J. Keay

A group of at least twelve peoples situated on the Cantabrian coastline and interior between the Callaeci and Cantabri. Before the Augustan conquest they shared the social and economic characteristics of the *Cantabri and lived in small hilltop enclosures. Pliny's census, HN 3. 28, estimated 240,000 free men divided between the Transmontani of the north and the Augustani of the south. Pacified by Roman legions (26–19 bce), the Astures furnished auxiliary troops and horses. *Gold was extracted on a huge scale (see mines and mining) and transported by a comprehensive road system. They formed an imperial *conventus with the capital at Asturica Augusta (mod. Astorga). Pliny's description of this as a ‘splendid city’ (‘urbs magnifica’) has been substantiated by excavation. The Legio VII Gemina was stationed at Legio (mod. León) from ce 74. Late Roman walls survive in both towns.


Ateius Capito (1), Gaius, Roman tribune, 55 BCE  

Theodore John Cadoux and Ernst Badian

Ateius Capito (1), Gaius, of undistinguished family, was tribune 55 bce. He opposed the consuls *Pompey and *Crassus, and stigmatized the latter's proposed attack on Parthia as a war of unjust aggression. Unable to prevent Crassus' departure by announcing adverse prodigies (see portents), he solemnly cursed him as he left the city (November). In 50 he received a nota (mark of condemnation) from the censors on the ground that he had invented the prodigies: the punishment was, in Cicero's view, illogical (Div.


Athens, Roman  

Antony Spawforth

(See achaia; greece, roman). Friendly with Rome from 229 bce (Polyb. 2. 12. 8), Athens was rewarded for her support against *Perseus (2) with the gift of *Delos (166 bce), its possession fuelling an economic boom, peaking by 100 bce (S. Tracy, Harv. Stud. 1979, 213 ff.) and linked with (if not prompting) a copious (‘New Style’) silver coinage. In 88 bce, under the tyrant *Aristion, Athens enthusiastically supported *Mithradates VI; the city was sacked as a result by *Sulla (86 bce), and a timocratic constitution imposed (see areopagus), but it retained ‘free’ status (Strabo. 9. 1. 20). From the 50s bce on *philhellenism prompted Roman nobles, then emperors, to become benefactors of the city. *Hadrian transformed it with a lavish building programme and made it the seat of the *Panhellenion. Thereafter it flourished culturally as a centre of Greek rhetoric (see second sophistic), and it remained a bastion of philosophy, above all (from c.


Atia (1), mother of Octavian and Octavia (2), d. 43 BCE  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Theodore John Cadoux

Atia (1), daughter of M. *Atius Balbus and of Iulia, *Caesar's sister, was the wife of C. *Octavius and the mother of C. Octavius (the future *Augustus) and of *Octavia (2). After her husband's death she married L. *Marcius Philippus (2) in 58 bce.