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Cos  

William Allison Laidlaw and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

A fertile island of the Sporades, situated in the SE Aegean, on the north–south trading route along the coast of Turkey and onwards to Cyprus, Syria, and Egypt. After Mycenaean occupation, the island was colonized, in the ‘Dark Ages,’ by *Dorians, perhaps from *Epidaurus, whose arrival may be identified with the establishment of the settlement attested by the cemeteries at the Seraglio (c.1050–c.750 bce). It was a member of the Dorian Hexapolis. The Doric dialect continued to be used into late antiquity (e.g. POxy. 2771: ce 323).In the late Archaic period the island was subject initially to Persia and to the Lygdamid (see artemisia(1)) dynasty of *Halicarnassus, which faced Cos across the straits between the island and Turkey, and then to Athens. Cos is not attested as a member of the *Second Athenian Confederacy (founded 378 bce) and perhaps did not join.

Article

Craterus (1), marshal of Alexander (3) the Great, d. 321 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Craterus (1) (d. 321 bce), marshal of *Alexander (3) the Great. First attested in charge of a Macedonian infantry taxis, he commanded the left of the phalanx at *Issus and *Gaugamela. After the removal of *Philotas and *Parmenion, in which he played an unsavoury role, he assumed Parmenion's mantle and commanded numerous independent detachments during the campaigns in Sogdiana and India. At Opis (324) he was appointed viceroy in Europe in *Antipater (1)'s stead and commissioned to repatriate 10,000 Macedonian veterans. Alexander's death found him in Cilicia, and he could not participate in the Babylon settlement at which his role in Macedonia was (somewhat mysteriously) modified. In 322 he moved to Europe, where his forces were instrumental in winning the *Lamian War. The following year he co-operated with Antipater, now his father-in-law, in the invasion of Asia Minor, where he died heroically in battle against *Eumenes (3).

Article

Craterus (2), son of Craterus (1), 321–c. 255 BCE  

Frank William Walbank and Kenneth S. Sacks

Craterus (2) (321–c. 255 bce), son of *Craterus (1) and Phila, *Antipater (1)'s daughter, was appointed governor of Corinth and Peloponnese (c. 280), and later viceroy of Attica and Euboea, by his half-brother, *Antigonus (2) Gonatas. In 271 he tried to assist Aristotimus, the Elean tyrant and in 266 checked *Areus of Sparta at the Isthmus.

It is open to question whether the same Craterus produced the Ψηφισμάτων συναγωγή, a collection of Athenian decrees in at least nine books, with extensive commentary (see epigraphy, greek). Arranged chronologically and concentrating on the 5th cent., the work came out of the same Peripatetic tradition that produced Theophrastus' study of customs and the Aristotelian Constitution of Athens; see athenaion politeia.

Article

Critias, c. 460–403 BCE  

Michael Gagarin

Critias (c. 460–403 bce), one of the *Thirty Tyrants at Athens. Born of an old wealthy family to which *Plato (1) also belonged (APF 8792) he, like his close friend *Alcibiades, was a long-time associate of Socrates. He is often included with the *sophists, and surviving fragments of his tragedies and other works evince an interest in current intellectual issues. Later scholars were uncertain whether some plays ascribed to him may have been the work of *Euripides (Vit. Eur.); there is still disagreement about the authorship of Sisyphus, which included a speech giving a rationalistic account of the origin of human belief in the gods (TGF 1. 43 F 19).Critias was implicated in the mutilation of the *herms (415 but was released on the evidence of *Andocides. He played little or no part in the oligarchic coup in 411.

Article

Cylon  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme and Simon Hornblower

Cylon, an Athenian nobleman; winner at *Olympia, perhaps in 640 bce. He married the daughter of *Theagenes (I), tyrant of *Megara, and with his help and a few friends seized the Acropolis at Athens, with a view to a tyranny, in an Olympic year (632?, see olympian games). The masses, however, did not follow him, and he was besieged. He himself escaped; his friends surrendered and, though suppliants at an altar, were killed. Hence arose the ἄγος, or *curse, which attached to those said to be responsible, especially to Megacles the archon and his family, the *Alcmaeonidae.See also epimenides, naukrariaiBibliographyHerodotus, 5.

Article

Demades, Athenian statesman, c. 380–319 BCE  

George Law Cawkwell

Athenian statesman of major importance in the two decades following the Greek defeat at the battle of *Chaeronea (338 bce). Of his early career nothing sure can be said, but by 338 he must have made his mark; taken prisoner in the battle, he was chosen by *Philip (1) II of *Macedonia as an envoy and used by the Athenians to negotiate the so-called Peace of Demades. From then on he was regularly called on by the city to get it out of troubles caused by those who did not share his view that Macedon was too strong militarily for the Greeks to revolt with a real chance of success. Having counselled against supporting *Thebes (1)'s revolt of 335, he was able to dissuade *Alexander (3) the Great from persisting in his demand for the surrender of *Demosthenes (2), *Hyperides, and other advocates of war.

Article

Demaratus (2), king of Sparta, c. 515–491 BCE  

Paul Cartledge

*Eurypontid king of Sparta (reigned c.515–491 bce). He twice obstructed his Agiad co-king *Cleomenes (1) I, first on the invasion of Attica (c.506) and again when he prevented the arrest of the Medizing faction (see Medism) on *Aegina (491). Dethroned on a false charge of illegitimacy manipulated through Delphi by Cleomenes, he himself Medized by fleeing to *Darius I. He accompanied *Xerxes in 480, presumably in hopes of recovering his throne, but served in *Herodotus (1) as a tragic warner of his city's die-hard resistance. Herodotus had possibly talked with Demaratus' descendants in the Troad (*Troas), where Demaratus had been rewarded for his services to Persia with four cities.

Article

Demetrius (11) II, of Syria, eldest son of Demetrius (10) I, c. 161–125 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Eldest son of *Demetrius (10) I. He successfully opposed *Alexander (10) Balas with mercenary and Ptolemaic support (145), asserted Seleucid rule in Palestine and against Diodotus Tryphon (142), but was captured by the Parthian Mithradates I (139). When *Antiochus (7) VII Sidetes attacked Parthia, Demetrius was freed (129) and ruled again until he was killed near Tyre in a war he had himself provoked by attacking Egypt, against Alexander Zabinas, whom *Ptolemy (1) VIII had set up (125).

Article

Demetrius (4) I, of Macedonia, 'Poliorcetes', son of Antigonus (1) I  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Demetrius (4) I of Macedonia, ‘Poliorcetes’, ‘Besieger of Cities’ (336–283 bce), son of *Antigonus (1) I, was reared at his father's court in Phrygia and fled with him to Europe (322). He was married early (321/0) to Phila, daughter of *Antipater (1), widow of *Craterus (1) and a potent political asset, and rapidly acquired military distinction, commanding Antigonus' cavalry at Paraetacene and Gabiene (317/6). His independent commands began inauspiciously at Gaza (312), where he lost an army to *Ptolemy (1) I, and subsequently (311) failed to displace *Seleucus (1) I from Babylonia. However, in 307 he led the Antigonid offensive in Greece, liberating Athens from the regime of *Demetrius (3) of Phaleron, and in 306 his victory over a Ptolemaic fleet off *Cyprus inspired his father to claim kingship for them both. These laurels were tarnished by setbacks in Egypt and, above all, Rhodes, where an epic year-long siege (305–4), which won Demetrius his reputation as ‘the Besieger’, was ended by negotiation.

Article

Demetrius (5), 'the Fair', son of Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes  

John Briscoe

Son of *Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes and half-brother of *Antigonus (2) Gonatas. On the death of Magas of *Cyrene (c.250 bce) he was invited by Magas' widow Apama, doubtless in agreement with Gonatas, to take over Cyrene and marry her daughter *Berenice (3), engaged to the future *Ptolemy (1) III.