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Callias (4), Athenian nobleman, c. 450–370 BCE  

Victor Ehrenberg and Simon Hornblower

Athenian nobleman, grandson of Callias (1), notorious for his wealth and extravagance. He was *Dadouchos of the Eleusinian mysteries (see callias (1)). He was ridiculed by comic poets, and attacked by *Andocides, whom he accused of sacrilege. More sympathetic pictures of his house and life are given by *Xenophon (Symp.) and *Plato (1) (Prt.). He was general 391/0 in the *Corinthian War, and took part in a famous victory of *Iphicrates over Spartan *hoplites (Xen.Hell. 4. 5. 13). As an old man, he was a member of a three-man embassy sent to Sparta, whose *proxenos Xenophon says he was, in 371/0 (Xen. Hell. 6. 3. 3 ff.); the embassy successfully negotiated peace.

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Callias (1), son of Hipponicus, prominent Athenian, 5th cent. BCE  

Theodore John Cadoux and Simon Hornblower

Callias (1), son of Hipponicus, of one of the richest families in 5th-cent. Athens; the family was also religiously important as one of the *genos Kerykes, which supplied some of the priests for the mysteries at *Eleusis, including and above all the *Dadouchos (‘torchbearer’); Callias himself was dadouchos (Plut.Arist. 5) and his family probably held the office on a hereditary basis (cf. Xen.Hell. 6. 3. 3 for *Callias (4)). Callias was cousin of *Aristides (1) and married Elpinice, sister of *Cimon. He distinguished himself at the battle of *Marathon; he is also said to have won the chariot-race at *Olympia three times, but this is suspect. His colossal wealth is however certain, and may derive from early exploitation of the *Laurium silver-mines. He supposedly negotiated the *Callias Peace of c.450 bce with Persia and was one of the negotiators of the *Thirty Years Peace with Sparta in 446 (but probably not the author of the alliances with Rhegium and Leontini, ML 63–4; see callias (3) son of Calliades).

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Callias (6), Athenian agent and diplomat of Ptolemy (1)  

Simon Hornblower

Callias (6), son of Thymochares (cf. Thuc. 8. 95. 2 with CT III, 1028 f. for a probable ancestor) of Sphettus (an Athenian *deme), Athenian in Ptolemaic service (see ptolemy (1)) but active in helping his home city. Callias was unknown, except as the name of the brother of *Phaedrus (2), until the publication in 1978 of an important long Athenian decree of 270/69 bce honouring him. It emerges that in 287/6, when Athens revolted from *Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes of Macedonia, Callias helped the Athenians on Ptolemy I's instructions by deploying on their behalf a Ptolemaic mercenary force on *Andros, and that he and his brother Phaedrus enabled them get in the harvest. (Cf. IG 22682, Athenian honours to Phaedrus). He continued to be diplomatically active on Athens’ behalf in subsequent negotiations with Demetrius, and later still he mediated for the Athenians with *Ptolemy (1) II Philadelphus and procured grain for them.

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Callias (3), son of Calliades, Athenian politician, 5th cent. BCE  

Simon Hornblower

Athenian politician, probably proposer of the ‘Callias Decrees’ which put Athenian finances on a war footing (ML 58 of probably 434/3, though later dates have been argued for), also of alliances with *Rhegium and *Leontini, 433/2 (ML 63, 64). He was killed 432 at the siege of *Potidaea (Thuc.

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Callias (5), of Syracuse, Greek historian at court of Agathocles (1)  

Godfrey Louis Barber and Simon Hornblower

Callias (5), of *Syracuse, lived at the court of *Agathocles (1), tyrant of Syracuse (316–289 bce), and wrote a history of his reign in 22 books. It so favoured Agathocles that Callias was suspected of accepting bribes; so Diod. Sic. (21. 17. 4), who however probably knew Callias only through the medium of Agathocles’ enemy *Timaeus (2). Callias’ history had little influence on the tradition (which remained unfavourable to Agathocles), although, apart from the account written by Agathocles’ brother Antandrus, it was the first important work on this subject. The fragments do not provide sufficient material to determine the contents of the work in detail.

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Callias, Peace of  

Ugo Fantasia

The Peace of Callias was a mid-5th-century peace treaty, presented by most sources as fully advantageous to Athens, that ended the wars between Athens and Persia. Its historicity is disputed, chiefly because Thucydides (2) does not mention it explicitly. The date of the peace is also controversial, because some evidence points to c.449 BCE while other sources suggest the 460s; this may mean that the c.449 BCE agreement was a renewal of an older peace, but the former date seems to be the likelier one for the conclusion of a single peace.

Callias (1) son of Hipponicus, brother-in-law of Cimon, is reported by Herodotus (7.151) to have led an Athenian embassy, whose purpose is not specified, to the Persian king Artaxerxes (1) I, probably shortly after his accession to the throne in 465 BCE. Demosthenes (2) in 343 BCE provides the earliest evidence (19 [De falsa leg.

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Callicrates (2), Achaean politician and strategos, 179/178 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Callicrates (2), son of Theoxenos of Leontion, (died 149/8 bce), Achaean politician, opponent of *Lycortas and *Polybius (1). As envoy to Rome in 180/79 he urged the senate to support its friends in the Greek states who put Roman interests first, by expressing its wishes unambiguously. The senate's praise boosted Callicrates’ position at home, so that as stratēgos (chief magistrate) for 179/8 he restored the exiles to *Sparta and *Messene—the major issue on which Achaean politicians and Rome disagreed. Polybius (24. 10. 8–10) views Callicrates’ speech as a turning-point for the worse in Roman relations with Achaea, though his own opposition and later experience coloured his view. Callicrates remained influential: in 168 he prevented Achaea from sending troops to Egypt, after *Pydna he provided the Romans with a list of 1,000 Achaeans to be interned (including Polybius), which made him widely unpopular, not just with Polybius. He died during a diplomatic mission to Rome.

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Callicratidas, Spartan admiral  

Stephen Hodkinson

Spartan admiral who succeeded and quarrelled with *Lysander in 406 bce. After cowing *Lysander's partisans and refusing to wait for Persian money, he assembled a large fleet (140–170 ships) from Greek resources, defeating and blockading an Athenian fleet under *Conon (1) at Mytilene. He drowned in his subsequent defeat by the Athenian relief fleet off the *Arginusae islands. Later sources applaud his forthright manner and ‘*panhellenism’, contrasting him favourably with Lysander; *Xenophon (1) depicts him as blustering and militarily impetuous, underrating his contribution in stretching Athens’ resources to the limit.

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Callimachus (1), Athenian polemarchos  

Piero Treves and Simon Hornblower

Callimachus (1), Athenian *polemarchos and (though this is controversial) commander-in-chief in the campaign of *Marathon, 490. Herodotus (6. 109) says he was polemarch ‘by lot’ but the lot was not introduced for that or other archonships (see archontes) until 487; it has therefore been ingeniously suggested (Badian, and cf. already Macan's comm.) that for the twenty years after *Cleisthenes (2), archonships were elective but the particular posts were distributed by lot, Roman fashion. (See sortition.) But perhaps Herodotus was just wrong. In any case, Callimachus accepted *Miltiades' plan to meet the Persians in the field. His part in the actual battle, in the last stage of which he was killed, has been obliterated by the personality and achievements of Miltiades, but his share in the victory was fully recognized in the wall-paintings on the *Stoa Poecile (Painted Stoa), where he was portrayed among the Athenian gods and heroes (Paus. 1. 15). The inscription(s) ML 18 seems to be a memorial to or dedication by him but interpretation is hard, and it has even been doubted whether it refers to him at all (see refs. at ML addenda (1988), 309).

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Callisthenes, of Olynthus, historian, d. 327 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Nephew of *Aristotle, he collaborated with the philosopher in compiling the official list of Pythian victors (see pythian games), and by 336 he had produced a monograph on the Third *Sacred War and a ten-book Hellenica, which covered the period 386–356. His Deeds of Alexander, written in the entourage of *Alexander (3) the Great, covered events at least to 330 and had a strong eulogistic trait, glorifying the military achievements and propagating the king's claim to divine paternity. In early 327 he alienated Alexander by his opposition to proskynesis (see alexander (3) the Great § 10), was falsely implicated in the Pages’ Conspiracy, and summarily executed. *Theophrastus lamented his death, but there is no evidence that it created a *Peripatetic tradition of hostility to Alexander. See pseudo-callisthenes for the Alexander-Romance.

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Callistratus (2), Athenian politician  

C. J. Tuplin

A nephew of *Agyrrhius, he prosecuted ambassadors who favoured peace with *Sparta in 392/1 bce, but his ascendancy began with the *Second Athenian Confederacy, for which he devised a tribute system (syntaxis). In 372/1 he engineered a peace aligning Athens with Sparta and isolating *Thebes (1). The policy survived *Leuctra (371) and the need to save Sparta from destruction (370/69), though Callistratus had to deflect allied distaste. Loss of *Oropus in 366 activated similar pent-up feelings in Athens; he escaped exile only after a brilliant apologia, much admired by *Demosthenes (2). His view of Sparta and Thebes recovered ground, but after *Mantinea (362) and amidst other Athenian misfortunes he was impeached and retreated into exile. He perhaps visited *Byzantium; he certainly helped Perdiccas III (ruled *Macedonia 365–359) to double Macedon's harbour-tax income ([Arist.

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careers, Greek  

John Davies

In virtually all the Greek-speaking areas, pressures to evolve clear career structures in public life were countered by social or political considerations, thereby preventing the emergence of recognizable *cursus honorum on the Roman republican model. Though, for example, *Thucydides (2) (5. 66. 3–4) credited the Spartan army with a clear hierarchical command structure, promotions and careers within it were by appointment and co-optation rather than by election. Hence they were as much a matter of belonging to a notable lineage, or of influence with kings or ephors, as of merit. At Athens a simple hierarchy of military command in both infantry and cavalry is attested, while re-election to the generalship (see stratēgoi) was common and helped to provide a clear career path for professional soldiers, often interspersed with spells of mercenary command abroad. In contrast, careers in civilian office-holding in Classical Athens were effectively precluded by the short-term tenure and non-repeatability of office, by collegiality, and above all by selection by lot (see sortition).

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Cassander, d. 297 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Cassander (d. 297 bce), son of *Antipater (1), represented his father at Babylon (323), where *Alexander (3) the Great treated him with naked hostility. In the struggles of the Successors he first impinges at Triparadeisus (late 321), where he was appointed chiliarch (cavalry commander and grand vizier). Chiliarch he remained at Antipater's death (autumn 319), subordinate to the regent *Polyperchon; but he defected to *Antigonus (1) and with Antigonus’ support established bases in *Piraeus and the *Peloponnese (318/7). An inconclusive invasion of Macedon (?early 317) was followed by a wholly successful one which overthrew the tyrannical dowager, *Olympias. From 316 he was master of Macedon and promoted the memory of *Philip (1) II (whose daughter, Thessalonice, he married) over that of Alexander. He ceremonially refounded *Thebes (1) (316), and had the young *Alexander (4) IV secretly killed at *Amphipolis (c.

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Cephalas, Constantinus, ‘Big-head’  

Gilbert Highet

Constantinus Cephalas (‘Big-head’) held an official post in the palace at Constantinople in 917 ce. Some time before this he compiled an anthology of Greek epigrams, on which the Greek *anthology was later based. Apparently he died or abandoned the task before completing it, since his collection is imperfectly edited and appears not to have been published in the normal way; but the material is invaluable.

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Cephisodorus (2), Greek historian  

Cephisodorus of Athens or Thebes (1), wrote a history of the Third *Sacred War.

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Cersobleptes  

James Maxwell Ross Cormack and Simon Hornblower

Cersobleptes (or Cersebleptes, IG 2. 65 b), the Odrysian king (see thrace), son of Cotys I. Cersobleptes found himself, when he came to the throne in 360 bce, engaged in a war, which he had inherited from his father, with Athens, and with two pretenders to the throne, Berisades and *Amadocus (2). *Charidemus, the Athenian general, married Cersobleptes’ sister, and continued to advise him, as he had done his father. In 359 bce the Athenian commander, Cephisodotus, was forced to make a treaty with Cersobleptes, which the Athenians repudiated. In the following year, Berisades and Amadocus joined forces, and, with Athenian help, forced Cersobleptes to sign a treaty dividing the kingdom of Cotys between the three princes, *Chersonesus (1) being ceded to Athens; Cersobleptes’ share seems to have been the eastern part, Cypsela, *Cardia, and the *Propontis. Charidemus, however, persuaded Cersobleptes to renounce the treaty, and it was not till 357 that he was forced by the Athenian commander, *Chares (1), to surrender the Chersonese, and agree to the partition of Thrace.

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Chabrias, c. 420–357/356 BCE  

George Law Cawkwell

Chabrias (c. 420–357/6 bce), of Athens, a professional soldier who for over 30 years was frequently engaged in warfare for Athens (being a general at least thirteen times) and for the kings of *Cyprus and *Egypt in revolt from *Persia. His greatest achievements were the defence of *Boeotia in 378, during which he invented a useful method of defence against *hoplites, the decisive naval victory over Sparta near *Naxos in 376, and the extension of the *Second Athenian Confederacy. After 370 he fought in the Peloponnese, and his fortunes seem to be linked to those of *Callistratus (2), with whom he was prosecuted by Leodamas, the Boeotian sympathizer, in 366; like Callistratus he was restored to power shortly before the battle of *Mantinea, and, when soon afterwards Callistratus was in exile, Chabrias was with *Agesilaus in Egypt supporting King Tachos.

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Chaerephon, Athenian, 5th cent. BCE  

Michael Gagarin

Chaerephon (5th cent. bce), Athenian, of the *deme of Sphettus, a friend and enthusiastic admirer of *Socrates. With other democrats he was banished by the *Thirty Tyrants and returned with *Thrasybulus in 403, but died before Socrates’ trial in 399. He is best known for reporting the *Delphic oracle's opinion that no-one was wiser than Socrates (Pl.

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Chaeronea, battles of  

John F. Lazenby

The town of *Chaeronea commands the route south down the *Cephissus valley. In 338 bce*Philip (1) II of Macedonia won a crushing victory over an alliance of southern Greek states, led by Athens and *Thebes (1), effectively putting an end, at one level, to the era of the independent *polis. It is not certain how the victory was won, but Philip possibly feinted withdrawal of his *phalanx on the right, encouraging the Athenians to pursue, and thus causing a gap in the allied line; the decisive charge into the gap was then perhaps delivered by Philip's son, the future *Alexander (3) the Great, at the head of the Macedonian cavalry on the left. The stone lion east of the modern village clearly commemorates the battle, but its precise significance is unknown: it possibly marks the resting place of the Theban élite ‘*Sacred Band’—254 skeletons were found in its vicinity.

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Chares (1), Athenian general, 4th cent. CE  

George Law Cawkwell

Chares (c.400–c.325 bce), famous Athenian soldier, probably more often general than any other Athenian of the 4th cent. except *Phocion, notorious for his treatment of the allies of the *Second Athenian Confederacy: Isocrates' speech De pace was directed at him especially (Ar. Rh. 1418a32). He operated largely in the northern Aegean partly against *Cersobleptes and *Chersonesus (1), in 352 winning back *Sestus, and partly against *Philip (1) II, notably at *Olynthus and *Byzantium. His troops were generally *mercenaries, for whose payment he was largely left to provide himself. During the *Social War (1) (357–355) he was obliged to hire out the services of his mercenaries to the rebellious satrap *Artabazus and won a great victory, ‘sister to *Marathon’ as he claimed (schol. to Dem. 4. 19), but this precipitated the Persian ultimatum which abruptly ended the Social War. Chares fought in the campaign of *Chaeronea, and was one of those whose surrender was at first demanded by *Alexander (3) the Great in 335.