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Robert Sharples

Eudemus of *Rhodes (later 4th cent. bce), pupil and friend of *Aristotle. No account of his life survives, though Simplicius (in Aristotelis de Physica Commentarii 924. 13) mentions a biography by a certain Damas. Eudemus had a strong claim to succeed Aristotle as head of the Lyceum (see aristotle, para. 5), but *Theophrastus was preferred. Later, Eudemus may have returned to Rhodes to set up his own school; but he remained faithful to Aristotle's teaching, and continued in close contact with Theophrastus, for a fragment of a letter to the latter concerning the interpretation of a passage in Aristotle's Physics survives (Simpl. in Phys. 923. 11).Eudemus compiled histories of arithmetic and geometry, astronomy, and theology. His name is coupled with Theophrastus' in important innovations in modal logic; he also wrote on rhetoric, and possibly on zoology. Numerous passages from his work on physics are preserved by *Simplicius; for the most part it is a paraphrase of Aristotle's Physics, though occasionally Eudemus attempts to reduce Aristotle's treatment to a more rigid scheme.


Eudorus (2), of Alexandria (1), Greek Platonic philosopher, fl. c. 25 BCE  

John Dillon

Eudorus (2), of *Alexandria (1) (fl. c.25 bce), Platonist philosopher. Chief works (lost): Diairesis tou kata philosophian logou, a summary of the ethical section of which is preserved by Stobaeus; commentaries on the Timaeus, Categories, and Metaphysics. He seems to have turned the very Stoicized Platonism of *Antiochus (11) of Ascalon in a more transcendental direction, under the influence of *Neopythagoreanism.


Euthydemus (1), of Chios, sophist  

William David Ross

*Sophist and an older contemporary of *Socrates. In the Euthydemus*Plato (1) presents him as a ridiculous figure. He has sometimes been thought to be unhistorical and merely a mask for Plato's criticism of *Antisthenes (1). His historicity is proved by independent references by *Aristotle; but Plato may have used him quite freely for the purpose of pillorying eristic views and arguments.



Reviel Netz

Active in the early 6th cent. ce, Eutocius apparently was a pupil of the Neo-Platonist *Ammonius (2) Sacca (Commentary on Archimedes I, intr.), and perhaps a colleague of Anthemius of Tralles (Commentary on Apollonius, intr.). If so, he was trained as a Neo-Platonist philosopher. In this tradition, it was customary to pay attention to the mathematical sciences and even to write some commentaries on them (e.g. *Porphyry on *Ptolemy (4)'s Harm., *Proclus on *Euclid's Elements I). Eutocius is the only Neo-Platonist we know to concentrate uniquely on mathematical commentary. Extant are: commentaries to *Archimedes’ Sphere and cylinder I and II, Measurement of Circle, Planes in Equilibrium and to *Apollonius (2)'s Conics I-IV. Scholia to Ptolemy's Almagest are now lost. He is a major source, for his many notes on earlier history of mathematics (especially in Comm. Arch.


Fabius Gallus, Marcus  

M. T. Griffin

Marcus Fabius Gallus, Epicurean (see epicurus) friend of Cicero, who addresses to him Fam 7. 23–7. In 45 bce he was among those who wrote anti-Caesarian eulogies of M. *Porcius Cato (2). See iulius caesar (2), c.; anticăto.


Favorinus, sophist, philosopher, and man of letters, c. 85–155 CE  

M. B. Trapp

Favorinus (Φαβωρῖνος, born in Arelate (mod. Arles), learned Greek in (?) Marseilles (see massalia), and worked exclusively in that language for the whole of his professional career; he may also have studied with Dio Chrysostom (see dio cocceianus) in Rome. His speaking tours took him to Athens, Corinth, and Ionia, where he contracted a bitter feud with his fellow sophist *Polemon (4). He was a friend of *Plutarch, and the teacher and associate of *Herodes Atticus, *Cornelius Fronto, and Aulus *Gellius (who quotes and refers to him frequently in the Noctes Atticae). At Rome he moved in the circle of the emperor *Hadrian, was advanced to the rank of an eques, and held the office of a provincial high priest. About 130ce he fell into disfavour, although it is disputed whether or not he was exiled. Under Antoninus Pius he recovered his status and influence.


flight of the mind  

M. J. Edwards

In *Pindar (fr. 292 SnellMaehler) and *Bacchylides (5. 16ff) flight is a metaphor for elevation of poetic style. The philosopher *Parmenides (DK 28 B 1) spoke of his own ascent to knowledge as a journey in a heavenly chariot, and the mind's capacity to explore the universe was adduced by later thinkers as a proof of its innate divinity (Pl.Tht.173; Xen.Mem. 1. 4. 17, etc. ). When the *soul was conceived as separable, the image could be taken literally: in *Plato (1)'s Phaedrus (246c–248c) a pageant of celestial chariots is an allegory for the initial state of souls, and in such works as Cicero'sSomnium Scipionis ascent to the stars is the destiny of the good soul after death. Cicero depends on Plato's Timaeus (41d–e), perhaps through *Posidonius (2); but *Maximus (1) of Tyre appeals to the legend of *Aristeas as evidence that the soul is immortal and capable of flight (10.


friendship, ritualized  

G. Herman

Friendship, ritualized (or guest-friendship), a bond of trust, imitating kinship and reinforced by rituals, generating affection and obligations between individuals belonging to separate social units. In Greek sources this bond is called xenia, xeiniē, and xeineiē; in Latin, hospitium. The individuals joined by the bond (usually men of approximately equal social status) are said to be each other's xenos or hospes. As the same terms designated guest-host relationships, xenia and hospitium have sometimes been interpreted in modern research as a form of hospitality. Xenia, hospitium, and hospitality do overlap to some extent but the former relationships display a series of additional features which assimilate them into the wider category called in social studies ritualized personal relationships, or pseudo-kinship. The analogy with kinship did not escape the notice of the ancients themselves. According to the *AristotelianMagna Moralia, xenia was the strongest of all the relationships involving affection (philia) (2.



John Dillon

Gnosticism is a generic term primarily used of theosophical groups which broke with the 2nd-cent. Christian Church; see christianity. A wider, more imprecise use of the term describes a syncretistic religiosity diffused in the near east, contemporaneous with and independent of Christianity. In recent years (especially following the full publication of the Coptic Gnostic texts discovered at Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt in 1946), the diversity of beliefs in the various ‘Gnostic’ sects has been increasingly emphasized, with some scholars unwilling any longer to use ‘Gnosticism’ as a collective term at all, or even the broad grouping into ‘Valentinian’ and ‘Sethian’ traditions, but no new consensus has yet emerged. Many ingredients of 2nd-cent. Gnosticism are pre-Christian, but there is no evidence of a pre-Christian religion or cultic myth resembling Christianity as closely as the systems of Basilides, Valentinus, and *Manichaeism, all of which owed the essentials of their beliefs to Christianity, or even as the doctrine of Simon Magus, which provided a rival religion of redemption with a redeemer replacing Christ.


Gorgias (1) of Leontini, orator, c. 485–c. 380 BCE  

Josh Wilburn

Gorgias of Leontini, orator, c. 485–c. 380 bce, was one of the most well-known and influential of the early Greek rhetoricians. He spent much of his life as an itinerant speaker and reputed educator throughout Greece and contributed to the early development of the art of speech. His extant works include two complete speeches, Encomium of Helen and Defense of Palamedes, and ancient authors also summarize, provide fragments from, or report several additional works: On What-Is-Not, a Funeral Speech, a Pythian Speech, an Olympian Speech, a Speech for the People of Elis, a treatise on the “opportune moment” or kairos, and some manuals of rhetoric.Gorgias of Leontini, orator, c.485–c. 380bce, became one of the most well-known and influential figures of the early, 5th-century generation of thinkers credited with developing and marketing skills, principles, and ideas related to the burgeoning art of speech. Nothing secure is recorded about the events of his early life, although he must have achieved some degree of eminence and respect in .



Ewen Bowie

The idea that eastern, non-Greek sages living a life close to nature possessed a special sort of wisdom first entered the Greek imaginaire when Alexander’s expedition to India was reported in the narratives of Onesicritus, Megasthenes, and Nearchus. Megasthenes (ap. Strabo distinguished Brahmans (Βραχμᾶνες), royal counsellors (executed by Alexander when he suppressed the revolt of Sambus, whom they had encouraged, Arr. Anab. 6.16.5, 6.17.2), from ascetic “Gymnosophists” or Garmanes (i.e., Buddhist Sramans). Onesicritus claimed to have been sent by Alexander to meet the latter, to have conversed with two called Dandamis and Calanus, and to have requested them to come to Alexander (Strabo 15.1.63–65.715–716, Plut. Alex. 64–65, Arr. Anab. 7.2.2–4). This they did, probably at Taxila, where Aristobulus claimed to have seen an older and a younger gymnosophist standing as they dined at Alexander’s table (Strabo episode has been seen as a fiction of Onesicritus,1 but Arrian’s report of a logos about Alexander meeting Indian sages (Anab.


Hecataeus (2), of Abdera, author of philosophical ethnographies, c. 360–290 BCE  

Klaus Meister

Hecataeus (2) of *Abdera, c. 360–290 bce, author of philosophical ethnographies, pupil of *Pyrrhon the sceptic (FGrH 264 T 3), visited Egyptian *Thebes(2) (T 4) under *Ptolemy(1) I (305–283).(1) On the Hyperboreans (FGrH 264 F 7–14), fictitious travelogue on a northern people dwelling on an island on the utmost borders of the world (cf. esp. F 7): model for *Euhemerus of Messene. (2) Aegyptiaca (F 1–6), idealizing account of the country and people, the exemplary nature of the Egyptian way of life and form of government. Hecataeus' enthusiasm bordered on ‘Egyptomania’ (Jacoby). He was the chief source for Diod. Sic. 1. 10–98 on Egypt. The digression on the Jews in Diod. Sic. 40. 3. 8 = Hecataeus F 6 is the first mention of Jews in a Greek author—the work On Jews referred to in Flavius Josephus (.


Hecaton, of Rhodes, ?  

Julia Annas

Hecaton of Rhodes?, Stoic (see stoicism), pupil of *Panaetius, wrote mainly on ethics and was, after Panaetius and *Posidonius(2), the most influential Stoic of the ‘middle Stoic’ period. His works were on such topics as goods, the virtues, the emotions, final ends, and right actions. Cicero preserves some of his arguments, which deal with problem cases in ethics, including conflicts of duties; from these he appears to have been interested in casuistry and applications of ethical theory.


Hegesias (1), Cyrenaic philosopher  

C. C. W. Taylor

Hegesias (1), philosopher of the *Cyrenaic school (c.290 bce). He was nicknamed Πεισιθάνατος (‘Death-persuader’) because his emphasis on the ills of human life was thought to encourage *suicide. He maintained that happiness was unattainable and that the wise agent should therefore seek, not happiness, but the avoidance of distress.


Hellenic Philosophy, Arabic and Syriac reception of  

Dimitri Gutas

Hellenic philosophy died a lingering death even before Islam appeared. The Christianization of the Roman empire, and the increasing self-identification by the Greek-speaking population as Romans in the so-called Byzantine age, rendered Hellenic philosophy the object of scorn. By the end of the 6th century, philosophy was neither practised nor taught, nor were philosophical texts copied. In addition, all Greek texts, and not only the philosophical ones, went through two periods of sifting in their physical transmission—from papyrus rolls to codices (3rd–4th centuries) and from uncial writing to minuscule script (8th–9th centuries)—at the end of which only a small fraction survived.

By late antiquity the Hellenic philosophical and scientific corpus had been organized into a potent curriculum, based on the classification of the sciences originally introduced by Aristotle, which represented the sum total of human knowledge. It was received as such by the Hellenized peoples of the Near East, who had been participating in the philosophical enterprise in Greek. As the practice of philosophy attenuated in the Greek-speaking world, Persians in the Sasanian empire, and Arameans, now Christianized into the churches of the East, began translating selectively parts of the philosophical curriculum into Middle Persian and Syriac, respectively. With the emergence of Islam in the 7th century and the subsequent development of scholarship in Arabic, political, social, and cultural exigencies required that the rulers of the new empire participate, own, and promote the high Hellenic culture cultivated amid the Persian- and Syriac-speaking subjects. As a result there was launched a far-flung translation movement into Arabic, from Sanskrit, Middle Persian, Syriac, and especially from Greek, of all sciences and philosophy. The philosophical texts that passed into Arabic were primarily the Aristotelian corpus, the near-totality of which was translated with some notable omissions, and the long list of commentators from Alexander of Aphrodisias to the last Neoplatonists of Alexandria. The Platonic tradition was not favoured, Platonism having been proscribed in Greek, and to a lesser degree in Syriac, Christianity. Not a single complete dialogue was translated into Arabic; what was available of Plato was various selections from the dialogues, Galen’s summaries of the dialogues, biographies, and sayings. Selections from Plotinus and Proclus were available in paraphrastic and interpolated versions that were attributed to Aristotle. The remaining schools of Hellenic philosophy, already extinct long before the rise of Islam, were known primarily through quotations among the translated authors like Aristotle and Galen.


Hellenistic philosophy  

Brad Inwood

While the history of Greco-Roman philosophy is essentially continuous, it has long been customary to recognize distinct periods, each with its own characteristics. ‘Hellenistic philosophy’ is one such period, beginning with the foundation of several new philosophical schools and movements in the late 4th cent. bce, after *Alexander(3) the Great's conquests and the consequent dramatic expansion of the Greek cultural zone. The end of the period is more controversial, with some leading specialists arguing for a date around 100 bce and others preferring the date of the battle of *Actium (31 bce), when Roman political influence in the eastern Mediterranean was consolidated. A case has also been made for 86 bce, the date of the sack of *Athens by the Roman general Sulla as result of the Mithradatic wars (see l. cornelius sulla felix; mithradates (VI)). Regardless of the terminus chosen, the key political and social development relevant to the end of the period is the rise to dominance of Roman power in the area of the Hellenistic kingdoms; philosophically, the most significant markers of the change were the decline or closure of important schools in Athens, the beginnings of commentarial study of the texts of *Plato(1) and *Aristotle, and the abandonment of scepticism within the *Academy (see sceptics).


Heraclides (1) Ponticus, philosopher, 4th cent. BCE  

David John Furley

4th cent. bce philosopher of the *Academy. Born of a wealthy and aristocratic family in *Heraclea (3) Pontica, he came to *Plato(1)'s Academy in Athens as a pupil of *Speusippus. Like other Academics, he wrote a version of Plato's lectures On the Good; he also studied with *Aristotle, probably while Aristotle was still in the Academic school (he does not really belong to Die Schule des Aristoteles, the ‘school of Aristotle’). He was placed in temporary charge of the Academy during Plato's third visit to Sicily (361/0) and after the death of Plato's successor Speusippus (338) he was runner-up for the headship of the school. He returned to Heraclea. He was still alive at the time of Aristotle's death in 322.

The fragments of his writings, mostly dialogues, reveal the wide variety of his interests—ethical, political, physical, historical, and literary. Diog. Laert. 5. 86–8 gives a list of his writings; more are mentioned in other sources.


Heraclitus (1), son of Bloson of Ephesus, fl. c. 500 BCE  

Martha C. Nussbaum and Malcolm Schofield

Heraclitus (1) (fl. c. 500 bce), son of Bloson of Ephesus. Of aristocratic birth, he may have surrendered the (honorific) *kingship voluntarily to his brother. He is said to have compiled a book and deposited it in the temple of *Artemis. The plentiful surviving fragments are mostly aphorisms, typically dense and cryptic. With implicit self-description, Heraclitus writes that the Delphic god (see delphic oracle) ‘neither says nor conceals, but gives a sign’. The fragments form a cross-referring network rather than a linear argument. Interpretation is never straightforward and virtually always contestable.At the beginning of his book Heraclitus says people do not understand ‘this logos’: by *logos he certainly means his own discourse, but perhaps simultaneously (some would disagree) rational discourse and thought in general, and the connected order in things that is there to be understood. Most people, he continues, go through life like sleepers, experiencing the world with little understanding, each lost in a private vision. Waking us up to the shared public order is what the challenge of Heraclitus's sayings is designed to effect. He gives advice on what to look out for: ‘Grasping things: wholes and not wholes, convergent divergent, consonant dissonant, from all things one and from one thing all.’*Aristotle charged Heraclitus with denial of the Principle of Non-Contradiction because he asserts that opposites (the way up and the way down, day and night, mortal and immortal, etc.


Herillus, of Carthage  

Julia Annas

Herillus of Carthage, pupil of *Zeno(2), who developed Stoic ideas (see stoicism) in a distinctive way which lost currency and came to seem unorthodox after *Chrysippus' writings established Stoic orthodoxy. Like *Ariston(1), he refused significance to general distinctions of non-moral value. He emphasized knowledge rather than virtuous action, in a way tending to separate them, and declaring the former to be our proper final end in life (telos).


Hermarchus, of Mytilene  

William David Ross, Dirk Obbink, and Malcolm Schofield

Hermarchus, of *Mytilene, Epicurean, studied under *Epicurus in Mytilene before the school was moved to *Lampsacus in 306 bce, and in 271 he succeeded Epicurus as head of the school. Epicurus' will enjoins his heirs to put part of the revenues of his estate at Hermarchus' disposal for the maintenance of the school, and bequeaths to him Epicurus' entire library. With Epicurus, *Metrodorus(3), and Polyaenus, Hermarchus (1) was treated as representing the authoritative form of Epicurean teaching. *Porphyry in Abst.1 preserves a probably verbatim extract from him, the longest early surviving text articulating Epicurean social theory. Here security is presented as the motivation for the initial formation of communities, and for the subsequent introduction of law, designed to restrain people from homicide.Hermarchus is especially known for his polemical works, Πρὸς Πλάτωνα, Πρὸς Ἀριστοτέλην, Πρὸς Ἐμπεδοκλέα (‘Against *Plato(1)’, ‘Against *Aristotle.