141-160 of 917 Results  for:

  • Ancient Geography x
Clear all

Article

Bonna  

Peter Salway and John Frederick Drinkwater

(Mod. Bonn). Auxiliary troops (see auxilia) were first stationed at Bonna c.20/10 bce and remained in garrison there into the 3rd cent. The legionary fortress dates from the reign of Claudius and was rebuilt several times. It was in use in the 4th cent., very probably still by a military garrison. As well as the *canabae there was also a separate civil settlement.

Article

Bononia  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Bononia (mod. Bologna) in Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul, cisalpine) has always been a place of consequence. First settled c.1000 bce, about 500 bce the Etruscans founded *Felsina there. Felsina became the chief Etruscan city north of the Apennines (Plin. HN 3. 115), but fell first to the *Boii, then to Rome (196 bce), and acquired the name Bononia (Livy 33. 37). Subsequently as Latin colony (see ius latii), *municipium, or imperial colonia, Bononia maintained its importance (Livy 37. 57; Festus 155 Lindsay; Tac. Ann. 12. 58; Procop. Goth. 3. 11). As a centre of the north-Italian road-system (Strabo 5. 216 f.), Bononia flourished and was able to survive a conflagration in ce 53 and *Alaric's attack in 410 (Tac. Ann. 12. 58; Zos. 6. 10). It later became part of the Byzantine exarchy, and was taken by the *Lombards in 727.

Article

Borysthenes  

Max Cary and David C. Braund

Borysthenes, a river of *Scythia (the modern Dnieper). According to Herodotus (4. 53) it was the largest river after the Nile and the Ister (Danube) and was navigable for 40 days from the Black Sea (Euxine). Herodotus seems to have been unacquainted with its upper course, but his praise of its fisheries and meadows is well founded. The Borysthenes was a principal route into the hinterland of Scythia and beyond. However, archaeology indicates that little of the goods that passed up the Borysthenes proceeded beyond Kiev.

Article

Boscoreale  

Nicholas Purcell

Boscoreale, former hunting-reserve of the Angevin kings of Naples (*Neapolis) and part of the Naples conurbation, 2 km. (1 ¼ mi.) from Pompeii, is famous for the excavation of several villae rusticae, buried in the eruption of *Vesuvius in ce 79. They combine efficient equipment for investment-agriculture (especially oil and wine), and clear evidence of slave-labour, with comfortable appointments: from one (‘Pisanella’) came the 94 pieces of silver plate known as the Boscoreale treasure (in the Louvre); from another, perhaps once an estate of *Agrippa Postumus, came the fine paintings in the Metropolitan Museum in New York. The recently excavated Villa Regina preserves the fittings and surroundings of a more modest farm in eloquent detail. See villa.

Article

Bosporus (1), the Thracian  

Eugene N. Borza

A narrow strait 27-km. (17-mi.) long connecting the Black Sea (see euxine) with the sea of Marmara (see propontis). Together with the Hellespont the Bosporus separated Asia from Europe and provided a marine passage between the Black Sea and the eastern Mediterranean. Despite a strong current that runs from the Black Sea towards the *Aegean, the Bosporus was navigable in antiquity, and was not a barrier to the armies that occasionally crossed it from one continent to the other. The Scythian rivers that flowed into the Black Sea provided food for the spawning mackerel and tuna that migrated through the Bosporus into the sea of Marmara. Phoenicians and Greeks exploited these rich fishing areas (see fishing), and the Greeks developed extensive trade between native towns and their own coastal colonies along the Black Sea (see pontus). The Bosporus thus added the Black Sea to the history of the eastern Mediterranean world.

Article

Bosporus (2), the Cimmerian  

David C. Braund

The straits of Kerch′, connecting the Black Sea (*Euxine) and the sea of Azov (Maeotis). The straits were the centre of a major kingdom, which was known, accordingly, as the Bosporan kingdom or simply the Bosporus. Its main cities were *Panticapaeum on the western shore (the Crimea) and Phanagoreia on the eastern (the Taman′ peninsula). Other cities of the kingdom include, in the west, Theodosia, Nymphaeum, Myrmecium, Tiritace, Porthmium, Iluratum, Cimmericum, Cytae; in the east, Hermonassa, Gorgippia, Cepi, Patraeus, Tyrambe, Toricus.The Bosporus was ruled by the *Spartocids from 438 bce, who extended their authority to east and west. At first archons, they soon claimed the right to royalty. The Spartocid dynasty flourished until c.250, when relations with the peoples of the hinterland, always uncertain, became still less manageable. Ultimately, *Mithradates VI's general, Diophantus, was needed to protect the cities of the Bosporus and when the last Spartocid died c.

Article

Bovianum Undecumanorum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Bovianum Undecumanorum (mod. Boiano), capital of the Pentri Samnites and settled from at least the 7th cent. bce. It was prominent against Rome in the Samnite Wars (see samnium) but, in the *Social War (3), after being a temporary capital for the Italians, was sacked by Sulla. It was colonized under the triumvirs and under *Vespasian (by veterans from Legio XI Claudia), and remained important in late antiquity.

Article

Bovianum Vetus  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Bovianum Vetus, a colonia in *Samnium (Plin. HN 3. 107), not now located. It has been erroneously associated with the sanctuary at *Pietrabbondante.

Article

Bovillae  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Bovillae, ancient town on the *via Appia, 17 km. (10 ½ mi.) from Rome. Here survivors from destroyed *Alba Longa allegedly found refuge: they included the gens Iulia which thereafter always maintained close associations with Bovillae. Here T. *Annius Milo killed Clodius, 52 bce. By then Bovillae had greatly dwindled, but it remained a *municipium, whose inhabitants in imperial times were styled Albani Longani Bovillenses.

Article

Brauron  

Robin Osborne

Brauron, site of a sanctuary of *Artemis on the east coast of *Attica at the mouth of the river Erasinos. It is included in *Philochorus' list of twelve townships united by *Theseus (FGrH 328 F 94). Archaeological evidence indicates human presence in the area of the sanctuary and the acropolis above it from neolithic times onwards, and there is an important late Helladic cemetery nearby. In the sanctuary itself there is a continuous tradition from protogeometric on, with a temple built in the 6th cent. (Phot. Lexicon, entry under Βραυρώνια) and an architecturally innovative pi-shaped *stoa with dining-rooms built in the later part of the 5th cent. Flooding in the early 3rd cent. bce led to the abandonment of the site. Some traditions associate the Pisistratids (see pisistratus; hippias(1); *Hipparchus (1)) with Brauron (Phot., as above), or with the local residential centre called Philaidai which lay a short distance inland from the sanctuary (Pl. Hipparch.

Article

Brigantium  

Simon J. Keay

Brigantium, also called Brigantia, town in N.W. Spain (mod. La Coruña). Ptolemy (4)'s name, Brigantium Flavium, suggests it was a recipient of Vespasian's grant of the Latin right (see ius latii). There is no evidence, however, for municipal institutions even though tombstones are known and it appears as a statio on two *itineraries (Ravenna Cosmography).

Article

Brigetio  

John Wilkes

Brigetio, Ó-Szőny on the Danube, was first an auxiliary station, then a legionary fortress and city, in *Pannonia, in the territory of the Azali. Built by a vexillatio (‘detachment’) from three legions in the early 2nd cent. ce, it was occupied evidently in turn by Legio XI Claudia and XXX Ulpia Victrix until the end of *Trajan's reign, when I Adiutrix became its permanent garrison. The legionary *canabae developed its own quasi-municipal organization, but the separate civil town (*municipium), created probably under Severus, is first recorded in 217 (RIU377), and was subsequently promoted to a colonia (RIU604).

Article

Britain, Roman  

Martin Millett

The province of Britannia. The oldest name of the island known to us is *Albion; the earliest form of the present name, Πρεττανία, was used by the Greeks. The Latin Britannia was in use by the 1st cent. bce. It has no direct Celtic origin and is probably a Latin abstraction from an earlier form.The iron age communities of Britain showed a variety of social organization, although all were agrarian peoples organized into tribal territories dominated by a range of enclosed settlement sites. Many were agriculturally sophisticated and had developed an impressive Celtic art style (see celts). The peoples of the south-east had a long history of shared culture with northern Gaul. The islands were known to the Mediterranean world from at least the 3rd cent. bce. After 120 bce, as trading contacts between Transalpine Gaul and areas to the north intensified, Britain began to receive goods such as wine *amphorae, and Gallo-Belgic coinage was introduced.

Article

Brundisium  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Brundisium (mod. Brindisi), a *Messapian city on the Adriatic coast, and an important harbour. Source-traditions of foundation by *Diomedes (2) or Phalanthus, or of Cretan colonists, probably do not indicate Greek colonization, but Greek influence is indicated by finds from a cemetery at Tor Pisani. Brundisium entered into alliance with *Thuriic.440 bce (Supplementum epigraphicum Graecum16. 582), and produced coinage closely modelled on that of *Tarentum, but little is known about the Messapian city. In 244, a Latin colony (see ius latii) was founded there, and the *via Appia was extended from Tarentum to Brundisium. Thereafter, it was the principal route from Italy to Greece and the east. It was strategically vital during the Punic Wars and the conquest of the east, and was exempted from the *portoria by *Sulla. It was captured by *Caesar (49 bce), to cut off *Pompey's retreat, and besieged by Antony (M.

Article

Bulla Regia  

R. J. A. Wilson

A town in the Bagradas valley in North Africa. A large building of c.100/80 bce, a defensive circuit, and burials bear witness to the Numidian period (see numidia), when it was a royal capital (hence Regia); the earliest material goes back to c.300 bce. Later it came within Africa Proconsularis; a *free city under Augustus (Plin. HN 5.22), it received the *ius Latii under Vespasian and became a colony under *Hadrian. Extensive Roman ruins survive, including the forum, temples of *Apollo and *Isis, the theatre, and substantial baths; particularly notable are its many mosaic-paved houses of late-Roman date, some with a complete underground storey to provide a pleasantly cool retreat from the summer heat.

Article

Burdigala  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Burdigala (mod. Bordeaux), capital of the Bituriges Vivisci and, eventually, of *Aquitania, was a busy international trading-port (with strong British links). Important remains include an amphitheatre (the ‘Palais-Gallien’), a temple of Tutela, and instructive inscriptions and reliefs. In the late empire a reduced enceinte, c.700×450 m. (765×492 yds.), rectangular with bastions, was built, principally to protect the port. It was the birthplace (c.

Article

Buthrotum  

David R. Hernandez

Buthrotum (Bouthrotos; modern Butrint in southern Albania) was a seaport occupying a headland on the coast of Epirus in ancient NW Greece. Described as a “little Troy” in Vergil’s Aeneid, the city was said to have been founded by Helenus after the sack of Troy. Established by the end of 7th century bce, Buthrotum served as an emporium and enclave of Corcyra during the Archaic and Classical periods. Occupying a fortified acropolis with a Doric temple, evidently dedicated to Athena Polias, the city was identified as a polis c. 500 bce. An Epirote city of the Chaones during the Hellenistic period, it established a sanctuary of Asclepius with a theatre, inscribed with over 200 manumission decrees, and an agora. After 167 bce, Buthrotum was the capital of the koinon of the Prasaiboi. In the Late Republic, Titus Pomponius Atticus and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa were patrons of the city, the former owning a lucrative and attractive villa praised by Cicero. Colonised by Rome in July 44 bce under a plan devised by Julius Caesar, Buthrotum was refounded by Augustus as colonia Augusta Buthrotum.

Article

Buxentum  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Buxentum (mod. Policastro), a Roman colony, founded in 194 bce on the Greek city of Pyxus, itself a colony of *Rhegium. Livy (34. 5. 1, 39. 23. 3) says that it was unsuccessful, despite a second deduction in 186, but archaeological surveys contradict this, showing an intensification of settlement in the region.

Article

Byzacium  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

The name, of uncertain Libyan origin, applied in Roman times (Livy 33. 48. 1; Plin. HN 5. 24) to part of the province of Africa (see africa, roman), from the gulf of Hammamet to the gulf of Gabes, with the hinterland; it was probably the Βυσσάτις χώρα of Polybius (3. 23. 2). The chief town was *Hadrumetum.

Article

Byzantium  

Alexander John Graham and Stephen Mitchell

Byzantium, a famous city on the European side of the south end of the *Bosporus (1), between the Golden Horn and the *Propontis. The Greek city occupied only the eastern tip of the promontory, in the area now covered by the Byzantine and Ottoman palaces of Constantinople/Istanbul. The evidence of cults and institutions confirms the claim of the Megarians (see megara) to be the main founders, but groups from the Peloponnese and central Greece probably also participated in the original colony, which is to be dated 668 (Hdt. 4. 144) or 659 bce (Euseb. Chron.). Little material earlier than the late 7th cent. has yet emerged from excavations. Except during the *Ionian Revolt the city was under Persian control from *Darius I's Scythian expedition until 478. In the Athenian empire (see delian league) it paid fifteen talents' tribute or more, deriving its wealth from tuna fishing and from tolls levied on passing ships. The city also had an extensive territory not only in European *Thrace but also in *Bithynia and Mysia in Asia.