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Caelius mons  

Howard Hayes Scullard and John Patterson

Caelius mons, the most south-easterly of the *Seven hills of *Rome, lay south of the *Esquiline. Originally named Querquetulanus, its name Caelius was derived by antiquarians from Caelius *Vibenna; it was crossed by the *wall of Servius. The hill was devastated by a fire in ce 27 (Tac.Ann. 4.64) and under the empire it was densely populated by insulae and the domus of the wealthy. The chief buildings on the hill included the temple of Divus *Claudius, begun by his widow *Iulia Agrippina, which was largely destroyed by *Nero to build a monumental *nymphaeum as part of his *Domus Aurea, but restored by Vespasian; Nero's Macellum Magnum (ce 59), a new food-market; and barracks for several of the military units stationed in Rome, including frumentarii and speculatores, *vigiles, and the *equites singulares, the mounted bodyguard of the emperor.

Article

Caere  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Caere (Gk. Agylla; Etr. χai[s]re; mod. Cerveteri), 48km. (30 mi.) north of Rome near the Tyrrhenian coast, was one of the oldest (Verg. Aen. 8.479 f.) and wealthiest of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans), and the only one with its own ‘treasury’ at *Delphi (Strabo 5. 2. 3). Caere's cemeteries provide an unbroken sequence from the iron age to the early empire, and bear witness to the commercially successful local production in the 7th cent. bce of both painted Hellenizing wares and bucchero pottery. Continuing east Mediterranean contacts are attested by the ‘Caeretan hydriae’, presumably made by émigré east Greek craftsmen from c.530 bce, and by extensive Greek imports—among them ‘Nicosthenic’ *amphorae (c.540–510), which confer an attractive degree of Attic elegance on a bucchero shape that is particularly characteristic of Caere. From the 7th cent. onwards, tombs take the form of elaborate chambers under tumuli laid out in streets; the most important is still the Tomba Regolini-Galassi, which in 1836 revealed the splendours of Etruscan *orientalizing.

Article

Caesaraugusta  

Simon J. Keay

Caesaraugusta (mod. Zaragoza), in NE central Spain. An Augustan colonia and early mint with rectangular layout (895m.×513m.: 979×561 yds.) and settled by *veterans of the Cantabrian Wars (IV, VI, and X Legiones; see cantabri). Excavations have uncovered the forum, the theatre, baths, mosaics, and the late Roman walls. Caesaraugusta retained importance in the Visigothic period (see goths).

Article

Caesarea (1) of Cappadocia  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, George Ewart Bean, and Stephen Mitchell

Caesarea (1) of Cappadocia (formerly Mazaca, mod. Kayseri) was created by *Cappadocian kings to be their capital. The *philhellene*Ariarathes V gave it a Greek constitution (the laws of *Charondas) and the name Eusebeia by Mount Argaeus, which was changed to Caesarea by *Archelaus (5) in 12–9 bce.

Article

Caesarea (2) in Palaestina  

Joseph Patrich

Caesarea Maritima was founded (22–10/9 bce) by Herod (1) the Great. Named after Caesar Augustus, Herod’s patron, it served as the administrative capital and main port of his kingdom of Judaea, later the Roman province of Syria-Palaestina. Herod’s building projects are described in detail by Flavius Josephus (AJ 15.331–341; BJ 1.408–415). Many of its structures have been uncovered in the archaeological excavations carried out at the site since the 1950s. In 71 ce, Caesarea became a Roman colony and Latin became the official language. A praetorium for the financial procurator provinciae was erected there by Vespasian and Titus in 77/78 ce. In the 2nd–4th centuries it was a prosperous city where Gentiles, Jews, Samaritans, and Christians lived side by side. It was a centre of intellectual activity.Caesarea (2) in Palaestina (Qisri, Qisrin in the Rabbinic sources), also known as Caesarea Maritima, was founded (22–10/9bce) by .

Article

Caesarea (3), capital city of Mauretania Caesariensis  

T. W. Potter

Caesarea (3), mod. Cherchel, on the coast of Algeria. Probably founded as a Punic trading-station, known as Iol, the oldest finds date to c.500 bce. Defences were constructed towards the end of the 3rd cent. bce. Annexed by Rome in 33 bce, it was placed in the hands of the Berber prince *Juba (2) II, who called it Caesarea, and made it into as Graeco-Roman a city as possible (theatre, amphitheatre, street-grid, etc. and a magnificent art collection). See urbanism. In 40 ce, it became the capital of the province of *MauretaniaCaesariensis, and the residence of the *procurator; *Claudius made it a colonia (see colonization, roman). It became a prosperous port town of c.20,000, with a belt of villas around it; its agricultural *mosaics are celebrated. Embellished in Severan times (see rome, history), it had magnificent 4th-cent. houses, and the civic centre was refurbished around the time of the Vandal conquest (429), being abandoned for poor houses only in the period of the Byzantine reconquest (533).

Article

Calabria  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Calabria in antiquity referred to the Sallentine peninsula of SE Italy. It did not acquire its modern meaning of SW Italy (ancient Bruttium), until after the *Lombard invasion of ce700. Ancient Calabria is a flat and arid region, noted mainly for cultivation of olives and vines. It was the territory of the *Messapii (Lat. Sallentini, Gk. Iapyges), whose culture was part of an Adriatic *koinē, showing signs of extensive contacts with Greece, Epirus, and Illyria. Mycenaean finds indicate the early development of contacts with the Aegean, and many of the coastal cities, such as *Callipolis and *Hydruntum, maintained a flourishing trade with western Greece. The region became urbanized in the 5th and 4th cents. bce and contains a large number of cities. The region entered into Roman control in 270, after supporting *Pyrrhus in the Pyrrhic war, and most cities became allies (*socii) until 89 bce.

Article

Calauria  

D. Graham J. Shipley

Calauria (now Póros), a Saronic island (23 sq. km.: 9 sq. mi.) adjacent to the Argolid, and its polis. The town lay near the island's summit (283 m.: 928 ft.); its remains, chiefly Hellenistic, include a probable heroon (see hero-cult) of *Demosthenes (2), who killed himself here.The sanctuary of *Poseidon has Mycenaean tombs, 8th-cent. and later dedications, and cult buildings of c.520–320 bce. It was the focus of the Calaurian *amphictiony, whose members included Hermione, *Epidaurus, *Aegina, *Athens, and Boeotian *Orchomenus (1). The inclusion of Nauplia and Cynurian Prasiae, neither of them autonomous after c.650, implies an early foundation date. Rather than a military, political, or economic union, the amphictiony was probably a cultic association of mainly local, non-Dorian towns: the sanctuary's material apogee is not matched by any known political activity. By *Strabo's time the sanctuary had been sacked by Cilician pirates (see piracy) and the amphictiony no longer existed.

Article

Cales  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Cales (mod. Calvi), an *Auruncan city, c. 47 km. (29 mi.) north of Naples. It was a strategic point, controlling communications between *Latium and *Samnium, and was occupied from the 7th cent. bce. In the aftermath of the Latin War (see latin i), it became a Latin colony (334 bce), counterbalancing Samnite-controlled *Teanum Apulum. It remained an important Roman base throughout the Samnite and *Punic Wars, but was one of the colonies which refused troops to Rome in 209 and was subsequently punished (Livy 27. 9). There was a second colonization in 184 bce, and it remained an important city. The territory was fertile and it was noted for its pottery. The *via Latina ran through the city. There are remains of the walls, theatre, baths, a temple, Roman and pre-Roman street patterns, and numerous burials and inscriptions.

Article

Calleva Atrebatum  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Calleva Atrebatum, mod. Silchester, on the Hampshire–Berkshire border. The Roman town was civitas-capital of the *Atrebates (2) and succeeded an enclosed iron age oppidum. This was founded in the 1st cent. bce and shows a planned layout. The place-name ‘callev’ is given on coins of Eppilus dated to c.ce 10. The land within the late 2nd-cent. earthen defences (rebuilt in stone c.ce260–80) was excavated on a large scale in 1890–1909. Shops, a *dyeing industry, and some 60 houses were exposed, and of public buildings a forum with basilica, baths, a presumed mansio, five small temples, and a possible small Christian church. Recent extensive excavations have exposed extensive iron age deposits beneath the basilica, discovered earlier phases of a timber forum, explored the amphitheatre and defences, and explored the long and complex sequence of occupation in Insula IX. The population was perhaps c.

Article

Callipolis  

W. M. Murray

Callipolis (also Callion), main city of the Aetolian tribe Callieis (a branch of the Ophiones), located in eastern *Aetolia on the upper Mournos river. Mentioned by *Thucydides (2) (3. 96. 3) in the 5th cent., the Callieis in the 4th cent. fortified their city, which prospered until it was attacked and destroyed by the Gauls (see Galatia) in 279 bce (Paus. 10. 22. 2–4). Excavations at modern Palaiokastro, near Velouchovo, have revealed clear evidence for the city's wealth and for its destruction. An interesting cache of clay seals from the destroyed archives attests to the diplomatic and business connections of Callipolis before its destruction.

Article

Calymnos  

Ellen E. Rice

A Dodecanese island lying between *Cos and Leros to the west of the *Halicarnassus peninsula. Calymnos together with nearby islands whose identity is disputed are probably the ‘Kalydnai isles’ mentioned in Homer (Il. 2. 677). Caves and tombs reveal neolithic and Mycenaean occupation. The main Mycenaean citadel was probably at Perakastro near the modern capital Pothia. Herodotus (7. 99) states that Calymnos was later colonized by Dorians from Epidaurus. In historical times, Calymnian ships fought with the Carians during the Persian War (see artemisia (1)), and the island appears in the Athenian *tribute lists. At the end of the 3rd cent. bce it was absorbed by Cos and the population became *demes of the Coan state.

A sanctuary of *Apollo and theatre were found at the site of Christ of Jerusalem near Damos in the southern half of the island. Finds show that the cult existed there from archaic times onwards, and nearby cemeteries and walls attest ancient occupation in this area. The other main centre of occupation was around Vathy in the east, as an impressive fortification circuit wall at Embolas shows. There are Roman and Byzantine remains throughout the island as well as on the islet of Telendos to the west.

Article

Camarina  

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

A Syracusan (see syracuse) colony founded c.599 bce at the mouth of the river Hipparis in southern Sicily, near modern Scoglitti. Its mid-6th cent. fortifications enclose a vast area of 145 ha. (358 acres), far larger than other Syracusan colonies. In constant dispute with the Syracusans, it was destroyed by them in 533 and again c.484 after refoundation by *Hippocrates (1) of Gela. Established once more in 461 by the Geloans, it supported the anti-Syracusan coalition in 427–4, but decided for Syracuse after 415 (cf. Thuc. 6. 75–88). Abandoned by *Dionysius (1) I in 405, but reoccupied from 396, it revived in the period of *Timoleon; several houses of this period have been uncovered. Extensive excavations since 1971 have transformed our knowledge of the topography of the city and its cemeteries. Estimates from the latter suggest that the 6th-cent. population was about 16,000. The agora with two stoas lay at the west end of the city overlooking the sea, and a 5th cent. temple of Athena is known at the summit of the hill near the centre of the city. A cache of over 140 inscribed lead sheets found in this temple in 1987 indicates that after the 461 refoundation the population was divided into three tribes, subdivided into at least fourteen *phratries.

Article

Camerinum  

Edward Togo Salmon

Camerinum (mod. Camerino), town of the *Umbrians midway between *Perusia and the Adriatic. Its inhabitants, known as Camertes, were sometimes mistaken for burghers of Etruscan *Clusium, whose earlier name was Camars. Camerinum signed a ‘most equal’ treaty with Rome before 300 bce and was favoured by her thereafter, even as late as imperial times.

Article

Camirus  

Ellen E. Rice

Was one of the three independent Dorian cities on *Rhodes until the *synoecism with *Lindus and *Ialysus created the federal Rhodian state in 408/7. Camiran territory occupied the NW part of Rhodes, and the city lay near the coast 34 km. (21 mi.) from modern Rhodes town. Camirus lacked city walls and a fortified acropolis, but excavations have revealed excellently preserved remains of public and private areas from Archaic to Hellenistic date, including a temenos and temple, extensive remains of houses, and an agora with stoa, cistern, and temple of Athena. The nearby necropolis of Fikellura produced the distinctive Archaic pottery which bears its name.

Camirus was a member of the Dorian hexapolis (with Lindus, Ialysus, *Cos, *Cnidus, and *Halicarnassus), and appears in the Athenian *tribute lists. It declined in political importance after the foundation of federal Rhodes, but continued to be inhabited and maintained its own civic and religious organization.

Article

Campania  

Nicholas Purcell

Region of west central Italy bounded by the river *Liris, the Apennines and the Sorrentine peninsula, in prosperity, political importance, and social organization closely tied to the region of Rome in the late republic and early empire (Augustus’ First Region included both, and the name came to refer to the neighbourhood of Rome, the Campagna). The well-watered and mineral-rich plains and foothills (e.g. the agri Campanus and *Falernus, the Phlegraei campi) and the numerous harbours and beach-heads combined to give it a wider Italian and Mediterranean significance.Seaborne contacts of the bronze age and geometric periods were followed by the establishment of a sequence of *apoikiai, *Pithecusae on the island of Ischia, and its successor *Cumae on the mainland opposite, with its daughter-settlements Dicaearchia (later *Puteoli) and *Neapolis (Naples). Etruscan cultural influence shaped the principal cities of the interior, *Nola and *Capua, and the important centre of *Pontecagnano on the gulf of Salerno to the south.

Article

Camulodunum  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Camulodunum (mod. Colchester, Essex). A large area, including the site of the later town, comprised an iron age *oppidum from the Augustan period. It was surrounded by substantial earthworks and was the capital and mint of *Cunobel(l)inus. Captured in *Claudius' campaign of ce 43, a fortress of Legio XX Valeria was constructed beside it, and in 49 a colony (colonia Victricensis) was founded on the site of the fortress. This became the first provincial capital, with the temple of Divus Claudius and a theatre with an adjacent forum. This unwalled town was sacked by *Boudicca in ce 60/1 and was subsequently rebuilt to cover an area of c.43 ha. (106 acres). Its defences were a clay bank to which, it appears, a stone wall was added in the early 2nd cent. Outside the walls was an important Romano-Celtic sanctuary at Gosbecks and a circus. Samian pottery was made in an industrial suburb in the 2nd/3rd cent.

Article

canabae  

Brian Campbell

Civil settlements which developed close to legionary bases, e.g. *Mogontiacum (Mainz), *Deva (Chester), sometimes subdivided into vici. They attracted *veterans, traders, and local women, with whom soldiers frequently formed liaisons; their children, if they enlisted, gave their origin as castris (‘in the camp’). Canabae were administered by a legionary legate, although Roman citizens in them could act as de facto magistrates.

Article

Cannae  

John F. Lazenby

Cannae (mod. Canne), Apulian town on the right bank of the river *Aufidus (Ofanto), where *Hannibal defeated the Romans in 216 bce. The battle was probably fought downstream from the town and on the same side of the river, with the Carthaginian left and Roman right resting on its bank. The Romans probably outnumbered Hannibal in infantry (80,000:40,000?), though 15,000 may have been left to guard their camps, but had fewer cavalry (6,000:10,000). Hannibal threw his centre infantry forward, keeping back his Africans on both wings, and when the Roman infantry drove in his centre, they were outflanked by the Africans. Meanwhile, Hannibal's left-wing cavalry, having driven off the Roman cavalry, rode round to help his right-wing cavalry defeat the Roman allied cavalry, and then repeatedly charged the Roman rear. Virtually surrounded, the Roman army perhaps suffered higher casualties in a single day's fighting than any other western army before or since.

Article

Canusium  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Chief city of *Daunia (Plin. HN 3. 104, Procop. Goth. 3. 18). It was not a Greek foundation (Strabo 6. 3. 7), but there was extensive Hellenization (see hellenism) from the 4th cent. bce onwards, in pottery styles, coinage, and language (Hor. Sat. 1. 10. 30). It became a Roman ally in 318 bce, but revolted during the *Social War (3).