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Of freedman birth. In Rome he had friendly relations with D. *Iunius Brutus Callaicus (consul 138). Anecdotes suggest that Accius believed that literary talent demanded in its context more respect than nobility of birth (see the story about C. *Iulius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus at Val. Max. 3. 7. 11) and that he did not tolerate insults to himself (Rhet. Her. 1. 24). Contemporaries were amused by the outsize statue of himself he had placed in the temple of the Muses (Plin. HN 34. 19).Accius had plays produced from at least 140 bce onwards until the turn of the century. Over 40 titles of tragedies of Attic (see tragedy, greek) type are transmitted (Achilles, Aegisthus, Agamemnonidae, Alcestis, Alcimeo, Alphesiboea, Amphitruo, Andromeda, Antenoridae, Antigona, Armorum iudicium, Astyanax, Athamas, Atreus, Bacchae, Chrysippus, Clutemestra, Deiphobus, Diomedes, Epigoni, Epinausimache, Erigona, Eriphyla, Eurysaces, Hecuba, Hellenes, Medea, Melanippus, Meleager, Minos sive Minotaurus, Myrmidones, Neoptolemus, Nyctegresia, Oenomaus, Pelopidae, Persidae, Philocteta, Phinidae, Phoenissae, Prometheus, Stasiastae vel Tropaeum Liberi, Telephus, Tereus, Thebais, Troades), and they seem to cover the whole range of mythic cycles.

Article

Acestes  

Stephen J. Harrison

Acestes (ΑἰγέστηςΑἴγεστος), character in mythology, founder and king of *Segesta (Egesta) in Sicily and of Trojan descent (cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1. 52.1–4; Schol. Dan. Aen. 1. 550; schol. on Lycophron Alex.952). In Virgil's Aeneid he is the son of a Trojan mother and the Sicilian river-god Crimisus, and entertains *Aeneas and his men in Sicily; Virgil in fact makes Segesta a foundation of Aeneas and not of Acestes (Aen.

Article

Achates  

Stephen J. Harrison

Achates, character in mythology, faithful lieutenant of *Aeneas in the Aeneid; a late source ascribes to him the killing of *Protesilaus (Eust. Il. 2. 701).

Article

Don P. Fowler and Peta G. Fowler

Acrostic (Gk. ἀκροστιχίς, ἀκροστίχιον), a word or phrase formed from the initial letters of a number of consecutive lines of verse. Acrostics may occur by chance (Eust. Il. 24. 1; Gell.NA 14. 6. 4; Hilberg, Wien. Stud. (1899) 264–305, (1900) 317–18): whether they are accepted as significant will depend on their consonance with other aspects of the texts in which they occur. There are two broad types: proper names (especially the author's name as a kind of signature or *sphragis) and other words and phrases. Examples of the first type include *Nicander, Ther. 345–53 and Alex. 266–74 (inept or corrupt: cf. Lobel CQ1928, 114), Q. Ennius fecit in a work of *Ennius (Cic. Div. 2. 111: Epicharmus? cf. Diog. Laert. 8. 78), and Italicus…scripsit at the beginning and end of the *Ilias Latina. The second type is rarer: perhaps the most famous example is the Hellenistic watchword λεπτή, ‘fine’, at *Aratus (1)Phaen.

Article

Edith Mary Smallwood and M. T. Griffin

Is the name given by modern scholars to about a dozen fragments of Alexandrian nationalist literature, preserved on papyri mostly written in the 2nd or early 3rd cent. ce. The majority of the fragments give, in dramatic form, reports of the hearing of Alexandrian embassies and of the trials of Alexandrian nationalist leaders before various Roman emperors. The episodes related, of which the dramatic dates range from the time of *Augustus to that of *Commodus, are probably basically historical and the accounts appear to be derived to some extent from official records. But they have been coloured up, more in some cases than in others, for propaganda purposes, to caricature the emperors, to stress the fearless outspokenness of the Alexandrians, who are sometimes surprisingly rude to the emperors, and to represent their punishment, usually execution, as martyrdom in the nationalist cause. This literature is in general bitterly hostile to Rome, reflecting the tensions between *Alexandria (1) and her overlord during the first two centuries of Roman rule.

Article

Alun Hudson-Williams and Antony Spawforth

Aegritudo Perdicae, an anonymous Latin *epyllion narrating the calamitous love of Perdicas for his mother, Castalia. Its ascription to *Dracontius is unwarrantable, though it almost certainly belongs to his period (i.e. 5th cent. ce), and probably to Africa, although Spain is suggested too.

Article

R. A. Kaster

Aelius Melissus, grammarian contemporary with A. *Gellius (NA 18. 6. 1–3), who derides his work on semantics (De loquendi proprietate).

Article

Wrote (lost) commentaries on *Terence, *Sallust, and *Virgil, perhaps with a separate discussion of Virgilian grammar. The fragments (ed. Wessner, 1905) suggest a learned and sensible critic; Aelius *Donatus (1) borrowed freely from him. *Priscian cited him as an authority de verbo, but the extant artes (see ars) attributed to an ‘Asper’ (Keil, Gramm.

Article

Edward Courtney

Aemilius Macer, a poet from Verona who died in 16 bce. Some fragments remain of his Ornithogonia and Theriaca; these drew on (but did not translate) works by *Boio and *Nicander (whose Alexipharmaca is also imitated in some fragments quoted without title). Ovid in his youth heard him reciting at an advanced age (Tr.

Article

Aeneas  

Stephen J. Harrison

Aeneas, character in literature and mythology, son of *Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite. In the Iliad he is a prominent Trojan leader, belonging to the younger branch of the royal house, (13. 460–1, 20. 179–83, 230–41), and has important duels with *Diomedes (2) (5. 239 ff) and *Achilles (20. 153 ff.), from both of which he is rescued by divine intervention. His piety towards the gods is stressed (20. 298–9, 347–8), and *Poseidon prophesies that he and his children will rule over the Trojans (20. 307–8).This future beyond the Iliad is reflected in the version in the lost cyclic Iliu Persis (see epic cycle) that Aeneas and his family left Troy before its fall to retreat to Mt. Ida, which led later to accusations of his treachery (e.g. Origo gentis Romanae 9. 2–3). The departure of Aeneas from Troy is widely recorded, and the image of Aeneas' pious carrying of his father *Anchises on his shoulders in the retreat is common in Greek vases of the 6th cent.

Article

George Chatterton Richards and M. T. Griffin

Tragic actor, “dignified” (Hor. Epist. 2.1.82), contemporary of Q. *Roscius (Quint. Inst. 11.3.111 “Roscius is livelier, Aesopus more dignified”). He gave *Cicero lessons in elocution (Auct. ad Her. (3.21.34) suggests that he was greatly his senior) and supported Cicero's recall from exile (Sest. 120–123); he returned to the stage for *Pompey's *ludi, 55 bce, without much success (Fam. 7.1.2). See Div. 1.80; Tusc. 4.55; QFr. 1.2.14. His son, M. Clodius Aesopus, was rich enough to be a wastrel (Hor. Sat. 2.3.239; Plin. HN 9.122).

Article

Paola Marone

Aethicus Ister is the unknown author of the Cosmographia, a fictional world travelogue that probably belongs to the 7th to 8th centuries. This work, written in an abstruse Latin, makes use of a whole range of antique (the Bible, the Isidore’s Etymologies, the Pseudo-Augustine’s De mirabilibus sacrae scripturae, etc.) and medieval texts (the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius, the Liber historiae Francorum, some Latin translations of the Alexander Romance, etc.). It is one of the most difficult and puzzling early medieval texts, and it has been the object of intense study since its earliest editions. According to a recent theory espoused by Herren, it could have been written c. 675–725 by a Frank with connexions to Ireland and, possibly, England.Aethicus Ister (c. 7th–8th century ce), otherwise known as Aethicus of Istria or the philosopher of Istria, is the supposed author of the Cosmographia, a description of the world that claims to have been written originally in Greek and subsequently translated into Latin by an ecclesiastical called Jerome (not Saint .

Article

Aetna, Latin *didactic poem of unknown authorship. It attempts to explain the volcanic activity of Mt. Etna (see aetna (1)).The poem is ascribed to Virgil in our earliest MSS and included amongst his juvenilia by the Vita Donati, where, however, doubt is expressed about its authenticity. Few, if any, would now maintain this ascription, or any of the other attributions that have been suggested. The poem predates the eruption of *Vesuvius in ce 79, for it describes the volcanic activity of the Naples region as extinct. It is generally agreed to postdate Lucretius, and allusion to Virgil and M. *Manilius is likely. Because of resemblances to Seneca's Natural Questions, and because Seneca shows no knowledge of the poem, a late-Neronian or Vespasianic date is perhaps probable, but an earlier date cannot be ruled out.Rejecting mythological explanations, the author argues that the controlling force behind eruptions is wind operating at high pressure in narrow subterranean channels, and that the volcanic fire, produced by friction, gets a nutritive material especially in the lava-stone (lapis molaris).

Article

Afranius, Lucius, author of fabulae togatae in the second half of the 2nd cent. bce, the most famous and best represented author of this genre, with over 40 titles and 400 lines surviving; perhaps also an orator, but the implications of Cicero, Brut. 167 are disputed. He praised *Terence and admitted borrowing material from *Menander (1) (but also from other authors, both Greek and Latin), and his plays included pederastic themes; see togata.

Article

Brian Campbell

Agennius Urbicus, writer on surveying (see gromatici) produced commentary on *Frontinus' treatise On Land Disputes.

Article

M. Stephen Spurr

Agricultural manuals, written by practising landowners, flourished at Rome from M. *Porcius Cato (1) (c.160 bce) to *Palladius (c.Mid 5th cent. ce), enjoying higher status than other technical literature. Greece had produced notable works (*Varro knew more than 50, Rust. 1. 1. 8–11), but written mostly from a philosophical or scientific viewpoint; and an influential (non-extant) Punic work by Mago had been translated into both Greek and Latin (Varro ibid.; Columella Rust. 1. 1. 13). Agriculture, as gradually defined and systematized (earlier Greek, Punic, and Roman writers had wandered off the topic: Varro Rust. 1. 2. 13), embraced, in Varro's work (c.37 bce), arable cultivation, livestock, arboriculture, market gardens, luxury foods, slave management, and villa construction. A century later, *Columella doubted whether one man could know it all (Rust. 1. praef. 21; 5. 1. 1), and, from the early empire onwards, specialized works appeared, such as *Iulius Atticus' monograph on vines (Columella Rust.

Article

Edward Courtney

Albinovanus Pedo, a well-known wit and raconteur (Sen. Ep. 122. 15; Quint. Inst. 9. 3. 61) who exercised his wit in writing epigrams; *Martial often mentions him as one of his models. He also wrote epic, a Theseid (Ov. Pont. 4. 10. 71) and a poem from which the elder Seneca (Suas. 1. 15, to illustrate the theme ‘Alexander debates whether to sail the Ocean’) quotes 23 lines about *Germanicus' North Sea expedition in ce 16. Pedo himself probably served as praefectus under Germanicus (Tac. Ann. 1. 60. 2); the piece is loaded with melodramatic rhetoric and topics applied by declaimers (see declamation) to *Alexander (3) the Great. Pedo was a friend of Ovid and known personally to the younger Seneca (Ep. 122. 15; Sen. Controv. 2. 2. 12).

Article

Edward Courtney and R. A. Kaster

Albinus (2) writer on music, geometry, and dialectic, probably identical with Ceionius Rufius Albinus (PLRE 1 ‘Albinus’ 14), the consul of ce 335, and perhaps with the poet of works entitled De metris and Res romanae; one fragment of each survives.

Article

M. Winterbottom

Albucius Silus, Gaius, Augustan orator and teacher of rhetoric, from Novaria (Novara) in *Cisalpine Gaul. His life is summarized by Suetonius (Gram. et Rhet.30). The elder Seneca, who regarded him as one of the four outstanding declaimers of his day (see declamation), gives a vivid picture of a vulnerable personality (Controv. 7 pref.).

Article

Albunea  

Stephen J. Harrison

Albunea, sulphurous spring and stream near *Tibur with a famous waterfall, and its homonymous nymph (cf. Hor. Carm. 1. 7. 12), classed as a *Sibyl by *Varro (Lactant. Div. Inst. 1. 6. 12) and fancifully identified by etymology with the sea-goddess *Ino-Leucothea (Servius on Verg. Aen.