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John MacGinnis and David Michelmore

The history of Arbela (cuneiform Urbilum/Urbel/Arbail, modern Erbil) is documented in archaeological and textual sources. From the point when it first entered history in the middle of the 3rd millennium, the city’s fortunes alternated between periods of independence and incorporation within the super-regional states of Mesopotamia, including the Ur III kingdom and, more briefly, the Upper Mesopotamian empire of Shamshi-Adad I. In the later 2nd millennium the city was incorporated within the Assyrian Empire, rising to become a regional capital of major importance. Following the fall of Assyria, the city was incorporated within the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Arsacid, and Sasanian empires. A period of independence as an emirate in the early mediaeval period was a golden age. This came to an end with the city’s submission to the Mongols, after which it came under the control of the Black Sheep and White Sheep Turcomans and the Safavid and Ottoman empires.Arbela—modern Erbil—is a city in the Kurdish region of northern Iraq with a documented history going back more than four thousand years. It is situated in the trans-Tigris region at the interface of the Zagros Mountains and the fertile plains of .


Berenice(4), daughter of M. Iulius Agrippa I, b. 28 CE  

Edith Mary Smallwood and M. T. Griffin

Berenice (4) (b. 28 ce), daughter of M. *Iulius Agrippa I, was married to Marcus, brother of Ti. *Iulius Alexander in 41, and then in 46 to her uncle Herod, king of Chalcis. From his death (48) she lived with her brother, M. *Iulius Agrippa II. To quieten rumours of incest, she persuaded Polemon, priest-king of Olba in Cilicia, to marry her (53/54), but the marriage did not last long. She played some part in public affairs: in 66 she tried, at first single-handed and then with Agrippa, to prevent the Jewish Revolt, and in 69, in Agrippa's absence, she supported the Flavian cause. *Titus fell in love with her while he was in Judaea (67–70), and when she visited Rome with Agrippa (75) he openly lived with her, perhaps for some years. He deferred, however, to public opinion and did not marry her, and on his accession (79) he dismissed her with regret on both sides (Suet.


Caesarea (2) in Palaestina  

Joseph Patrich

Caesarea Maritima was founded (22–10/9 bce) by Herod (1) the Great. Named after Caesar Augustus, Herod’s patron, it served as the administrative capital and main port of his kingdom of Judaea, later the Roman province of Syria-Palaestina. Herod’s building projects are described in detail by Flavius Josephus (AJ 15.331–341; BJ 1.408–415). Many of its structures have been uncovered in the archaeological excavations carried out at the site since the 1950s. In 71 ce, Caesarea became a Roman colony and Latin became the official language. A praetorium for the financial procurator provinciae was erected there by Vespasian and Titus in 77/78 ce. In the 2nd–4th centuries it was a prosperous city where Gentiles, Jews, Samaritans, and Christians lived side by side. It was a centre of intellectual activity.Caesarea (2) in Palaestina (Qisri, Qisrin in the Rabbinic sources), also known as Caesarea Maritima, was founded (22–10/9bce) by .


Cestius Gallus, Gaius, suffect consul, 42 CE  

Nadav Sharon

C. Cestius Gallus (d. 67 ce) is believed to have been the son of the consul of 35 ce by the same name (Tac. Ann. 6.31; Cass. Dio 58.25.2). He was appointed suffect consul in 42 ce (CIL VI 2015),1 and was appointed by Nero to be governor of Syria apparently in 63 ce, in place of Cn. Domitius Corbulo (Tac. Ann. 15.25), but certainly by 65.2As part of his position in Syria, he intervened in the situation in Judaea, which was growing increasingly tense during the tenure of the procurator Gessius Florus (64–66 ce), and he ultimately had an ignoble role in the beginnings of the Great Revolt in Judaea against Rome, 66–70 ce (Tac. Hist. 5.10; Joseph. BJ 1.20–21).His first recorded involvement with Judaea was in the spring of 66 ce,3 when he came to Jerusalem during the Jewish festival of Passover. The Jews approached him to denounce Florus’s cruelty (BJ 2.


Gaius (1), 'Caligula', Roman emperor, 12–41 CE  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon, Barbara Levick, and Tessa Rajak

Gaius (1) the emperor, ‘Caligula’ (Gaius Iulius Caesar Germanicus, (12–41 ce), son of Germanicus (see iulius caesar, germanicus) and *Agrippina the Elder, born at *Antium (31 August). In 14–16 he was on the Rhine with his parents and, dressed in miniature uniform, was nicknamed ‘Caligula’ (‘Bootee’) by the soldiers. He went with his parents to the east in 17 and, after Germanicus' death in 19, lived in Rome with his mother until her arrest in 29, then successively with *Livia Drusilla and *Antonia (3) until he joined *Tiberius on Capreae. The downfall of Tiberius' favourite *Sejanus in 31 was to Gaius' advantage, and it was probably engineered by him and associates such as the prefect of the watch (*vigiles) *Macro, who also benefited. After the death of his brother Drusus *Iulius Caesar (2) in 33 Gaius was the only surviving son of Germanicus and, with Tiberius *Iulius Caesar Nero ‘Gemellus’—Claudius' claim not being considered—next in succession.