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Panskoye I  

Vladimir F. Stolba

Panskoye I is one of the most prominent and best-studied settlements in the rural territory of Chersonesus on the Tarkhankut Peninsula (north-western Crimea). Founded in the late 5th century bce as a fortified outpost (tetrapyrgia) protecting the south-eastern frontiers of Olbian territory, around 360 bce it was subjugated to Tauric Chersonesus, a close relationship which it maintained until the settlement’s catastrophic destruction around 270 bce. In 1969–1994, a significant part of the settlement and associated necropolis were investigated by the Tarkhankut Archaeological Expedition of the Leningrad Institute of Archaeology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR (since 1991, Institute for the History of Material Culture, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg). The settlement’s stratigraphy and size, as well as its unique structure and layout, representing an agglomeration of compactly placed free-standing farmsteads, adjoining house blocks, and monumental buildings accommodating more than one household, distinguish it from other rural settlements in the area. Its rich and original material culture shows a remarkable intermingling of various cultural components, both Greek and non-Greek.



Robert Garland

Piraeus (Πειραιεύς), the great harbour complex of Athens, is a rocky limestone peninsula some 7 km. (4–5 mi.) south-west of Athens which *Themistocles began to fortify in 493/2 (Thuc. 1. 93. 3–7) as a strong base for Athens' rapidly expanding fleet in preference to the open roadstead of *Phaleron. It has three harbours, Zea (modern Pasalimani) and *Munichia (1) (Mikrolimani) on the east, used exclusively by naval shipping. Zea possessed 196 shipsheds and *Philon (1)'s Arsenal. The biggest harbour, Kantharos (Goblet) or Megas Limen (Great Harbour), lies to the west and accommodated, in addition to warships, a thriving emporium on its northern and eastern shoreline comprising ‘five stoas round about the harbour’ (schol. to Ar.Pax145), of which some traces remain. Its urban development dates to c.450 bce when *Hippodamus of Miletus ‘cut up (κατέτεμεν) Piraeus’ by laying it out according to an orthogonal plan (Arist.